Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (2024)

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A pictorial directory and brief record of people who in one

[wmy or another hare contri­

buted to its progress.

1901 • 1960

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Baguio, Philippines

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STAFF MEMBERSLazaro P. G utierrez. Editor

Associate Editors L arry L. W ilson, G. E. Mamoyac

M auro Concepcion, A tty. C. Basco CONCORDIO CALUB


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P R I F 4 C EThis book entitled “Memoirs of Baguio” has been de­

signed to fill up the need for tracing the story of the progress of the City of Baguio from the time it was founded in 1909.

A thorough research running through several years, has been conducted with the aim in view of acquiring all pos­sible essential materials necessary to build up this book.

The research included digging up for old pictures por­traying the slow, but steady groivth of the City of Baguio 50 years back. The search for materials, particularly pic­tures, was rather slow, but with the help of some Baguio oldtimers, who shared generously the publishers of this book with their treasured albums we have accummulated pictorial materials which we believe have never• been printed before nor used in any publication about Baguio.

Attempt has been made also by the publishers to put this book through on the occasion of the Golden Anniversary celebration of the founding of the City of Baguio in Sept­ember, 1959, but due to several limitations and other diffi­culties, the publication of this book was delayed several months.

In the meantime more materials had been gathered to rammify the scope of the book. Thus w p have something on the first elective city council members and other gov­ernment officials, the election of November, 1959, marking an important epoch in the political history of this City of Baguio.

The book also proposes to boost tourism, taking the cue from the new policy of the city administration to pro­mote local tourism as one of the dollar-producing industries in the Philippines. We take this opportunity to extend our thanks, in acknoivledgment of the valuable cooperation re­ceived, to all of those whose concern for the completion of 'his book had contributed largely to the procurement of the materials used in this publication.


Baguio City, Philippines September 1, 1960


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^epuhltc of the Philippines City of J5aguto



P R E S E N T :H on. A lfo n so T a b o ra , C ity M ayor, P re s id in g ;H on. B ie n v e n id o R. Y andoc , V ice -M ay o r; a n d H on. F ilo m en o B iscocho C ouncilo r.

A B S E N T :H on. B e n ito H. L opez , C o u n c ilo r; an d H on. N o rb e r to F . de G u zm an , C ouncilo r.

RESOLUTION NUMBERED 122W H E R E A S, W illiam Cameron Forbes, while d iligently serving

fir s t as a m em ber o f the Philippine Commission beginning in 190i, and then as G overnor-General o f th e Philippines from 1909, was m ost indefatigable in the building o f early Baguio and always treated it as o f his very own paternal in terest;

W H EREAS; because of his own benevolent and generous un­tiring personal e ffo rts and liberal contributions o f his own time and m oney to the vigorous grow th o f young Baguio; he was, more than anyone else, responsible fo r the early com pletion o f the K ennon, Naguilian and Baguio roads, G overnm ent Center, City Hall, Mansion House, its schools, c ity servicer and the securing of its charter and its general rapid developm ent; and

W H E RE A S, in order to expedite the com pletion o f Kennon road, Mr. Forbes had lovined. ou t of his own personal fu n d , more than Two H undred Thousand Dollars ($200,000.00) to the project:

Now, therefore,On m otion o f Mayor A lfonso Tabora, seconded by Vice-Mayor

Bienvenido R. Yandoc, it wasRESOLVED; That, in recognition o f his fa therly , fostering

care, fa r and above any call o f du ty or obligation, the City Council o f Baguio consider, as it hereby considers, W ILLIAM CAM ERON FORBES as th e ■ F ather of Baguio.

RESOLVED, FU R TH ER : That a suitable photograph of Mr. Forbes be hung in the Session H all o f the City Council at the City Hall, and tha t a copy o f th is resolution be sen t to Mr. Forbes, and copies fu rn ished to the press.

U nanim ously adopted.A tte s te d :

(SGD.) ISAAC E. DIZON A cting City Secretary


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Historical and pictorial book about Baguio, commencing from its early develop- merit with a brief record of people who in one way or another have contributed their share to the economic, political, cultural, social progress o f the said City.

Dedication ........... .................................................... mResolution of the City Council for

Gov.-Gen. W. C. Forbes ................................ IVPreface’ ............%............ .............................. .......... VIFootnotes on Baguio’s HiBtory ........................... 8The Birth of Baguio ............................................ 18The Civil Sanitarium ............................................ 22Const, of the Benguet Road ................................ 26Early rfistbry of Baguio, by W. C. Forbes . . . . ‘87The Philippine Commission . . ............................. 60From the minutes of the Phil. Com. . . . . . . . . . . 61Notes of Dean Worcester ............................. . 62Baguio Ctiy Plan .................................................. 64John Hay Air Base ............................ .............. 70The Baguio General Hospital ............................... 74Growth of the Teachers' Camp ........................ 76Brief history of the Benguet A. Line .............. *82The Naguilian Road .............................. . 88First Automobile trip to Baguio ................... . 88Growth of Baguio ................................................. 96The Boguio Police Department ............. .......... 98Brief history of the P.M.A................................... 106Background of Btf&uio Aviatitfn ......... .............. 108The Baguio Race Course .................................... 112The 1923 B&guio Carnival ................................. 121Primitive Mining Methods ................................... 124Pioneer prospectors tn Benguet ..........* * ........... 126Mining ............................................ ......................... 129Brief History of Baguio Lodge ....................... 146Pre-W ar B. Chamber of Commerce ................. 166Japnaese occupation and lbieration of Baguio 167City Council's Directory . . . . . ....... ...................... 170 .Baguio a Tourist spot ........................................ 183

MINING COMPANIESItogon-Suyoc Mines .................................................. 200Baguio Gold Mining Company ........................... 2WThe Philex Story ................................................. 208

PRIVATE SCHOOLSEaster School ............... ........................................... *21Brent School ....................................................... . • 222Baguio Tech a . . * * .................................................. 224Baguio Military Institute . . *...................... . 227Saint Louis College ................................................ 228Saint Theresa’s -College * * . . ................................ 231The Naguilina Academy ....................................... 284The Phil. Bible CoUege ...................................... 384

PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATIONFather of Baguio .................................................... ^Governor-General Forbes a t the old

Baguio Station ................................................ •Residence of Governor-General Forbes

a t Top-Side, Baguio . . . » ................................. •Gov. Forbes with Gov. Taft a t his

Baguio residence Top-Side ....... ................... 6Gov. Forbes a t the B. Country C lu b ........... .. 6Governor-General5 Forbes official residence . . . . •Governor Forbes with his cabinet members . . 6Philippine map in 1774 ...................................... 7Spnaish officers a t La Trinidad ......................... 8Map of Baguio in 1918 .......................• ............... •Baguio, the • site ■ selected -by the

Spanish Commission ..................... . 10The American Cavalry in the hills

of Benguet ....................................................... 12American expedition pacifying the unrest

of Benguet ....................................................... I tCedan chairs -in those pioneer days .................. 18The Bells in Sablan ..................... ...................... 14Panoramic view of La Trinidad ......................... 14Philippine Commission members

under the Pines . . . . . . . . . ........................... .. 16


A trip to Baguio of PhilippineCommission members ....................................... ....18

Otto Sheerer with members of thePhilippine Commission . . . . ...............................20

Burnham Park in 1901 ........................... . .......22The Session Road of 1900 »............ ..................... ....22Baguio’s first Sanitarium ............................. ...........28Baguio Sanitarium upon its completion . . * . . . 24The old ro^d a t Agaat near the Canyon . . . * . . 26Provisional .bridge built a t Camp 1 27The beginning of the road .....................................27Carts from Dagupan over the Benguet

road carrying powder ............. ............................. -28A part of the finished road near Camp 1 . . 28 A group of lowland Filipiiios working

on the Benguet Road ......................................... 29A foundry on the Bgnguet road ..............................80Col. L. W. Kennon with black beard and

moustache with some road engineers .......... .... 81The mountain Igorots as packers . .̂ ........................ 81An arch erected a t point of beginning

of work ................................. ......... ................. .... 82Hann’s Cliff, near Camp 1% ............................. .... 32A group of road employes with

Col. L. W. Kennon ......................................... .... 84Slaughter house constructed along

the Benguet road ........................... ................. .... 84Hospital and laborer’s quarters .................................85A temporary .systematic rail USed by

road employees ._ ..... . . . . „ . . . . . . . . . • • 34Japanese laborers ........ ......................................... .... 86The Major’s headquarters .................. . . . . . . . . . 87Panoramic view of Twin P e a k s .......... .................... 88Col. Lyman W. Kennon with some road officers 89 Gov. Willi MU Pack with Sortie r©*i

engineers and officials ................................. .... 40A bridge a t Camp 4, in 1904 .................................... 41Negro Quarters a t Camp Boyd ................................ 42A bridge a t Camp 4% .................... ............................................. .......48One of the timber briges .........................................48Stone walling, widening of road .................... .... 44Provisions each ration day ................................. .....48A considerable force of work ............................... .... 45Houses built along the road.

Most of the hauling by natives .................. .....«•Band playing on the road,

Igorot laborers a t Loakan . . . • • • • • ............ .......47Stores constructed along the road . *.................. .....48A bridge being constructed ....................................The Zib-zag road and a large number of laborers jvAmong the firs t Wagons ........................... ...........The five stanleys in 1909 .......................................Gov.-Gen. T aft with Gov. W. Pack .............. .....JgGov. Pack with Benguet presidents .................. .....J JSome members of the Philippine Com. . . . . . .

Baguio in 1904 ................................... ............The Burnham Plan ............................................ J5Baguio Country Club in 1907, 1909 ..................First const, cottages, Pines Hotel ................... ••The Wagon Train, Gov. T aft in

Baguio with Igorot Children ...................... JjjEarly buildings a t John Hay ..............................Gov. Forbes and Gov. T aft in B a g u io ................ J jGeri. Franklin Bell, Bontoc soldiers 7 1Mirador Hill, Brent Church, Easter School#

Brent School, Catholic Church . . .................. 72The Baguio Gen. Hospital and its

graduates in Nursing, 1929 ................Teachers’ Camp in 1916, Camp playground,

teachers taking launch ---- •••* :•;* ' I k l ' a * ZoClosed view of the Camp, Boys Band in 1916... To Ameriean Teachers, Baseball players

with Mr. MacCann ..................................... . 7®Socail affair a t Teachers’ Camp.

The Camp in 1930 ...... .................................. 80Teachers’ Camp Band in 1920, the

Bua String Band .......................................... 81

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Wagon Train of the Bal and theStanleys with chimneys ..................... 82

The old Baguio station and thefinished Zig-zag Road ........................ . . . . . 84

Slide a t the Benguet Road andthe Naguilian Road .. . . . . . . . . ........... ........... 86

Dean Worcester’s residence, formergovernor’s residence . . .......... . . . ......... • • • • • • 86

Back view of Mansion House,Baguio’s commercial dist. ............. .......... . . 87

The “World Touring Hupmobile” . . . . . . . . . . . . 88City Council with Judge Malcolm,

Old City Hall ....................................*........... 90Mayor A. D. Williams with City

officials and employees ................................. 92Mayor C. Dandois with City

officials and employees ............................... WMayor Dandois with P. Works

employees, Mayor E. Haisema withcity officials and employees ........ ......... . 96

On the retirement of Mayor E. Haisema,W. Ryan ploting the cemetery .................. 97 '

"Baguio's Finest” under Major Keith,Fire Department Force ln__1917 .................. 98

The entire Police Force in 1937 . . . . . . . . . . . . 99Session Road in 1912, the Burnham

Park, construction of Abanao Road .......... 100Work on Burnham Park, the Dog Market,

firs t buildings along the Market in 1918 . . 102' The Government Center. Baseball game

a t Burnham Park ............................................ 104The Phil. Constabulary School, Gen. Nathorst,

Duckworth-Ford, and Col. Livingstonea t Camp T. Allen .......................................... 106

Brig Gen. H. T. Allen Actg. Gov. But*Mayor Earnshaw ...................................... .. 107*

Gen. Holbrook, Student officers ......................... 108Arrival of F irst Aerial Taxicab,

and a group of pilots ..................... .......... 109View of the Market in 1916 and

its oldest building .......................................... 110Baguio F air Association ......................................... 112Session Road in 1921, the Valles

Stables, and the Stone Market ........... 114Constructed buildings a t the site of the

pre-war Mt. Supply, partial view ofBaguio in 1930 ................................................ 116.

Northern Luzon F air Ass., Rizal Day in 1917 . . 118 1923 Baguio Carnival Exposition*

Its Board of Directors ............................. . 120Chainus, Rizal Day Muses, the

Empress and Queens ........ .......................... . 122Carnival queen of 1923, Otto Schoorer, . .

the BAL muses .............................................. 123Igorot diggings. Woman with stone

crusher, Igorot miner, Woman panning gold dust, another system of early mining. 124

E. A. Shelvin with Igorot miners, Firstgold pouring, Pioneers who blazed the tria l 126

John Muller and James Chamber, theHeadwaters, Larry Wilson ............ 127

C. Patrick Dugan the ten-stamp millof Benguet, pre-war Balatoc ......................... 128

Pre-war Cal Horr Mines, pre-war BaguioGold, pre-war Benguet Mines ..................... 129

Pre-war Itogon, pre-war Demonstration,pre-war Atok-Big Wedge ............................. . ISO

Mrs. Mary A. Marsman in an annualget-together occasion ....................................... 188

Otto Scheerer searching for the Mummy Cave, Dr. and Mrs. Eugene Stafford in their garden, Mr. and Mrs. Ryanin horse riding .............................................. . 140

The vsiiting congressional delegation, opening of the Baguio Gun Club,One of the trips of Mrs. MaryMarsman in Baguio ............................... .. 141

American Veternas, American Legion Baguio Tost No. 9, installation ofpast officers ...................................................... 142

Baguio Teacher Training Inst., Meetingsof the Christian Science orgnaization . . . . 144

M. L. Quezon and visitors to his Baguio residence, a picnic party given byVice-Mayor Speth ............................... .. . 145

Officers of the Baguio Lodge ..................... 146

First Filipino Mayor, a lechonada partyin honor of S. Bayan ................................ ..164

The City Council in 1940, first arrivalof Iloilo-Negros Express .............................. ..166

Baguio before the outbreak of the last war,Baguio Chamber of Commerce, American soldiers at the Cemetery, Baguio after itsdestruction, a marker of the 130th Infantry 166

Remnants of the Japanese Army, Surrenderof Gen. Yamasita, Session Road in 1946 . . 168

A Gallery of Filipino Mayors .............................. ..170They City Council under Mayor Carino ............175The Inauguration of the City Hall ..................... ..176The City Council in 1952 .................................. ..176The City Council under Mayor Lopez ............. ...177The City Council under Mayor Tabora ................178A- beB6iop-or-tne an-eiected members ------------------------

of the City Council ....................................... ..179Map of Baguio Today ........................................ ...183View of Baguio today ..................... ........................ 184Some Baguio beauties ........................................ ....189John Hay Air Uase views ........ ...........................292

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHESGov. Gen. W. Cameron Forbes ........................ 1Col. Lyman W. Kennon ........................................ 61W. Howard Taft. Gen. Luke E. W right . . . . 62Dean C. Worcester, Otto Scheerer .................... 63H. P. Whitmarsh, Gov. William Pack ............. 64Mateo Carino. Sioco Carino ................................ 66Cuidno Carantes, Molintas ............................... 67Sungduan, T. Pinas, Wacat Suello ..................... 68Mateo Carnates, Daroan Pucay ......................... 69Daniel Hurson Burnham .................................... 64Justice G. A. Malcolm ................................ 90Gov. E. A. Echman, E. W. Reynold,. . Charles Dandois ............................................... 91A. D. Wiliams. E. J. Haisema ........................... 92Charles H. Brent, Florimond Carlu.

George C. Barter ........................................... 132H. E. Stafford, George Icard, J . J . Murphy . . 133H. C. Heald, J . D. Highsmith, Joe Rice . . . . 134John W. Haussermann ........................................ 136Jan H. Marsman ..................................................... 136Mrs. Mary A. Marsman . . ................................. 137John Muller, W. E. Dosser, George E. Stewart 189Francisco Yandoc, Basilio Caguioa ..................... 148F. P. De Romero, P. Pacis, Wong Yip .......... 149Lam Ping, Casiano Rivera, F. Nacnac . . . . . . 150Leung Ming, E. M. Valdez, J . D. Lising . . . . 151F. B. Jalon, Reukitze Hamada ..................... 152Joan Gaerlan, Henry Kamora ......................... 158Xeung Kuan Ling, ................................................. 154Mauricio Oteyza, Salvador Vallejo ..................... . 156Teodoro Arvisu, Eugenio Plata ......................... 157Martin R. Carreon, Sixto Gaerlan, Juan

Resurrecion ...................................................... 158F. Thomas Ryan, Emil Speth ............................. 159William H. Reese, Arthur E. MacCann,

M. R. de los Reyes, Sr.................................... 160Elmer W. Herold, Pedro Fuentes ..................... 161L. Lee Wilson. Maximino C. Nebres ............. 162Felipe Jose, Ramon M i t r a ....................... .. 163Sergio Bayan ........................................................... 164Nicasio Valderosa .................................................... 165Alfonso Tabora ........................................ .............. 178Bienvenido R. Yandoc ........................................ 179Luis Lardizabal, Norberto de Guzman ............. 180Jose Florendo, Benjamin C. Rillera ................. 181Francisco Mayo, Gaudencio Floresca,

Braulio Yaranon .................................. ........... 182Aurora A. Quezon, F. B. Evangelista

Gorgornia R. de Ladines ............................. 190Teodora G. Casile, Virginia Oteyza ........... 191Lilian Hamby ................................................. 194Teodora M. Flores, D. C. Roque ..................... 198Ethel T. Herold ..................................................... 196B. Laverene Fertig ................................................ 1®?H. a Heald ........................................................... 198Kenneth F. Jorgensen ............................................ 199Claudo E. Fertig ................................................... 204Henry A. Brimo .................................................... 207W. Robert Hamby, Jose J. Casanovas ............. 212Leon Manzanillo, Juan B. Zarate ..................... 213


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Biographical Sketch of W. Cameron Forbes Father of Baguio

W. Cameron Forbes is the scion of fam ilies prom inent for several gene­rations. He was born May 21, 1870, in Milton. M assachusetts, the son of W illiam Hathway Forbes and E dith Em erson Forbes and is a grandson of Ralph W aldo Em erson.

He prepared fo r college a t Milton Academy, Milton Mass., and Hopkin- son’s School, Boston, and graduated from H arvard w ith the class of 1892. W h;le in college he played on his class football team , and was m anager of th e V arsity Crew.

A lthough a g rea t studen t of foot­ball, he was never able to make the V arsity, bu t he followed the game w ith an intensity th a t led to h is ap­po in tm ent as coach of the freshm an team in 1894-95, and as head coach of H arvard V arsity football in 1897 and 1898. In the la t te r year, his team won all its games, including a 17-0 victory over Yale.

In 1894 and 1895 he was a Clerk w ith Jackson & Curtis, Boston invest­m en t brokers. In 1897 he became chief of the financial departm ent of Stone & W ebster, a firm which was ju s t then beginning a period of amazing expansion, and fo r five years he had extensive experience w ith electric light and s tree t railw ay properties. Since1899, he has been a p artn er in J. M. Forbes & Company, of Boston, M er­chants.

In 1904 he was appointed by P res­iden t Theodore Roosevelt a m em ber of the Philippine Commission and Sec­re ta ry of Commerce and Police in the Philipp ine Islands. In 1908, P res id en t Roosevelt appointed him Vice-Gov-, o r nor, and in 1909, P residen t T aft ap­poin ted him G overnor-G eneral of the Ph ilipp ine Islands, a post he held for fou r years. He, however, resigned as G overnor-G eneral in Septem ber, 1913. As G overnor-General, he erected var­ious governm ent buildings, construct­ed public roads and railways, and ex­e rted efforts in im proving the I n t e r island comm unication. He built Baguio,

th e p ines city of the P hilipp ines. He is know n in the Islands as a “b u ild e r”. H e also founded the M anila Polo Club in 1909.

Among G overnor Forbes” p rin icpal in te re sts in the Philipp ines w ere the inaugura tion and developm ent of the road-build ing policy, construction of ports, artesian-w ell drilling , public governing penal colony a t Iw ahig for tru stw orthy long-term convicts, w hich proved successful.


W illiam C am eron Forbes was d irec t­ly responsible fo r the up-bu ild ing of Baguio. He m ore th an any o th e r o f­ficial of the early days le ft a deep im prin t of his personality as w ell as of official acts. I t was a case of in ­te re s t and en thusiasm runn ing side by side w ith pow er and responsib ility . In consequence Forbes laid th e founda­tion on w hich Baguio has been built.

He was appointed Secretary of Com­m erce and Police in 1904, th e year th a t D aniel H. B urnham m ade th e plan th a t d ifferen tia tes Baguio from the re s t of the world. F rom th e beginning Forbes insisted on adherence to th a t p lan in the developm ent of Baguio. H is appreciation of beauty , h is know ­ledge of the benefits to be derived from parks, his understand ing of roads w ere contro lling fac to rs in m aking the Baguio of today— of th e fu tu re Baguio.

B efore Secretary F orbes becam e go­verno r-genera l he had bu ilt topsides. By his exam ple and solicitation o ther hom es w ere erec ted by officials and res iden ts of the Islands. He was the o rig inal Baguio “b ooste r” . In 1907 he

helped organize th e C ountry Club C orporation and supported its early struggles to provide sports and rec­rea tion fo r the re s id en ts of th e sum ­m er colony. T hrough his in te re s t in th e king of sports he gave Baguio its polo field. He w as back of every m om ent to prom ote the p leasu re of living in Baguio.

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W hen Vice-Governor F orbes was ap­poin ted governor-general in 1909 his official acts w ere d irected tow ards the developm ent of Baguio. E arly in his adm in istra tion , governm ent cen te r and the city ha ll w ere built. T hat the of­ficials and employes of the govern­m en t m ight w ork u nder favorable clim ate conditions du ring th e heated season in M anila be m ade Baguio in­deed the ‘Sum m er C apital”. In 1919 Baguio began to function according to the orig inal plan. The Baguio “boom” was on. Many p rivate hom es w ere also bu ilt du ring his period.

I t was in th e Forbes adm in istra tion th a t Baguio roads w ere constructed , th a t tem porary bridges on th e K en­non Road w ere replaced by m ore p e r­m anen t s tru c tu res and th a t p lans were m ade for th e construction and b e tte r­m ent of roads leading from Manila to Baguio. H is road policy of which these w ere only a sm all p a r t was largely responsible fo r the develop­m en t and p rosperity of the Philippine Islands.

W hile provision was m ade fo r the construction of M ansion H ouse p rio r to his appointm ent, G overnor-G eneral F o rbes was th e f irs t to occupy it. The Baguio City H ospital was com pleted a t th e sam e period. His en thusiastic encouragem ent and cooperation w ere he lp fu l to G eneral J. F rank lin Bell in th e build ing of Camp John Hay which has been of such d irce t benefit by w ay of recrea tion to m ilitary and n a ­val officers.

F rom th e beginning of his Philip ­p ine service Forbes was in te rested in th e constabu lary w hich was u n d er his adm in istra tion and as Secretary of Com m erce and Police, was largely responsible fo r th e rem oval of the school fo r C onstabulary Officers. Then the Ph ilipp ine C onstabulary Acade­m y from M anila to Cam p H enry T. A llen in Baguio.

F o rm er G overnor G eneral Forbes w as keenly in te rested also in th e na­tive people of the M ountain Province and made m any tr ip s on horseback over the M onutain T rail to visit places now accessible by autom obile, to Bon- toc Road. N ot the least of his official accom plishm ents w ere th e friends he

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made among the Igorots.In 1914, during W orld W ar II, he

was appointed Receiver of th e Brazil Railway Company, an en terp rise in­volving large French, Belgian and British investm ents. He held th is post fo r six years, the work tak ing him to South A m erica and E urope, where he visited th e front-line trenches in February, 1916, as guest of the French Government.

In June, 1917, he was appointed by Covernor Sam uel McCall of M assachu­setts a m em ber of a Special Commis­sion to Investigate Street Railway pro­blems.

W ith G eneral Leonard Wood, he was appointed in March, 1921, by P residen t H arding to th e W ood-Forbes Mission of Investigation to the Philipp ine Is­lands. A t th e close of th is investiga­tion, he visited China and Japan as guest of the Chinese and Japanese Governments, and received decorations from each (th e O rder of th e Golden Grain from China, and the O rder of the Rising Sun from Jap an ).

A t the request of G overnor Chan- ning H. Cox of M assachusetts, he un­dertook in February , 1922, an inves­tigation of the S tate Prison, reporting in N ovem ber of th a t year. In 1928, he w rote a h istory of th e Philippines in two volumes. I t is en titled “TH E P H IL IP P IN E ISLA N D S.”

In 1930, P residen t H e rb e rt Hoover appointed him Chairm an of the Com­mission fo r the Study and Review of Conditions in H aiti. His re p o r t sug­gested a successful solution of the exisling impasse m the election of a President.

In June, 1930, P residen t H oover ap­pointed him Ambassador to Japan. D uring h is incumbency, th e Japanese invaded M anchuria. He resigned the A m bassadorship in March, 1932.

As C hairm an of the A m erican Eco­nomic Mission in 1935, he visited Ja ­pan and toured an im portan t p a rt of China by air, a t the instance of the N ational Foreign Trade Council of New York.

In 1938, he visited Spain as the guest of Generalissim o Franco.

A ctive in civic affairs m ost of his life. G overnor Forbes is a Life Mem-

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Residence of W illiam Cameron Forbes at Topside, Baguio

On one of his trips to Baguio, W. C. Forbes is seen in the m iddle hold­ing a hat w ith cane and surrounded by some high governm ent offieia ls at the Baguio Station.

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b er E m eritus of the M assachusetts In ­s titu te of Technology C orporation, Ho­n o rary P residen t ot the China Society of A merica, H onorary V ice-President of th e Japan Society of New York, H onorary V ice-President of the Mas­sachusetts A udubon Society, a Fellow of the A m erican Academy of A rts & Sciences, and a m em ber of the Col­lege of E lectors of the Hall of Fame, New York U niversity. He was fo r se­vera l years C hairm an of the Board of T rustees of the Carnegie In s titu ­tion of W ashington, and a tru s tee of Ham pton Institu te , Ham pton, V irginia. Also, for many years he was P residen t of the Board of T rustees of th e Mid­dlesex School, and a T rustee of Con­cord Academy, both in Concord, Mass. He was an O verseer of H arvard Uni­versity from 1914 to 1920.

H e received the H onorary D egree of r.L D. from H arvard in 1912; from T rin ity College, H artford , Conn. in 1924; and from B ates College, Lewis­ton, Maine, in 1932.

U n til advancing years and ill health forced him to resign, he was a D irec­to r of a num ber of corporations, in­cluding among o th ers: A m erican Te­lephone & T elegraph Co., Comm ercial C red it Co., Copper Range Co., F irst N ational Bank of Boston, A rth u r D. L ittle , Inc., Old Colony T ru s t Co., M assachusetts F ire & M arine Insurance Co., Petro leum H eat & Pow er Co., Stone & W ebster, Inc., and U nited F ru i t Co.

A n ard en t polo enthusiast, he p lay­ed the game fo r 45 years, re tir in g a t th e age of 69. He was also in terested 'n golf, hunting, fishing and yachting.

In 1911, he w rote and had privately p rin ted the textbook AS TO POLO, w hich has been transla ted in to seve­ra l languages and been sold in many

narts of the world. In 1921, his book THE ROMANCE OF BUSINESS was published (Houghton Mifflin Co.). In 1928, he published the historical study THE PH ILIPPIN E ISLANDS in two volumes (Houghton Mifflin Co.), which he revised and brought up to date in 1945 in a one-volume, abridg­ed edition, (H arvard U niversity P ress).

Governor Forbes has been four limes around the world, and made m a­ny trips to C entral and South Ame­rica: as well as Europe.

He spen t his sum m ers at the fa­mily-owned island of Naushon, off Cape Cod, and has made frequen t vi­sits to the family-owned ranch in Wy­oming. In 1930, he built a home in Southern Georgia, at Thomasville, where he spent several w inters. This was sold a few years ago, and later, became Birdwood Jun io r College.

His unique residence in Norwood, Mass., the in te rio r walls of which w ere panelled in d ifferen t Philippine hard woods, was a show place for many years. In 1950, he p resen ted it, w ith polo field and stables, to H ar­vard U niversity. In 1955, it was ac­quired by the U nited F ru it Company, and converted by them into a research laboratory, w here im portant w ork in the study and developm ent of tropical plants is now being carried on.

Governor F orbes’ clubs included the Union, Tavern, H arvard and H arvard Travellers of Boston, and since 1914 the Saturday Club of Boston, H arvard of New York, India House, New York, and New Y ork Yacht. He was a char­te r m em ber of the Manila Polo Club, Manila.

He resided at the Hotel Vendome, Boston, and rem ained a bachelor un til his death on December 24, 1959.

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A lover of sports especially golf, he enjoys a chat w ith W illiam Howard Taft and a close friend in his Baguio residence.

The late W illiam Cameron Forbes in one of his favorite poses on horseback in front of the then Baguio Country Club w ith W. H. Taft and an interested spectator.

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rr 1



-jiForm er G overnor-General of the Philippines w ith his cabinet





M ansion House

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FOOTNOTES ON BAGUIO'S HISTORYIn th e annals of Spanish h istory

covering its ru le in th e Philippines it is revealed th a t th e Spanish gov- erm en t organized “Comm andancias Politico M ilitar” in th is region and for alm ost 200 years, the Spanish Com m andantes governed the Igorottes. The Spaniards g a \e them th e ir first step tow ards civilization and nation­alization, built churches and schools, in troduced coffee planting , cattle ra is ­ing made tra ils and . undertook to vaccinate th e people. Inspite of this, th e Mt. people w ere no t contented w ith th is kind of governm ent due to ex o rb itan t taxation, forced labor, con­fisca to ry gifts upon them . In 1846 C om m andante G uillerm o Galvey after over 45 exploratory expeditions, esta­b lished his Com m andancia at La T ri­n idad (nam ed a fte r his w ife) w ent to establish the province of B enguet w ith th irty Rancherias. The f irs t Ka- p itan of B enguet was Publito of old Kafa*gway (now B aguio), a m inor Ran-

cheria of about 20 scattered houses.D uring th e last decades of the Spa­

nish governm ent missionaries and Do­minican orders established missions in most of these Commandancias and these w ere connected by tra ils or m ountain horse roads. The Filipino Revolutionists invaded Benguet, and all the top Spanish officials of Ben guet, together w ith governor B ejar and the parish p riests f l e d t o Bontoc. A fter some months of strug file betw een the Revolutionists and the Spanish troops, the la tte r su rren ­dered to th e form er. Im m ediately upon th e cessation of hostilities, the local provincial governm ents were restored under the regime of the erstw hile Philippine Republic and Ora (Juan Carino) was made th e Philippine Re­public’s governor of Benguet. The Re­volutionists who had been in alliance w ith the Americans after defeating 1he Spaniards, rose against the ir fo r­m er allies fo r failure on the p a rt of

La Trinidad in 1890. Shown above are Spanish officers escorting some Igorot prisoners to the La Trinidad presidencia.

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Map of Baguio in 1918

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Partial panoramic view of Baguio Benguet. The site selected b

the la tte r to respect the Filipinos in the term s of peace betw een the gov­ernm en t of Spain and the U nited States. Thus, the F ilip inoA m erican W ar broke out. The figh t covered a period of two years. D uring the lat- ic r p art of the war, the A m ericans in 1900 came to B enguet, pacified the area. Captain Robert R. Rudd estab- 'ished the governm ent. Owing to the pacific conditions which prevailed in B enguet w hile the re s t of N orthern Luzon was e ither in a condition of insurrection or inter-com m unity feud, 'h is province was the firs t region to secure civil governm ent. Mr. H.P. W liitm arsh was appointed civil gover­nor and the capital was set up in Baguio. This was the f irs t provincial civil governm ent to be established anyw here in .the Philippines. A t first, th e old Spanish political divisions w ere fallowed and Igorots were ap poin ted as much as possible in the governm ent. Thus, Sioco Carifio of Baguio appointed "P resid en t” of

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the Baguio rancheria.The presen t city of Baguio w ith

its surrounding te rrito ry forming an enclave, is peopled by two distinct groups of m ountaineers. In the n o rth ­ern p a rt and beyond it dwell Igorots i generally known as Kankanays, while the southern portion is the home of 1he Ibaloys. The Ibaloys present them ­selves socially as a peaceful and in dustrious tribe whose chief occupation is agriculture, husbandry, and mining.They live generally in sm all se ttle ­ments scattered over the hills and 1 valleys, w ith the exception of a few larger com m unities. A num ber of wealthy fam ilies stand out, singly or in groups of a few households, in or near the more im portant townships, and who give to the triba l life a d is­tinctly plutocratic character. One of the leading figures of the surrounding country was no o ther than Kapitan Mateo Carino. (

( Continued on page 2 5 )

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the Spanish Commission for a sanitarium is marked with a cross.


T here are quite a num ber of ver­sions as to the origin of Baguio’s name. As per Q uirante’s report on his expedition to the gold mines of “An- tam og” in 1624, Baguio was often re ­fe rred to as Kapagway, m eaning stem or grassy clearings. It was not m ore than a lonesome rancheria sprinkled w ith a handful of dwellings and whose lone attraction was a tribuna or coun­cil-house in th e center.

A version w hich seems believable is th a t the nam e Baguio was adopted from the word “Bah-giw” w hich in B enguet dialects means moss and from the Inibaloy term “bagyu” which de­notes a subm erged slimy w aterplant known to the Tagalog as “ lum ot” . T his name was given to the w atery bottom of the Kisad Valley betw een Baguio and La Trinidad. When the

Spaniards came to this place w here th e re was nothing but swamps and forests, a few native huts and a bare hillside of pastureland for ca ttle , they baptized the placc as “Baguio” which is a general term used in the A rch i­pelago to mean typhoon. The Spaniard did not, however, fixed the •Bah-giw” boundary. It was not until the com ing of the Americans that the Baguio boundary was specified. Among the areas included within the m apped boundary w ere, namely, P idoan (Coun try C lub), Orengao (T eachers’ C am p), Kafa*gway (C ity H all), Im adayong (B ren t School) Apni (Carino S ubd i­vision), Minac (B urnham P a rk ) , Ca- va lju reza (C onstabulary H ill), Cam peo (Session R oad), a n d Oligueg (Rock Quarry). , jl

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F o o tn o tes on B aguio's H is to ry ...

The Am erican cavalry, composed of American Negroes in the hills of Benguet on their w ay to La Trinidad during the early part of 1900.

Sitting dow n in front of a sm all house are members of the Amer ican expedition sent to pacify the unrest in Benguet.



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Encouraged by Shangri-la tales of a Spanish friend about a fabulous country in the north, Dean C. W orcester, a m em ber of the first Philippine Commission, led a party of curious Am­ericans to the Benguet region in July, 1900. The trip led to the birth of Baguio.

In the sum mer of 1892, a young A m erican Zoological collector nam ed Dean C. W orcester was approached in the w ilds of Mindoro Island while a t work by Domingo Sanchez, a member of the Spanish F o res try B ureau, who described in g rea t detail a fabulous country in the Luzon N orthernland a t an elevation of 5,000 fee t above sea le­vel w ith a perpetual tem perate clim ate and w as sometimes visited by frosts .

Dr. W orcester who la te r became the Secretary of In te rio r and member of the f i r s t Philippine Commission did no t give the story fu ll credence, b u t his in te rest in bird life created a curiosity in his mind.

“A severe attack of typhoid fever ne­cessitated my leaving the Island before I could c a rry out th is plan, bu t upon my re tu rn w ith the f i r s t Philippine Commission in 1899 I remembered Se-

nor Sanchez’ sto ry”, W orcester w rites in his book. “ In view of th e probability th a t A m erican occupation would con­tinue fo r a long period, th e existence or non-eixstence n ear M anila of an ex­tensive highland region w ith a tem pe­ra te clim ate became a question of g rea t prac tica l im portance. I, th ere fo re , caus­ed search to be m ade in the Spanish archives to see w hat, i f any reliable inform ation w as available, and to my g re a t sa tisfaction u n earthed a detailed rep o rt m ade by a com m ittee of three distinguished and com petent Spanish of­ficers who had spent some weeks a t Ba­guio in the com m andancia of Benguet, during w hich period they had made six tem pera tu re observations daily, had tram ped over the neighboring country very thoroughly, had located a num ber of springs of potable w a te r and deter­mined th e ir approx im ate flow, and in

In those pioneer days, ccdan chairs carried by m eans of poles on the shoulders of the cargadores w ere the m ost d istinctive mode of transportation where trails w ere enough for the horse to pass.

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A place in Sablan as seen by Dean Worcester and party. The bells on the ground w ere left there by Aguinaldo’s troops intended for gun m etals for his army.

sh o rt ga thered a la rge am ount of very valuable d a ta which more th an bore opt the s ta tem en t of Senor Sanchez.”

W hile W orcester w as in W ashington in 1899, he brought up the idea w ith E lihu Root, then S ecretary of S ta te and while the second Commission w as

leaving fo r the Philippines, Secretary Root directed the members to investi­gate the m atte r and if the fac ts , proved as sta ted , to open up the country.

The Commission upon a rriva l in the Philippines, delegated G eneral Luke E. W righ t and W orcester to v isit B enguet

Panoramic view of La Trinidad V alley at

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v st

and fam iliarize themselves w ith the s it­uation. They took w ith them H orace

p L. H iggins, p resident of the M anilaand Dagupan Railway Co., M ajo r L. M. M aus of the arm y medical corps and Dr. F rank S. Bourns.

M ajor Maus, tak ing the la titude and a ltitude as a basis of his calculations before the departu re fo r Baguio, de­m onstrated th a t the statem ents of the Spanish committee were necessarily false. He was, however, surprised when he w as informed by a young aid of then Colonel Duval who was in com-

1 m and of the garrison in San Fernando ,L a U nion th a t in T rin idad some negro soldiers who stationed there complained of the cold all the tim e and asked fo r all the spare blankets available. W or­cester described the tr ip , thus.

“G eneral M acA rthur was dubious when we expressed a desire to ca rry out the instruction of the secretary of

i w ar. H e told us th a t the country wasdangerous, doubtless confusing it w ith Bangued, capital of A bra, near which there w as a t th a t tim e a strong and active insurgent force.

W e insisted on going, so he said th a t he would send a troop of cavalry w ith

us, and he kept his word. D uring the la s t week of Ju ly we fina lly sailed from M anila on a naval vessel for S an F e r ­nando in the province of L a U nion. F rom th is place we expected to go by road as f a r as N aguilian , in th e sam e province, and thence on horse back to T rin idad and Baguio, in Benguet.

W e le ft N aguilian early in the m or­n ing and stopped fo r lunch a t a little place properly called Sablan, bu t un­o ffic ia lly known as “The Bells.” A gui- naldo had though t a t one tim e of e s ta ­b lish ing his headquarte rs in B enguet and had planned to have a gun found­ry a t Sablan. H is troops accordingly stole m ost of the church bells in the neighboring lowland tow ns, m eaning to use them fo r gun m etal, and compelled the u n fo rtu n a te B enguet Igorots to c a r­ry them up the steep tra il . Boiler pipes, which had been used in lieu of c a rry ­ing poles, had in several instances been badly ben t out of shape. T here w as even old vertical boiler which had been lugged up entirely fo r some unknow n reason.

I t w as still steam ing ho t a t Sablan , and the whole countryside was buried in densest tropical vegetation . M ajor

the time of early American exploration.

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M'aus w as trium phan t. T hings were w orking ou t ju s t as he had thought. W hen we w ere a lready halfw ay up, we thought th a t we m ight as well continue

came out into a w onderful region of pine parks.” Dr. W orcester described the ascent. <

“ Trees stood on the rounded knolls

the journey. I had expected to find pines and oaks, b u t had anticipated th a t they would grow am idst a dense tang le of damp trop ical vegetation.

We w ere lite ra lly dum bfounded when w ithin a space of a hundred yards we suddenly le ft the trop ics behind us and

Among the members of the Philippine (

a t com paratively wide in tervals, and there w ere scores of places where, in order to have a beau tifu l house lot, one needed only to construct driveways and go to work with a law n mower. A t the same moment, delightful cold breeze swept down from the heights above us.

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J u s t a t sunset we experienced a se­cond surprise , coming out on th e knife- sh arp crest of a ridge, and seeing spread before us the T rin idad Valley,

afternoon, and the sigh t w as one never to be fo rgo tten .”

W hen the p a rty arrived a t T rin idad they received a le tte r from Otto

w hich w as shaped like a huge w ash basin. Its floor w as vividly green w ith grow ing rice. Igo ro t houses were dotted here and there over th e rays of the set­tin g sun. The a ir had been washed clean by the heavy ra in which had poured down on us th roughout th e

Scheerer, th e only w hite re s id en t of B enguet, who invited them to make th e ir head q u arte rs a t h is house in Ba­guio.

“W e found conditions exactly a s des­cribed in the Spanish rep o rt.” W orces­te r w rote, “ the country w as g en tly rol­

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ling its elevation rang ing from 4,500 to 5,200 feet. The hills w ere covered w ith short, th ick g rass and w ith m ag­n ificen t pine trees which fo r the most

could be found in suffic ien t quantity . We revisited each of the several springs discovered and described by the Spa­nish committee, bu t decided th a t they

Some members of the Philippine Commission resting

p a r t g rew a t considerable distance from each o ther while along the s tream s there w ere w onderful tree fe rn s and lu x u rian t tang les of beauti­fu l trop ical vegetation. I t took us bu t a sh o rt tim e to decide th a t here w as an ideal site fo r a fu tu re city , if w ater

would be inadequate to supply a town of any g re a t size. D r. Scheerer now came to the fro n t and guided us to the very th ing th a t we w ere looking for, bu t had hard ly dared hope to find ; namely a m agnificent sp ring of crys­tal clear w ater. A t th a t tim e it was

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flowing nearly a million gallons p e r through P a n g a s in a n , La U nion, Ben-day. I t b u rs t fo rth from a hillside in guet, L epanto and Ilocos Sur, I hadsuch m anner as to make its protection been in tru sted with the d ra f tin g of lefrom surface drainage easv. and we de- gislation fo r the governm ent of the

cided th a t there was nothing lacking to non-C hirstian tribes, and w anted tomake Baguio an adm irable site fo r the learn as much about them as possible,fu tu re sum m er capital and health re- 30 th a t I could ac t in telligently , sort of the Philippines.” We s ta r te d from D agupan m ounted

D uring June of 1901, professor Mo- on horses kindly fu rn ished us by th eses and I made a horseback tr ip ac- arm y, and escorted by fo u r m ountedcompanied by our p riva te secretaries in fan trym en . None of us had ridden

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fo r years , and a rm y officers w ere of fe r in g w agers th a t we would not g e t as f a r as Baguio. A t M angaldan a ca­v a lry o u tf it replaced our m ounted in­

exercise on the tr ip .H aving f i r s t visited the work a t the

lower end of th e B enguet Road and then travelled across th e country in a

Among the members of the Philippine

fan trym en , and w hile th e m em bers of our new escort w ere res tin g under the shade of a tree in th e cem etery, I heard them voicing joy fu l an tic ipations of th e easy tim e they were to have trav e llin g w ith tenderfee t. I made up my m ind to give them some h ea lth fu l

driving storm over w retched tra ils , we reach B auang, our poin t of departu re fo r the in terio r. H ere I called the ser­gean t in charge and asked him were the ex tra shoes fo r our horses were. In some confusion he confessed th a t he had brought none, whereupon I read

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him a homily on the duties of a ca­valrym an, and sent the whole o u tf it to San Fernando to get the horses re­shod and provided w ith ex tra shoes fo r

had found refuge in the house of Mr. O tto Scheerer, a hospitable Germ an. The cavalrym en and the horses got ir. u nder the building. I t gave me g rea t

Commission as guests of Otto Sheerer.the trip .

We arrived a t Baguio in a howling typhoon. W hen we emerged from the hills into the open, and our horses got fu ll sweep of the storm , they a t f i rs t

I refused to face it. We forced them in­to it, however, and a few moments la te r

jo y to h ea r th rough the floor the voice of the se rg ean t rem ark ing , w ith much em phasis of the so rt best represen ted in p rin t by dashes, th a t if he had known the so rt of a tr ip he w as s ta r t­ing on he would have been on sick rep o rt th e m orn ing of his departu re .

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The Session Road of 1900 which w as m erely a pasture land of the natives.

On March 25, 1902, the sum of 10,000 pesos was appropriated for the purpose of constructing six th ree- room cottages a t Baguio, province of Benguet, for use in connection with the convalescent hospital at th a t place, popularly known as the civil san ita r­ium, and a re s t house a t Sablan, the halfway station on the tra il bet­ween Naguilan and Baguio.

This work has been attended with no little difficulty, bu t it has deve­loped a knowledge of building opera­tions in Benguet which will prove of g rea t fu ture value

No small am ount of the appropria­tion was expended in getting the laborers to Baguio and in bringing up the necessary tools, subsistence supplies, and build ing m aterials.

On the 9th of A pril, 1902, a party of Chinese laborers in charge of an A m erican forem an arrived a t Baguio, followed on the 14th by a second party in charge of a draftsm an from the office—30 laborers all told.

The men left M anila during the cholera epidemic, and w ere neces­sarily detained five days in the bay

The arrow on the left points to the site of the then Baguio Sa The arrow on the right points to the Spanish Governor’s House which

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TARIUM, BAGUIObefore the ship was perm itted to sail fo r San Fernando. Laborers willing

: to go could no t be obtained except a tan increase of the ra te paid in Ma­nila Packages and boxes of tools and m aterials, such as shovels, picks, saws, axes, nails flexible roofing, hard-

; w are, and subsistence supplies ofrice, fish, tea, etc., w ere sent up by ship to San Fernando de La Union, thence transported by army m ule team s 12 m iles to N aguilan, and th ere

* repacked so th a t no single packageweighed more than 60 or 70 pounds, the maximum load w hich the Igorro te polistas o r ca rrie rs a re w illing to carry over the 29-mile tra il to Ba­guio. The grea test difficulty was ex-

| perienced in getting a sufficient n u n rj ber of polistas to ca rry this m ateria l,

all of which did not a rr iv e a t Baguio L for several weeks.f A fte r the arrival of the m en thet firs t few days w ere spent in con-1 s truc ting a suitable “shack,” or rough

building fo r living quarters. T h e I w hole party w ere then put to work; felling pine trees and sawing themI in to boards and dim ension tim ber.

initarium which later became the site of the pre-war P ines Hotel. I w as later used by Gov. Pack as his residence.

Baguio's first Sanitarium intended as a recuperation center for govern­ment em ployees.

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An exam ination of th e prem ises at th is tim e by th e chief of the bureau, follow ed by a consultation w ith the honorab le th e secretary of public in ­struction , led to th e recom m endation th a t the san itarium bu ild ing be en­larged and repaired . T h e general ch a rac te r of the construction is su

and roofs, as well as the floors, are laid w ith 1-inch boards, all sawed by hand, and the floors and sideboard- ing sm oothed off, tongued and groov­ed The construction of the cottages is the sam e as th a t of the sanitarium . The roof boarding is covered with pa­ten t flexible asphaltic roofing.

p e rio r to anything in the province. The posts which support the building (no stone foundations being used) a re obtained from Igorrotes, who se­lec t fo r th is purpose trees th a t have fallen and to a ce rta in ex ten t ro tted away. They hew th e log away, using only a bolo, un til it is reduced from a d iam eter of perhaps 36 inches to 12 inches. These posts are hauled som etim es many miles, bu t a re fu r ­n ished a t the uniform price of $1.50, Mexican currency, each. The fram e of the buildings is p u t up in the same m anner as the construction of sim ilar buildings in Manila, w ith double p lates, double g irders nailed into each side of the post and secured to th e same w ith one bolt. The sides

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A view of the Baguio Sanitanunln e nucleus of the sanitarium

building is a cottage bu ilt by Otto Shearer. The old grass roof is replac­ed by a new roof, the in terio r re ­arranged and generally renovated, forming one pavilion of the com plet­ed structu re .

Construction activities, however, was retarded by the continuous rains of the season. The carpen ters have been put to w ork a t such tim es making doors, windows, sash, and sim ilar appointm ents. Inability to secure supplies over the tra il for the Chi­nese carpen te rs has, on several occa­sions, caused a stoppage of the work.On th is account Ilocanos were em ­ployed from tim e to tim e to take the place of the Chinese carpenters.

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The delays in transporting supplies and m aterial will, in the near fu ture, he lessened by the establishm ent of a pack tra in of ponies from San Fer- nado to Baguio, under the contro l of the Philippine constabulary.

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nese trad e rs have invaded th e dis­tr ic t who came w ith silks and o ther products fo r b a rte r. The Spaniards, though here for centuries and pos­sessed know ledge th a t th e re was gold in this m ountains never spen t a cen t in th e developm ent of the

its completion.(C ontinued from page 10 )

The Presidenia of Baguio Ran- cheria was firs t established in th e house of C am pulet a t the top of the now Tabacalera Road, situated a t th e lower end of Guisad Valley on the old raod coming over th e hill from La Trinidad. The Span­iards spelt Bagyiu as Baguio and so nam ed the whole Rancheria. L ater, the presiden tia was moved to the place where the fish m arket is now situated , and then to large house of Mateo Carino situated where the p resen t City Hall now stands.

F a r beyond the Spanish occupa­tion the gold m ines in the region w ere worked by Igorots. and Chi-

m ines. The Igorots would b ring in gold in d u st som etim es coarse which the Spaniards w ould gladly purchase th e ir p rices never exceeding 7 pe­sos per ounce

The Spaniards to some extent, oc­cupied portions of th e te rrito ry and worked th e gold m ines with Igorots. A few E uropeans followsd, bu t sys­tem atic occupation was made un til la te in the 19th century.

B asing on G uillerm o Galvey’s dia­ry his f irs t expedition in th is region reveals also his astonishm ent and de­light th a t upon reach ing this region he saw w ith enthusiasm the carefully- separated and 'fa iled fields grow ing

(C ontinued on page 6 7 ) L 25 ]

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There are h o tte r p laces than the lowlands of the P h ilipp ines-'-ho tter p laces than M anila—bu t th e re is none w here there is such a never ending, boundless con tinu ity of heat, day in and day out, week a f te r week, m onth a fte r month, th roughou t the whole cycle of the year—none w hich so insi- duously saps the vita lity and relaxes the springs of energy native to men from colder clim ates. O ur troops suf­fered from th e effects of it, and search v/as made fo r some cool spot in the islands w here convalescing invalids could regain streng th and vigor. The W ar D epartm ent d irected the regi­m ents a fte r two or th ree years service should be re tu rn ed to A m erica. Staff officers w ere no t to serve m ore than two years in this enervating clim ate. Convalescing invalids w ere sen t to Cor- regidor, to China, to Japan , and to A m erica to regain h ea lth and streng th Many who could no t afford such a change becam e chronic invalids or died.

T here w ere no new conditions b rough t abou t by A m erican occupa­tion Our Spanish predecessors suf-

(Excerpts from the report of Major L.

fered in like m anner and sought some place in the Philippine Islands where an invigorating clim ate and re lief from th e endless trop ical heat of th e low­lands might be found. A fter th ree cen­tu ries of occupation and observation they fixed upon Baguio, in th e pro­vince of Benguet, as one p lace most nearly .tilling a ll of the requ ired con­ditions. S ituated about 5,000 feet above sea level, on the southw estern corner of the m ountain system of northern Luzon, its rolling, turf-co­vered hills, studded thick w ith fra­gran t pines, sw ept by all th e breezes th a t blow e ith e r from the no rth or south or east o r west, w ith a low mean annual tem peratu re and oc­casional touch of frost Baguio seem ­ed indeed an ideal haven of refuge from the to rrid plains in w hich the principal towns and business centers o f the islands are located.

The p lateau enjoying all these ad­vantages was, however, most difficult of access. The f i r s t explorers reached it only by following the steep, slip­pery, dangerous and obscure tra ils of th e native igorrote. To m ake the




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THE BENGUET ROADpvennon, Tenth Infantry, officer in charge)




highlands of B enguet accessible to th e Baguio and planned an extensive sani> w hite man, th e Spaniards, tow ards the tarium and o ther buildings of Baguio.

end of the last ce rtu ry , built a horse Insurrection and w ar prevented thetra il from N aeuilian to Trinidad and carry ing out of the project.

A temporary hanging bridge built in Camp One.


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• - - - - . *

All supplies w ere hauled from Dagupan to Twin Peaks over the provincial roads and the com pleted portion of the Benguet Road.




Soon a f te r th e A m erican occupation th e m anifest need of some such in­s titu tion was recognized and the Gov­e rnm en t decided to carry in to effect as soon as practicab le the plans of its predecessors. Baguio could practicai- ly be reached only from San F ernan ­do and N aguilian, necessita ting a sea tr ip of tw enty-four hours from Mani­la and two o r th ree davs of horseback

travel over a steep tra il bu ilt by the Spaniards in 1892. In the storm y sea­son steam ers w ere frequently a week in going from M anila to San F ernan ­do. Evidently such a tr ip was quite im possible for invalids no t convales­cent.

Then, too, the en terprising A m er­ican volunteer soldier in scouting throueh the m ountains found eviden­

A part of the finished road near Camp One,

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No one who did not visit the country before the road was constructed can form an adequate idea of the d ifficu lties of supplies. The upper cam ps were reached only by perilous trails w hich a s c e n d e d a n d descended the precipitious slopes of the canyon walls, over cliffs, to scale w hich ropes and ladders were necessary. The river at low was forded; at high water rude bridges or logs were used. A man's life depended on sureness of foot and coolness of head. In hun­dreds of places a m isstep meant death.

new road i t was estim ated would be about 35 m iles ir. length, and would connect a t the no rthern end w ith the c ld t r Spanish road from T rin idad to Baguio, and a t the sou thern end w ith the provincial road n ear Pozorrubio.

W ork was begun on th is end onJanuary 15, 1901, u nder th e d irection of L ieut. F rancis H. Lomax, Forty- second U.S. V olunteer, Inf., th e la­borers being Igorots w ith A m erican forem en. On January 16, 1901. con­struction a t the south end was begun nt A gaat, from w hich po in t th e road was opened toward Pozorrubio. Con­nection was made w ith a p o in t on the Pozorrubio-A lfva highw ay called Babunan, d is tan t about 6.4 m iles from A guat and 3 miles from Pozorrubio. By Ju ly 1, it was rep o rted th a t 9-1/2 m iles of roadw ay had been opened up, including the im provem ents of existing tra ils from A guat to the m outh of the canyon of th e Bued River. In th e canyon itse lf bu t little ’.vork had been com pleted. The d iffi­culties of constructioi. had been very m uch underestim ated . Ins tead of earth .

¥ }

ces of m ineral wealth. The Igorrotes made im plem ents of copper, m ined and worked by them selves. Gold was washed by them from the beds of creeks. Prospectors w ere locating and developing claims which gave p ro ­mise of proving very valuable. T here was a call for im proved tran spo rta ­tion facilities for Baguio, and the Ci­vil Commission, by its Act No. 2, of Septem ber 12, 1900, authorized a su r­vey for a railroad which should con­nect Dagupan, the term inus of the M anila and Dagupan Railway, w ith Baguio.

The survey was made under the rlirection of Captain C. W. Mead, T h ir­ty-six U.S. V olunteer Infantry, who reported also tha t a wagon road could be quickly constructed from Pozorru­bio to Baguio through the Bued Ri ver Canyon fo r $75,000, U nited S tates currency. The Commission, there fo re by its A ct No. 61, dated December 21,1900, authorized the construction of the road, appropriated $75,000 fo r the purpose, and d irected th a t it be push­ed to com pletion by Ju ly 1, 1901. The

A group of lowland F ilipinos w'orking in the Benguet Road.i ' w i i m 'I' i n « A i ,

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The Benguet road was a harbor of re fuge for all o f the unem ployed ofthe Philippines. There were represen­ta tives o f iti nations at w ork on th e road. There were N orth A m e r i­

can, Indians, H auaiians, Mexicans, Pe­ruvians, Chileans, H indus, Chinese, Ja­panese, Russians, Germans, Irish, E n­glish, French, Swedes, E tc., all w ork­ing harmoniously together.

rock had been encoun te red and it is s ta ted th a t an am ount equal to the w hole appropriation was subsequently expended in m aking a roadbed along th e f irs t cliff a t the canyon’s en ­tran ce . Labor w as scarse, un tra ined , unw illing, and extrem ely d ifficu lt to p rocure.

I t is p leasant to re fe r to th e cor­d ial re la tions existing betw een p ro ­v incial and road authorities. Gover­n o r W illiam Pack was always ready to lend w hatever aid he could and took g rea t in te rest in the progress of th e work. W hile his ju risd iction ex­tended over all th e country occupied by th e working force, he practically le ft its adm in istra tion to th e officer in charge, a course w hich avoided fric tion and was in the in te re st of the en terp rise .

T he ra iny season coming on, work was suspended fo r th e tim e being. C aptain Mead was appointed city en ­g ineer of Manila, and Mr. N. M. Hol­m es was appointed chief engineer of th e B enguet road, on A ugust 20, 1901.

Mr. Holmes took hold of the w ork

with energy and pushed th e construc­tion along so th a t by January 1, 1902, he was able to rep o rt open fo r tra ­vel to a point about 10 miles no rth of Babunan and from Baguio about 8 miles south, leaving a gap of about 17 miles, on which some work had been done for about 5 miles. In July, 1902, he reported as opened up suf­ficient for wagon travel an aggregate of about 32 miles. A horse tra il had also been made for about 6 miles, while 6 miles w ere im passable for horse o r vehicle.

The road “opened up” was by no means a finished road, bu t the road­bed had been roughly blocked out and was passable fo r carts.

The work for the following year seems to have consisted largely in widening, ditching, and m etaling the road reported as “opened up,” in the construction of b iidges and culverts, and in repairing the dam age done by floods in the rainy season. A bridge over the Bued River was washed out and was replaced by a horse tra il of 135 fee t span, the lum ber for which,

3 o

One of the foundries m aintained during the construction of theB enguet Road.

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Col. L. W. Kennon with black beard and m oustache in front of h is house in Camp 4. In the same group are some road officers.

as fo r a ll bridges, was sawed by hand.The upper section of the road had

suffered severely, and slides develop­ed which carried away the roadbed and caused the abandonm ent of th a t portion of the road. Several m iles of rock w ork were thus thrown aw ay. The w ork had been well done and stands well today, except in the valley

of E m erald C reek w here the slides occurred. The n a tu re of this coun try is such th a t it is p ractically im possible to foretell the effect of cu ttin g into th e m ountain sides. This was a sm ooth, grass-covered slope of no t unusual steepness and would o rd inarily be en ­tered w ithout hesita tion .

T he cu t acted upon by to rren tia l


The m ountain Igorots w ere chiefly used as packers and a large number of them w ere em ployed.

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An arch erected at point of beginning of work under direction of Colonel Kennon.

rains, developed a m ountain or an­gu lar fragm ents of rock in clay w ith­ou t showing any bed rock upon which a secure foundation could be had.

D uring the year the labor situation had been as unsatisfactory and dis­appointing as ever. C holera broke out and practically suspended th e w ork fo r m onth. Mr. Holmes rep o rted th a t “despite agents, le tte rs, and personal appeals to the sources from which our labor is draw n, no re su lt was obtain­ed, and the w ork had been suffered to d rag along, so crippled by the lack of labor as to m ake the m ost unsa­tisfactory progress, costing, as well, considerably m ore than would have been necessary by having a steady, reg u la r supply of su ffic ien t labor to p roperly d is tribu te am ong the various camps, and so allow an economical organization of office and adm in istra­tive fo rce .”

On June 30, 1903, Mr. Holmes re ­ported the road passable for wagons from th e beginning a t th e south end to 14 m iles n o rth and from Baguio 5 miles south, w ith several sm all pieces of roadw ay and horse tra il opened up betw een those lim its.

A lthough the w oik had been carried on u nder g rea t d ifficu lties and w ith m any disappointing setbacks, it had not p rogressed w ith a speed satis­factory to the Commission, which was

[ 32 ]

desirous of com pieting the road as soon as possible.

In a m eeting of Ju n e 1, 1903, a re ­solution was adopted by the Philip­pine Commission enum erating the po­licy to make Baguio the Sum m er Ca­pital of the A rchipelago, to e rec t su it­able buildings a t th a t place, and to construct a wagon road from Naguili* an to Baguio. The Commission placed Major L. W- Kennon, T enth Infan try , U.S Army, to take charge of the im ­provem ents in the B enguet Province, including the construction of the B enguet road. The same resolution provided th a t the bed of the B enguet road should be so constructed as to be available fo r the use of a railroad. A nother, of Ju ly 2, 1903 directed the laying ou t of the grounds in the town of Baguio, placing th is w ork also un-* der the d irection of M ajor Kennon.

U nder the head of “Im provem ents ’n B enguet Province” w ere at once or- ?an;zed th ree separate enterprises, viz the survey and construction of the Naguilian road. Mr. E. L. H ealth was appointed chief engineer of the Ne- guilian survey and Mr. G. H. Hayard of the Baguio im provem ents. Mr. Hol­mes was re tained as chief engineer of the B enguet road. W ork on the la ter far transcended the o thers in im medi­ate im portance, and a fte r starting the

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Hann’s Cliff, near Camp 1-1/2, showing com m encem ent of work, F eb­ruary 23, 1904. Several parties of native laborers on reaching the top of the cliff looked over the edge and turned back, refusing to go farther.

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A group of road officers and em ployes w ith Major Kennon.

w ork on them th e officer in charge estab lished his h eadquarters a t Twin Peaks and assum ed the personal di­rec tion of w ork on the B enguet road in the m iddle of A ugust 1903.

The officer in charge had new con­ditions and new problem s to meet. T he road constructed up to this tim e had been fo r o rd inary w heel transport

ta tion only, and was practicable to r carts as far as Twin Peaks. Indeed, after entering the canyon, the road was a cart road ra th e r than a wagon road. I t had m any steep adverse and tu rn s too sharp for heavy loaded wa­gons drawn by m ore than a pair of animals. I t was in no way fitted fo r use as the bed of a railway. On a

Slaughter house constructed along the Benguet Road.

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A num ber of m en were killed, by fa lling over the cliffs. A considerable num ber were droioned the m ost se­rious accident of this character resu lt­

ing f r o m the crow ding o f so m e J a p a n ­ese on a l ig h t foo tbr idge , w hich broke Under th e i r w e ig h t , p rec ip itc ting them frtto the sw ollen river.

brief visit to the road in Ju ly it was found th a t no surveys existed which could be utilized in making estim ates fo r the construction of im m ediate sur­veys w ere ordered fo r tha t purpose. These orders anticipated the resolu­tion of the Commission of Decem ber 23, 1903 d irecting the officer in charge to make his surveys, plans, and spe­cifications fo r an electric railroad bed w ith a w idth of 14 feet.

In the expectation of securing a large num ber of workmen, executive and adm inistrative departm ents w ere a t once organized and p u t into p ra c ­tical working order.

A telegraph line from Twin Peaks to Dagupan was constructed by the constabulary at the earnest request of the officer in charge, and all of the m ain camps on the road w ere con­nected by telephone, w ith headquar­ters a t Twin Peaks. The telephone line was extended to Baguio, and en­abled the en tire w ork to be d irected and controlled from the main office.

T he Commission had expressed a desire to have the w ork com pleted as

soon as possible, and e ffo rt was at once m ade to increase th e force of labor. In June , 1903. th e n u m b er of men on th e road was 173. This was increased rapidly un til it reached about 4,000, which was considered the m axim um num ber th a t could be w ork­ed to advantage at any one tim e w ith ou t too g rea tly increasing th e d iffi­culties and cost of tran sp o rta tio n of supplies. The w ork was so placed as to enable th e camps to be moved fo r­w ard in echelon, keeping th e m ost rem ote cam ps a t a d istance of not m ore th an 4 miles from a depot or from w heel transportation .

In th e f irs t d is tribu tion of the force, cam ps w ere organized a t Twin Peaks, cam ps 3 and 4, and two in ­term ediate points called 2- 1 /2 and sub- 4 A t cam p 4 was a c liff 900 fee t in length , o n , w hich a g rea t am oun t of necessarily slow w ork had to be done. A considerable force was p u t a t w ork on this c liff in o rder to p rev en t a blocking of the road w hen co n stru c t­ion should reach th a t point.

The m ain force was concen tra ted

3 5

Hospitals and laborer’s quarters bu ilt at Twin Peaks in May, 1904.

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betw een Twin P eaks and Camp 3, and by Feb. 1, 1904, the la te r cam p was accessible by carts , thus lessening m ateria lly the bu rden of tran spo rt ing supplies. The g rea te r p a rt of the fo rce was then moved forw ard and cam ps established betw een cam ps 3 and 4. These m ovem ents of th e w ork­

ing force w ere m ade successively. A cam ping place was selected in ad­vance, and a detachm ent was sent forw ard to build the necessary quar­ters, storehouses, etc. The road w ork a t the old camp com pleted, the new one was occupied, the m en carry ing tools and rations on th e ir backs. In

A temporary system atic rail used by toad em ployees along Benguet Road.

A -

Japanese laborers betw een Camps 3-1/2 and Sub. 4.

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On Septem ber 16, 1904, I m ade my f i r s t tr ip to Baguio, going up w ith Mr H. L. H iggins, of the railroad, in h is p ri­vate car, and accompanied by M ilstead, who w as the disbursing officer of the road. U nder date of Septem ber 17, my Jo u rn a l continues:

“ S ta r ted early (from D agupan) and rode a China pony w ith arm y saddle to Twin Peaks, th irty-one miles. Road in te­re s tin g as possible, thickly settled on both sides and s tre e t crowded with people and tra ffic , much bound fo r Twin Peaks w ith s tu f f fo r the B enguet road. This is ca r­ried in two-wheeled carts draw n by plod­d ing oxen or carabaos, which go one m ile an hour when they a re in a h u rry and lie down when th e y ’re not or w hen they can get into w ate r. We forded a fine r i­ver and revelled in the tropical ap p e a r­ance of the road lined w ith banana and coconut trees and occasional huge m an­goes o r other trees I couldn’t iden tify . We stopped a t Pozorrubio for lunch and then rode on g e tting presently to the

m ountains, and began the ascen t, the scenery becoming still m ore b eau tifu l though d ifferen t. The road w as atrocious. T here is a g re a t w ork to be done there . To Camp One the ra in began to come down in to rren ts and we w ere soon drenched to the skin. The road , w hich from here passed th rough a m ountain gorge, very p icturesque to see, began to be the land ing place fo r num erous w a te r­fa lls , and the pony, shying ou t to miss th e fa ll n ear the rock, didn’t a lw ays re­m em ber th a t it m igh tn ’t be good fu n to go over the precipice on the outside into the r iv e r th a t boiled below.

COLONEL K ENNO N’S WORK ‘‘A t Twin Peaks, Colonel K ennon hailed

us and le f t our poor leg-w eary ponies and took his fine sm art A m erican d riv ing horse and buggy and drove on up, ins­pecting th e w ork as we w ant. F rom Twin Peaks up, the work is the M ajo r’s and he is ju s tly proud of h is achievem ent. We saw his bridges and cu lverts, and drove over a sw inging suspension bridge. A t one

The Major’s headquarters at Camp 4.

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place n ear w hat is called “ The Devil’s Slide” from th e num ber of men th a t have been killed on it, we came n ea r being tipped over the c liffs ourselves, my w arn­in g to th e d riv e r m aking him pull up w ith h is wheel ag a in s t the rock, which, if i t had tipped us over, would have sent us ga ily whack to our long rest.

“ C am p P o u r is the M ajo r’s headquar­te rs and we had to stop and w alk over a li tt le sw inging bridge, then inspected th e q u a rte rs , and finally climbed to hi? house. A m agn ificen t looking Sikh in bloodred tu rb a n and w onderfull black b eard and m oustache drew up h is six feet of f ig u re and saluted, and as we tu rned th e co rner o f the house a band began to play. Inside th e house w ere two delight­fu l F ilip in a g irls, sw eet friend ly . One ab o u t th irteen , an orphan , Rosa, had been ‘g iv en ’ to M ajor Kennon, who m akes her do a little house w ork; and the other, M aria , and h e r husband live and care fo r h im w ithou t being w illing to accept pay. T he o th er o fficers of th e force came up fo r d inner and we had a very gay eve­

ning with fine singing by the Colonel and a Mr. Jenkins, a contractor there.

“ The life of it all is the M ajor. Every week he goes over every foot of the work and it means a nastly climb fo r him some­w here betweeneach of his six or eight c a m p . H uge lines of bullock carts go struggling th rough the mud from Dagu­pan to Twin Peaks and thousands of pounds are taken on the backs of Igorots, men, women, and children, to supply the d iffe ren t camps. Everyone loves the Ma­jo r , He is the g re a t moving sp irit. They come to him w ith the ir woes and w ith th e ir joys. He provides a band and sees th a t they have fiestas and bailes. A lit­tle while ago the men learned th a t the M ajor had made a bet th a t p a r t of the w ork would be finished ex tra hours, n igh t and day, and when the p a rty finally rode over the completed p art, th ere w as a sm ile four miles long and m any of the smiles had worked all n igh t before.

WORK INSPECTED“ Saturday, Septem ber 18, 1904. W alked

w ith the M ajor over the work. Gangs of 5%

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Col. L. W. Kennon w ith black beard and m oustache and F ilip ina girls who takes care of him and do a little house work for som e road officers.

^ 7A panoramic view showing the officers’ and em ployes’ quarters at T w in Peaks.

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G overnor W illiam Pack w ith road engineers of the Benguet Road On the extrem e left is G overnor Pack.

400, located a t d iffe ren t camps, a re ork- ing on th e d iffe ren t sections. W e reach­ed D ow d’s camp a f te r a stiff clim b and fin ish ed M ilstead, who lay down and was le f t. Dowd had p lanned to sa lu te us by send ing off a lo t of b lasts and throw ­ing a few hundreds tons of rock over a p recip ice into th e river. We cam e too la te , however, so he only gave us lunch and had th ree F ilip inos w ith m andolin and g u ita rs p lay, and a F ilip ina lady sing.

“W e saw one b las t go off and a f te r­w ard had to look up in th e a ir to dodge th e rocks as they fell, some spa tte ring about. A t Camp Read, a fte r a long af­te rn o o n ’s w alk we w ere m et by the band an d a ttended a baile o r dance. A rough a ffa ir, led off by the M ajor, b u t there w ere some really w onderfu l perform ances by native girls and by Spaniards and natives.

“ Sunday, Septem ber 19, 1904. W alked- u p th e m ountain some 1500 fee t out of th e canyon and took horses fo r Ba­guio, only fou r o r five m iles away. F in e rolling, grassy country, park-like and w ith occasional pines, some of grand proportions. W e found the eng ineer in

charge, a Boston m an nam ed Hayward, and soon explored the whole country, seeing where he p lanned to pu t the pu ­blic buildings and all the im pedim ents th a t go w ith an up-to-date sum m er re­sort. Drenched to the skin la ter, as it ra in s there every afternoon at th is tim e of year. Slept u nder two thick blankets, w hich is unusual here in the Philippines.

RIDES TO CAMP FOUR“Monday, Septem ber 20, 1904. Pulled

ou t a t six and rode down the very bea­u tifu l Kias tra il to Camp Four, w here we lunched and w ent on down the works, going on foot over the piaces w e’d neg­lected before, and left Twin Peaks, say a t 5 p.m. for Pozorrubio. We had fou r m iles in a buckboard and it was ra in ­ing. The road got worse and so p resen t­ly dismounted or ra th e r got out and walked, slipping round in the deep mud, and, the mules no t catching up, by and by we sat down. I was quite uncom fort­able with an a ttack of ra ther acute in­digestion, the f irs t I’ve had since I got here; but, a fter w aiting an hour, we trudged back and found the mules m ired. Gathering some natives, we set to and pulled the team out of the mud, and

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drove o n . . . . We presently got m ired again on a stretch betw een two rice pad­dies and had to w ait till a huge tra in of bu ll-carts lum bered by, up to the ax­les in m ud and each guided by a sleepy native. Then a dozen or more got hold of our team and ran it to good ground w hen we w ent on. In th is operation off hind mule m anaged to kick a nea t poul­tice of m ud into my left eye. I d id n ’t see it coming and found most of my face p lastered as well as the eye filled. I groped to the ditch a t the side and soon washed it out. M idnight passed soon ju s t as we thought we were getting in, our driver made a mistake and down we w ent, w ith two of the m ules. This was hopeless, so leaving our negro to extricate him self and th e mules by h ir­ing carabaos, we took a bull ca rt w hich was standing patiently about,, th e native in th e grass inside sound asleep and plodded along slowly bu t continuously . . . . We reached Pozorrubio a t 1:30 a.m.

“Tuesday, Septem ber 21, 1904. Up a t 5:30. H ired a carrom ata drawn by th ree lonies, and in we squeezed, the M ajor and I, all curled up, and bounched about in th e rough places so that we never knew w hether our heads were going to h it the roof or our shins the seat op­posite. Reached Dagupan at eleven.”

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(C ontinued from page 3 g ) th is way th e rem oval was accom plish­ed w ith th e least loss of tim e.

Camp 4 lies 3.3 m iles beyond cam p 3 . In Jan u ary 1904, no t a pick had been s truck into the ground betw een these two points. By A pril 1 th e road was opened and in use fo r ca rt tra n s­porta tion to camp 4.

In an ticipation of the opening of th e road as fa r as Camp 4 by A pril,1904, and in order to m ake it avail­able fo r use by the Comm ission in going to Baguio, a survey was m ade in Jan u ary of th a t year of an ex ist­ing Igoro t tra il over K ias Hill. I t was found th a t a horse tra il could be b u ilt on th is line w ith a m axim um g radu - en t of 15 per cent, and a t an es tim a t­ed cost of $3,000.

In o rd e r no t tc reduce th e force on the B enguet road, th e o fficer in charge requested th a t th e ap p ro p ria ­tion fo r th is tra il be expended by the provincial au thorities of B anguet. The line up Kias H ill was staked ou t by B enguet road engineers and th e tra il was b u ilt for a tr if le less th an th e estim ated cost, u nder the supervision of Gov. W illiam F. Pack, who, on March 31, 1904, was the f irs t person to ride over the tra il and road from B aguio ' to Twin Peaks.

This tra il has been in alm ost cons­tan t use since th a t da te and w ill

A bridge at Camp 4, distinctively shown above are som e F ilip ino laborers husv working in 190t.

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con tinue to be usefu l for m iners and o th e rs living its vicinity.

Beyond Camp 4 lay some of the heav iest and m ost d ifficu lt w ork in the road. The d istance from th is cam p to Baguio was 10.6 m iles. By Sept. 1, 1904, th e re w ere about 3,500 m en a t work betw een Camp 4 and Colgan, d is tribu ted in five -cam ps over a d istance of 4.3 miles.

In Nov., 1904, Camp M cElroy was estab lished n ear th e Baguio end of ♦he line, to w ork downward, and in January , 1905, all available m en w ere pu t on the grade betw een Camp Col­gan and Camp M cElroy, in provisio­n a l cam ps established under Forem en Dowd, Cook, Reid, and Boyd.

A w ager had been m ade th a t the road w ould be passable fo r vehicles by th e end of Jtfhuary, 1905. The forem en and the w orking force gene­ra lly took a keen in te re s t in the ou t­com e of th is w ager, and w orked en ­thusiastica lly to w in it. They w ere so successful th a t on January 29, 1905, the officer in charge drove from Camp 4 into Barjuio. A t the tim e it was by no m eans a fin ished roadw ay, b u t requ ired m uch w ork in casing grades, rem oving e a rth and rock from above, and in prov id ing p roper d ra i­

nage. The am ount of w ork which had been accom plished was enorm ous, and included the construction of new road­way from a point 1 m ile below Twin Peaks to Baguio, a distance of 18.1 miles; the making of a rock cut be­tween bridges 39 and 40, betw een Camp 1 and Twin Peaks; th e m ain­tenance and rep a ir of the old road, its rebuilding in places, and the me­taling of several m iles of the lower road w ith crushed stone.

This work had been done betw een the dates of A ugust 16, 1903, and Jan. 29, 1905. A t the form er date, the most optim istic prediction allowed three years for the opening of the road, “if it could be done at a ll.” Others said it -would take tw enty years of work, and some of the fore­men on the road considered that they had “a life job .”

The subject of transportation was vital and was the object of unceasing care and vigilance. All supplies were hauled from D agupan to Twin Peaks over the provincial roads and the com­pleted portions of the Benguet road, a distance, a t f irs t , of som ething more than 32 miles. L a te r when the w are­houses were moved to Camp 4, the haul was about 39 miles. Most of this haul-

Negro Quarters at Camp Boyd

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ing was done by natives, who used to ordinary carts of the country. The provincial roads w ere bad and th e cost of transportation high. In Ju ly ,190S, the price asked for hauling supplies from Dagupan to Twin Peaks was about P80.00 per ton.

Tiie main depots for the storing of explosives w ere a t Twin Peaks and Camp 4 in m agazines rem ote from the main buildings. The magazine at Twin Peaks was a w ell-constructed

log build ings erected u nder th e d i­rec tion of Mr. Holmes. A t Cam p 4 the m agazine was a g rass building.

The g rea t varie ty of w orkm en err- ? loyed on th e road gave opportun ity for a com parison of the re la tive w orking value of th e several races. The A m erican or E uropean, by rea son of h is streng th , is superio r to all o th er w orkm en, and could accom plish m ore in a given tim e th an any o th er race. A m ericans were on th e ir m erits

O n e of the bridges made of tim ber sawed by hands.


4 3

A bridge near Camp 4-1/2 alm ost finished and being used by passengers.

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Stone w alling at Camp 4-1/2

The w ork of the laborers in 1903, consisted largely in w idening and ditching.

selected generally as forem en of the various prade.

Spaniards w ere among the very ^ best laborers employed, steady, cons­tant, industrious, and hard working always.

The Japanese were superio r w ork­men. They were intelligent, and work­ed well when w&tched.

The selection of camp forem en was a m atter of careful consideration.Th&y w ere required no t only to be well versed in all d iffe ren t classes of work required . They w ere prom pt- aed by selection and a fte r extended observation. They w ere m ostly m in­ers who had served in the Spanish war and in the insurrection in the Philippines, and who had rem ained in the islands a fter receiving th e ir discharges from the m ilitary service.They were well adapted by the offi­cer in charge in 1903. His thanks are due to them for th e ir able and * enthusiastic support and for the ir unfailing energy in pushing the work.The m en especially m eant in these rem arks w ere First-class Forem en Jos.B. Boyd, Charles Colgan, W. C. Cook,Jack Dowd, C. P. Hann, William Pro- back, and F rank Reed.

It would hardly be ju s t to close this rep o rt w ithout m entioning by name the officers whose efficient aid was instrum ental in carry ing th is work to speedy and successful conclusion. >

Capt. M. W. Rowell, E leventh Ca­valry, disbursing officer, his services and active support w ere invaluable.Capt. Amos H. M artin, F ourteen th In­fantry, did good work in charge of the labor departm ent and records. To Thief Engineers D. S. W illiams, A. H.Perkins, and George H. Hayward, the officer in charge is indebted for m ost valuable assistance.

Mr. E. F. Ambrose is an excellent commissary and a most com petent and trustw orthy officer. Mr. L. F. Heny was a pain tstaking property officer who looked a fte r and accounted for the large am ount of porperty neces­sarily scattered over the work for a distance of more than 20 miles.

The Chief surgeon, Dr. J. W. Ma- dara was a com petent adm inistrator

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It was neces­sary to distrib­ute along the road about 60 tons of provis­ions each ration day. Rice alone more t h a n 50,- 000 pounds were distributed every ten days.

The m ere fact that m eat was issued regularly to them undoub­t e d l y brought many laborers to the road.

of his departm en t. His chief assistan t and successor, Dr. Thomas H. Landor, was regarded as a m an of unusual m erit.

Mr. W. A. M ilstead and Capt. E.C. M ontfort, agents in Manila and Dr- gupan, respectively, renderd excellent service to the road,

Mr. J. R. Conklin renderd effic ien t

nnd m uch appreciated service in the p repara tion o f th e rep o rt itse lf.


T he chief eng ineers who served un ­der th e o fficer in charge on the B enguet road w e re : N. M. H olm es, Ju n e 1, 1903, to O ctober 31, 1903;D. S. W illiam s, N ovem ber 15. 1903,

A considerable force of work on this cliff was put in order to

prevent a blocking of the road

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Many native forem en and laborers sent for th"ir fam ilies and built houses near the camps along the road at Twin Peaks Camps 3 and 4, i r all numbering 3,000.

to Marcn 20, 1904; A. H. Perkins, A pril 10, 1904 to N o v e m b e r 5, 1904; Geo. H. Hayward, N ovem ber 6 , 1904, to date.

The property officers of the Ben guet road w ere: J. J. M urphy, Ju ly J5. 1903, to N o ^ m b e r 30, 1903; L. F. Heny, D ecem ber 1. 1903 to June 30, 1905.

T:ie com m issary officers of the B enguet road w ere : C harles F. Moore, Ju ly 15, 1903, to A ugust 15, 1903; J. H. Hazeltine. A ugust 21, 1903. to

May 17, 1904; fc. F. Ambrose, Ju ly 2. 1904, to June 15, 1905.

Hospitals w ere bu ilt at Twin Peaks, Camp 4, Camp Dowd, and camp Col- gan, each under the charge of a sur­geon. Serious cases w ere transported to the nearest hospital.

The surgeons employed on th e Ben­guet road w ere: Dr. J. W. Tormey, January 3, 1904 to F ebruary 28, 1905; Dr. J. W. M adsra, A ugust 1, 1903, to March 13, 1905; Dr. T. H. Landor, January 22, 1904, to May 31, 1905;

W hen the ware- h o u s e s w ere m oved to Camp 4, the haul waS about 39 m iles. M o s t of this hauling was done by natives

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Dances w e r e held on Saturday nights, the band going from camp to camp, and of­ten playing on the road w hile m en w e r e at work.

Dr. T. G. Howe, March 3, 1904, to A pril 15, 1905.

D isbursing officer of the B enguet road from Nov. 6 , 1903, to th e p rac­tical conclusion of th e work, Capt. M. W. Rowell, E leventh U.S. Cavalry

The Bued river ru n s through a wild and entirely unsettled country. N ot a single se ttle r had erected a h u t in the canyon. All employees of th e road had therefo re to be fed by the gov-* ernm ent. The neares t supply base was Manila. Shipm ents w ere made by ra il to Dagupan and w ere from th ere hauled in carts 32 miles to Twin Peaks.

No one who did no t visit the coun­try before the road was constructed can form an adequate idea of the d ifficulties of supplies. The u pper

camps w ere reached only by perilous tra ils w hich ascended and descended the precip itious way of the canyon w alls, over cliffs, to scale w hich ropes an d ladders w ere necessary. The r iv e r a t low tide w as forded; a t h igh w a te r rude bridges o r logs w ere used. A m an ’s life depended on sureness of foo t and coolness of head. The m oun ta in Jgorottes w ere chiefly used as pac­kers. and a large num ber of them w ere em ployed. The am ount of w ork and fo resigh t involved in the supply of ra tions m ay be judged by th e fact th a t i t was necessary to d is tr i­bu te along the road about 60 tons of provisions each ra tio n day. Of a single artic le (r ice ) m ore th an 50,000 pounds w ere d is tribu ted every ten days.


Igorot laborers w iden i n % t h e road below l.oa- kan.

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In some m anner to provide for these Filipino necessities a band was organized on the road, men w ere per­m itted to bring th e ir wives w ith them , and a ra tion was provided of g rea te r variety a n d abundance than they should obtain o rd inarily a t home. The m ere fact tha t m eat was issued re ­gu larly to them undoubted ly b rough t many laborers to the road.

Dances w ere held on S aturday nights, th e band going from cam p to ram p, and often playing on the road w hile m en w ere working.

Paym ents w ere m ade m onthly, and each m an personally received all the money he had earned . On a suffici­en tly long tra il th e w ork was found no t too ardous; th e native was well trea ted , finding conditions endurable, and in some respects even desirable , m any shops w ere opened to supply native needs and luxuries. Many na­tive forem en and laborers sen t fo r th e ir fam ilies and bu ilt houses near th e cam ps and soon reg u la r villages arose along the road a t Twin Peaks, cam ps 3 and 4, and above, in all num bering perhaps 3,000 souls.


Mr. Holmes reported in June, 1902 •‘A fter a year’s acquaintance w ith this (F ilip ino) laborer I can, w ith­out hesitation, say th a t unless under the most favorable circum stances such work as they do perform is not equal to more-' th an 1 /5 the am ount a good white laborer would perform in the same period. The native is lazy, sh ift­less, sly, treacherous and ignorant; he works no t for the money he is paid, but because his p residen te has o rder­ed him out to w eek’s work; his chief occupation during the day is schem ing how to avoid w ork The labor question has been one of my chief studies, but I have failed to discover a m eth­od by which the F ilipino can be made to work, except u nder the eye of a task -m aster '1 The Igorotte from Benguet is a vastly superio r anim al.

We found the Igoro tte invariably trustw orthy and in general a w illing worker. He can be tru s ted off by himself w ithout the necessity of a white forem an to w atch him, and when he w orks he does no t dabble,

A few stores constructed along the Benguet Road that served thelaborers.

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A bridge being constructed at Camp 6, in January 1905.w aiting only fo r th e hours to pass, bu t digs I n w itn a vim and m akes p rogress.

B ut no person on ea rth responds m ore quickly to k indness than* th e F ilip ino; a p lea san t m anner, a consi­d e ra te bearing , ju s t tre a tm e n t and a courteous re tu rn of h is sa lu ta tion go a long w ay w ith him . He is n o t n a ­tu ra lly fon<J of work, b u t is w illing to w ork .for good food and p leasan t

su rround ings o r from necessity . It m ay be said th a t a f te r becoming in n u r- ed to the w ork, th e F ilip ino , consider­ing h is w age and ra tio n w as the m ost econom ical labo rer em ployed on the road fo r o rd inary work.


To im prove th e tran sp o rta tio n s e r ­vice on th e road to Baguio, the gov-

The Zig-zag Road, in this section a large num ber of laborers w ere put into practical w orking order.

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Among the first wagons from the lowlands to pass the B e n g u e t Road.

em inent has decided to Duy a fleet o f automobiles. Ih e sum o f PIOO.OOO was set aside for the purpose at the last session of the Philppine Commis­sion.

Governor General W. Cameron Forbes, said that the move was prompted by numerous complaints on the high rates charged by motor cars along the route.

The view o f the Commission was that cars bought fo i official use would pay for themselves in point of ser­

vice rendered.The bureau o f public ’works was

cited as an example. It operated its own automobiles in a way that suc­cessfully recovered their purchase costs.

The plan to transportation facilities is expected to bring down the rates charged for the trip to Ba­guio. The reduction would in turn make it possible for people o f mo­derate means to visit the summ er ca­pital.

These were the five Stanley cars purcnased by the government which made the journey from Manila up to Benguet Road In 1909.

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Builder of the famous Benguet Roadnow bearing his name in his honor.

Major Lyman W. Kennon was the builder of the famous Benguet Road better known far and wide as Ken- non Road, one of the best mountain roads in the world. Today, the road stands as a tribute to Major Ken- non’s engineering skill and knowledge, and excellent understanding of human nature.

From his native Rhode Island, U.S., he brought with him to the Philip­pines his extensive experiences in various engineering projects in Cuba where he was one time head of the Island’s Dept, of Commerce. A tall, energetic man of fifty, he headed the first American volunteer regi­ment to arrive in the Philippines dur­ing the revolution. Big and bearded, he was a member of the tenth U. S. Infantry. He took over the supervision of the Kennon Road construction in June, 1903 and in spite of the heavy toll on time, efforts, and money, he drove thru Baguio in January, 1905 on the first wagon to reach that place over the newly constructed road. The outstanding credit for having made Baguio accessible from the lowlands from the Dagupan railroad terminal,

As for the type of cars desired, preference will be given to those ca­pable of seating the most number of people. These are to be manned by Filipino chauffeurs who have already proven their ability to handle the machines.

With more automobiles, regular and cheaper transportation service to Ba­guio can be arranged in conjunction with the train schedule from Manila.

Before the U S. Army turned over the administration of the Kennon Road to the Philippine government in the twenties the government spent several millions of dollars for its con­struction, repair, a n d maintenance. Ever since its opening to traffic enormous sums have been spent for the clearance of recurrent landslides.

When the American-headed civil goJ vernment of the Philippines appro­priated large sums for the Kennon Road it stirred a storm o f protest from the Filipino political leaders. The latter claimed that the public fund was spent needlessly for the benefit o f a few Americans and fo ­reigners.

In spite of these criticisms against such “ costly project” the construction went on unabated. When the funds ran low voluntary contributions from civic-minded persons came in on time. Former Gov. Gen. W . Cameron Forbes, ever since known as the “ Father of Baguio” donated from his personal funds more than $200 ,000.00 “ in order to expedite the completion of the Kennon Road.”

COL. L. W. KENNONbelongs to no other than Major Ken­non himself. As a gesture of profound gratitude, the government named the road after its builder.

His other exeperiences in the Phil­ippines were mostly gained in the field of government service. He at one time served as supervisor, special enumerator, and disbursing officer of District No. 43 in Misamis province.

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O n A p r il 15, 1903, the 300-lb . sta tesm an d e c id ­ed t o see B agu io fo r h im se lf an d he rode a m a g n ific e n t saddle h orse u p th e m ou n ta in trail- T h e s to r y is m ore a d ­r o it ly to ld in th e e x ­c h a n g e o f cab legra m s b e tw e e n h im se lf and E lihu R o o t in W a sh in g­ton . U p o n reach ing B a ­g u io , T a ft sent the fo l lo w in g e x u b e r a n t w ir e : “ ST O O D T R IP W E L L S T O P R O D E H O R S E B A C K 25 M ILE S TO 5000 F E E T E L E V A ­T IO N S T O P H OPE A M E O B IC D Y S E N T E ­R Y ICURED ST O P G R E A T P R O V I N C E T H IS O N L Y 150 M ILE S F R O M M A N IL A W IT H A IR A S B R A C IN G A S A D I R O N D A C K S O R M U R R A Y B A Y ST O P O N L Y (PINES A N D G R A S S L A N D S S T O P T E M P E R A T U R E TH IS H O T T E S T M O N TH IN T H E P H IL IP P IN E S IN M Y C O T T A G E PO R C H A T T H R E E IN TH E A F T E R N O O N 68 S T O P F IR E S NF.CESS A R Y N IG H T A N D M O R N ­I N G .”

M r. R o o t , d ry as a b o n e , p ro m p tly rep lied f r o m th e c a p ita l: “ R E ­F E R R IN G T O T E L E ­G R A M F R O M Y O U S T O P H O W I S H O R S E ?”

G overnor-General Taft shown left, w ith Governor W. Pack in Baguio.

WILLIAM HOWARD TAFTFirst C ivil Governor of the Philippines

W H. Taft known to be the real father of Baguio, wielded vast in­fluences in the development of the Philippines and the founding of Ba­guio. As head of the first Philippine Commission and as the first civil Governor General of the Philippines from July 4, 1901 to December 23, 1901, he was among the best loved and able executives ever to take hold of the government reins. He made a personal trip to Baguio and in spite o f the tedious experience, he acquired a first hand look — see at Baguio.


From the words of Governor Gene­ral Forbes may be felt the impact o f his achievement, “ It would cer­tainly be most gratifying to Chief Justice Taft, the real father of Ba­guio since it was under his orders and upon his responsibility that the great enterprise was undertaken, could he visit Baguio of today and see the extent to which his great vision has come to be a vibrant and living actuality.”

A holder of a bachelor of laws de­gree from Yale University, and a champion amateur wrestler, he held the following positions in the U. S.; Secretary of War, 27th President of the U. S., Chief Justice of the Sup­reme Court. He died on March 8 , 1930.


Another ardent Mt. Province boos­ter. He began as a Commissioner and then succeeded Taft, as Governor Ge­neral of the Philippines, first “ acting” from December 24, 1901 to January 31, 1904 and then being duty appoint­ed, served from February 1, 1904 to November 3, 1905. He was followed in the good work by Henry Clyde Ide.

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DEAN WORCESTERRediscoverer of Baguio and form er

Secretary of the Interior

Dean C. Worcester, an ornitholo­gist, former Secretary of the Interior from 1901 to 1913, member of the Philippine Commission from 1900 to 1913 and author of the “ Philippine Islands and Their People,” was the man who first thought of building a health resort in the Philippines. He heard of Baguio’s wonders in 1892 and in June of 1901, he made a trip on horseback to Baguio. He and his party were immediately convinced of the possibilities of Baguio as a health resort. And for the special interest and influence that he exerted, he was given much credit for the founding of Baguio. He became so ardent a Ba­guio booster that he built a splendid summer house on an ideal site back of the Baguio General Hospital, now the site of the Fil'American Housing Proiect.

Mr. Worcester had traveled exten­sively throughout the Island and is familiar with the characteristics of the Filipinos. As Secretary of Interior, he had direct jurisdiction over the non Christian tribes. It was through his efforts that continual tribal feuds were eliminated, friendly relationship was established between tribes, and peaceful pursuits like agriculture were given due interest. He initiated the baseball bat and the plow in place Of the headaxe as an emblem of pro­gress.


Author on Baguio’s FastOtto Scheerer, author of “ On Ba­

guio’s Past” , a German Scholar and researcher was indentified with the growth and development of what is now Baguio. He came up to Baguio in 1896 for his health, but he fe ll in love with the place that he unhesi­tatingly bought 43 hectares of land in the very heart of Baguio. On this property, he built two houses, one of which was to become the Baguio Sa­nitarium and Hotel, and the other as the Deputy Governor’s residence.

As his attachment for the territo­

ry grew, his knowledge about tne na­tive customs, traditions, and lang­uage, likewise, increased. When the Americans came in 1900, he was the first white man to welcome them. He did his utmost to foster and streng­then friendly relations between the natives and the Americans. Among the positions which he held in the field of government service were, namely, secretary to the first civil governor; Spanish-English translator for the U.S. government in Manila; professor o f Philippine linguistics at the University of the Philippines. .Among his assets during his liftetime was his knowledge o f ethnology which he taught and studied in Japan and then later in the Philippines.

His book “ On Baguio’s Past” is to­day among the valuable references that quenches the thirst for reliable information about Baguio’s bygones.



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H. P. WHITMARSHFirst Civil Governor of Benguet


H P. Whitmarsh, was appointed as the first civil governor of Benguet province by Gov. General Howard Taft in early 1900. As a government official among his achievements were: the transfer of the capital from La Trinidad to Baguio, establishing peace and order, and suppression of head­hunting activities.

After a year in the governmentGOV. W ILLIAM PA C K



service, he resigned and devoted his attention to business. His business activities include: gold prospecting by organizing the Breakwaters Mine, now the Baguio Gold Mining Co., and the Copper King, now the Demonstra­tion Mining C o ; starting the first sawmill with H. Heald; opening the Baguio Commercial Store, the first of its kind to be established; pioneer­ing in ornamental gardening; acquir­ing real estate properties.,

He left England at the age of 21 and spent sometime in Australia. He came to the Philippines in 1899 as a correspondent of the Outlook Maga­zine. Prior to his appointment as governor of Benguet, he was attach­ed to Gen. MacArthur’s Headquarters. W hile exploring Northern Luzon on horseback with Gen. Young, he first paw Baguio and its possibilities o f be­coming a summer resort.

Author of “ The Young Rivers, The Golden Talisman, and The W orld ’s Rough Hand” , he died on April 5, 1935.

WILLIAM PACKGovernor of Mt. Province for

several years

William Pack, a man of boundless energy and determination, joined the government service on November 15, 1901 as governor of Benguet and served continuously until his merito­rious promotion to the governorship o f the Mt. Province on March 15, 1909. When he resigned on Decem­ber 31, 1912, he left landmarks for people to remember him by. Having held the governorship for a period longer than that of any provincial governor at the time, he exerted his atmost to promote the welfare of the masses. It was during his incumben­cy that the first leg of the Benguet Road was made until its final com­pletion. He initiated and strongly re­commended Teacher’s Camp for tea­cher’s use and privilege. Undaunted by numerous dangers and illness, he '.vas responsible for the construction of numerous roads over the Mt. Pro­vince.


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MATEO CARIn OHeadman of the Community

During the revolution against Spain Don Mateo Carino with a party of natives and some insurrectos attacked the Spanish headquarters in La Tri­nidad and succeeded in driving them away. Upon the establishment of the erstwhile Philippine Republic under

^.General E. Aguinaldo, Don Mateo was designated as president of the town of Baguio and made a captain of the Igorot forces. He became also a “ Ca- foesilla” and headman of the commu­nity under the Spanish government.


When civil government was establish­ed i-nder the American regime in 1900 he was offered a position as Town­ship president but declined it in fa­vor of his oldest son Sioco who b e ­came the first president under the new administration. However, Don Ma­teo continued to cooperate with the government in leading the natives into an organized civil life. When the first srhiol for Igorots was opened in Ba­guio in 1900, he rented a big and spacious house for the purpose. Un­der his direction the plains and hill­sides in Baguio were converted into rice paddies.

He was born in Tublay, Benguet in 1854.

SIOCO CARInOOne of the greatest Igorot

Sioco Carino, grand old man of Ben- 2 uet, son of Mateo and Bayosa Or­tega was among the prominent found­ers of Baguio who for nearly forty years acted as the unofficial advisor j f the Baguio government. His father, Mateo, designated by Governor Whit- marsh to be president of the Baguio township, delegated him instead to take over the presidency. Through the years, he maintained his dynamic lea­dership and helped actively in estab­lishing schools, building roads, giving substantial material help in public pro-'ects like rice and coffee growing. When Baguio became a chartered city in 1909, he took up residence in Carr.po Sioco, a wide track of land he owned. Later he gained possession in 1917 of H. C. Heald’s house at Camp 7 and still later, he moved to his cattle ranch at Ansagan where he maintained a herd of 4,000 heads on a ten thousand hectare land prior to the outbreak of the Pacific war.

He mdt his death on February, 1945 after having suffered maltreat­ment at the hands of the Japs and starvation. In praise of his staunch ioyalty and generosity, not to men­tion the risky help that he extended to no less than 500 American and Filipino guerrillas and soldiers, he was ?iver a citation by Lt. Colonel Ar­thur Noble, U.S. Army.

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CENSUS OF 1903At the date of the census, March 2.

1903, the islands were divided into 40 civil provinces. Thirty-eight of the civil provinces were divided into municipalities and townships, and two provinces, Le- panto-Bontoc and Benguet, into town­ships alone, the township being a simple form of government adapted to such non-Christian or wild tribes. The muni­cipalities and townships were divided into barrios, each barrio consisting of a small settlement with outlaying territory.

Since the census was taken the terri­tory included in military COMMANDAN- CIAS, or districts, has been put under civil authority.

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Cuidno Carantes, among the pro­minent natives of Baguio who lived during the Spanish regime and then survived through the various changes o f Philippine administration until his death at the age of 72, was an active participant in the founding of Ba­guio. A member of a prominent Ben­guet tribe family in Baguio, he be­came township president in 1906 and served for seven years as a member of the Igorot Advisory Council. An avid supporter of the short-lived Phil­ippine Republic under Gen. E. Agui- naldo, he was among Baguio’s substan­tial landowners having once owned the whole block between 59th Street and Session Road. While he lost owner­ship o f the said property, he still retained a considerable estate which he passed on to his descendants.

When he passed away in 1942 he was survived by his. wife Kincha Bad- yating and nine children.



Simply known as Molintas, he was born in Baguio near the site o f the present Baguio City High School. By the time the first batch of Ameri­cans arrived in Baguio, he transfer­red his house in Pacdal. A respected member of the Ibaloy tribe in Ba­guio, he first served as treasurer un­der Sioco Carino for a year prior to

s u n g d u a N

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his appointment by Gov. Pack as pres­ident of the Baguio Township Gov­ernment. He served in this capacity for a year during which he acquired some properties but for one reason cr another the properties were for­feited to the government. He became a member of the advisory council and participated actively in the discussion on Baguio boundaries.

SUNGDUANSungduan, a descendant of Balian

and Munching of Talinting, La Tri­nidad, was born in 1839. He succeeded Molintas as Township President. Dur­ing his term he was able to increase the salary of a laborer from P.20 to P. 50 a day. Later he continued his term in Tuba. At that time it maybe worthwhile knowing that Lucban, Gui- sad, Pacdal, Loakan and Boka*wkan were parts of Tuba Municipality. When Sungduan moved to Tuba, he left his landholdings in Baguio.

He died at the age o f 95.

TULINGAN PINASLast President of the Baguio Township

Born in Sitio, Atok, Benguet and belonged to a prominent Benguet tribe. He was the last to serve as president before Baguio became a chartered city. He acquired the presidency by popu­lar vote and he owed his election to the support given him by the then Qov. Whitmarsh. As president, he was accredited of finishing the other un­finished projects left by Cuidno Ca- rantes. To inject discipline into the ranks of non-cooperative employees, he ttfok into the service some ferocious Bontocmen to serve as policemen. He served as councilor and one time vice- president to Cuidno Carantes.


Considered as the Brain of Tuba, Benguet

He was considered as the “ brain of T uba" and the most prominent Igorot resident o f this municipality. He served for several terms as president o f Tuba municipality. During his incumbency, he gained popularity and influence among his people and endeared him self to both the Christians and non-Chris­tian Filipinos. He was also considered as the most intelligent man in Tuba though he had no form al education whatsoever. He gained his education through direct contact with the prob­lems o f life. During his lifetim e was


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the forem ost spokesman o f the illite­rate delegates at the annual meetings o f the o ffic ia ls and prominent men o f the towns o f the entire sub-province o f Benguet with the Governor General. Though he always regretted his ina­bility to attend school, yet he always exerted his e fforts to spread the de­sire fo r education among his people.

He was survived by five children at the time o f his death.


Acted as Liaison O fficer of General Aguinaldo

Bern during Spanish regime in Old Lucban. W ithout benefit o f a form al schooling, he succeeded by attaining some experiences from his subordinates in doing his duty well. A s a rancher he once owned a part o f the City Camp, part o f Lucban, Baguio Country Club, Pacdal and Camp John H ay which he used as pasture land. His experience with the Am ericans as one o f their consultants, designated him as a mem­ber in the Baguio Advisory Council under G overnor W hitm arsh and Gov­ernor W illiam Pack o f Benguet. D ur­ing the Spanish regime, he earned the distinction o f having served his people as “ Teniente A bsoluto” or as Captain Baguio Rancheria and as representa­tive fo r Baguio and Benguet fo r one year under A m erican regime.

He likewise acted as liaison o ffice r for Gen. E. A guinaldo in Benguet. In his lifetim e, Mr. Carantes was an in­dustrious businessman, and a rancher.

He was the son o f Carantes and Elene and his w ife was Ugasia. He is survived by 4 children, 1 girl and 3 boys.


One of the first natives to become a policem an in Baguio

When Baguio was still a township, its police force was composed of 25 men under Mr. E. Arzadon as chief o f police and one o f this policemen was

MATEO CARAN TESDaroan Pucay. His dept, was under the supervision o f the Phil. Constabu- lary.

From 1896 to 1898 M r. Pucay served as bodyguard o f Captain Juan Carino during the insurrection. In 1922 he was appointed as one o f the mem bers o f the Igorot A dvisory Council. He served in this capacity unti.l his death. Be­sides his services to the governm ent, he was a successful farm er. H is opinion and advice were sought fa r and wide, and his adviced which were based on wisdom were accepted as a m eans to an end.

He was born in 1870. D aroan Pucay le ft behind him 7 children who are all known to the com m unity. One o f them is Eugene Pucay who is an active mem­ber o f the citv council.


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Am ong the m em ­bers of the se­cond Philippine Commission in front of the pre­war old Pines Hotel. From left to right: James F. Smith, Luke E. Wright, Hen­ry C. Ide, and Dean C. W orces­ter.

A historical marker of the Second Phil­ippine Commission, located in front of the B. P. Hall site.

J f f W V


TNtt » THE «TE OT THE BUK.OINS RHERE THE ™<-*’™*-COM»«SION HELD ITS mwr SESSION t Baguio rmw April 22 TO June II. ISQ4. in­clusive omcimu initiating u*c or Babuw


mmomm Hew* c.Ide. dcanC.Wrcester. TNPardo oe Tavc* 1 BENITO Leoaroa. Jose r ocUHumaba James T-Smith aio *. Caw cron

TCRSCS. * IMS SESSION 74 ACTS AND 272 Resolutions sere approv*o.


As created the original membership was com posed o f : Hon. W illiam H. T aft, o f O hio; P ro f. Dean C. W orces­ter, o f M ichigan; Hon. Luke E. W right of Tennessee; Hon. H enry C. Ide of Verm ont; and P rof. Bernard Moses, o f California.

The Commissioners met and acted as a board with Hon. W illiam H. T aft, as president o f the board. Its immediate work was to maintain peace and order and to enhance cooperation between the civil and m ilitary authorities in the country.

When Baguio was opened with the completion o f the work in Kennon Road, the Commission held sessions here. A marker now stands on the site o f the Luneta Hill beside the Ba­guio Boy Scouts building com m em orat­ing the initial session o f the second Philippine Commission where the ses­sions were held, and the Session Road in Baduio derived its name from the fact that the highw ay was used by members o f the Com mission when they held sessions in Baguio.


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JUNE 1, 1903

On M otion. RESO LVED, That it to be declared the po­

licy o f the Com m ission to m ake the tow n o f B aguio, in the Province o f Benguet, the sum m er capital o f the A rch ip elago

and to construct suitable buildings, to secure suitable trans­portation, to secure proper w ater supply, and to m ake re­sidence in Baguio possible for all o f the o ffice rs and em ­

ployees o f the Insular G overnm ent fo r fou r m onths dur­

ing the year, that in pursuance o f this purpose the Secre­tary of the Interior, the Consulting E ngineer to the C om ­

mission, the C hief o f the B ureau o f A rch itecture, and M a­jor L. W. V. K ennon, U nited States A rm y , w hom it is the intention o f the Com m ission to put in actual charge o f the im provem ents in Benguet P rovin ce ' in cluding the construc­tion o f the Benguet R oad, the erection o f the bu ild ings and the construction o f a w agon road from N aguilian , be appointed a Com m ittee to report plans and estim ates to the Com m ission for the p roposed im provem en ts in the P ro­vince o f B enguet and to subm it sam e to the Com m ission for action and necessary appropriation , and

BE IT FURTH ER R E SO LVE D , T hat steps should be im m ediately taken look in g to the increase o f the capacity o f the Sanitarium b y at least tw en ty room s, to the cons­truction o f seven m ore cottages on the grounds o f the S a - r nitarium, to the construction of a G ov ern or ’s residence on

the site overlook ing the b ig spring w hich is the source of the Bued R iver im m ediately south o f the Sanitarium pro­per, to the construction o f an A dm in istration bu ild in g suf­ficient fo r the Com m ission, the C om m ission ’s sta ff and the E xecutive Bureau, o f at least tw e n ty -fiv e room s, and to the m aking o f a plan fo r a tow n site fo r the m unicipality o f B aguio; but that the details o f construction and im prove­ments, w ith such variations from the indicated plan as m ay seem wise> shall be le ft to the com m ittee appointed under the previous resolution.Certified:

Secretary, P h ilip p in e Com m ission.

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The natives w ho built their houses with cogon grass and crud


Baguio in 1904.

DECEMBER 22, 1904

Nanon and I left Manila at 5:45 A.M. on a special train furnished by Mr. Hig­gins o f the Manila and Dagupan Railway, who accompanied us to Dagupan. The other members of the party were Com­missioner Forbes, Mr. Burnham the architect, Mr. Anderson his assistant, and M ajor Carter and the Commissioner of Public Health.

W e reached Dagupan at 10:30 A. M., and an hour and a half was spent in get- ing lunch, which should have been eaten on the train before our arrival. We left Dagupan at 12:00 in two spring wagons, reaching Pozorubio after a hot ride at 3:30 o ’clock. Teams were changed at Po­zorubio and the wagon in which I rode was provided with four Chinese mules which proved slow. W e reached Twin Peaks at 7:00 o'clock, nearly an hour be­hind the other team. A t this place we stopped to remove the covers o f the wa­gons, which could not pass under the ca­bles of one o f the suspension bridges. It took three-quarters o f an hour of work with hammer, file and cold chisel to get the top o f f our wagon. We then continued up the canon to Camp Four, where we arrived about 9 o ’clock.

It was a beautiful moonlight night and the trip was made without misadventure, except that our Chinese mules were re-

[ 62 ]

fractory in the matter o f crossing bridges and the leaders had to be unhitched and , led across nearly every bridge which we passed. The road was in perfect condition from Twin Peaks to Camp Four and the grade was so moderate as to be hardly perceptible. The road from Dagupan to Twin Peaks was much worm in places by bull carts, was often full o f cobble stones and in many places was very dusty.

DECEMBER 23RDWe spent the night with Colonel and

Mrs. Kennon and, having received very plain intimation from our hostess that our making an early start in the morning would not be looked upon with favor by her, waited for an 8 o ’clock breakfast, and were then delayed for some time in getting a horse.

A fter consultation with M ajor Kennon we had decided to go up over the line o f the new road as far as the camp at the foot o f the zigzag trail which leads from the abandoned Benguet road down into the canon o f the Bued River, at which point we expected horses to meet us. W e set out on foot, I walking and Nanon riding, and continued in this fash­ion for about a mile and a half when we reached two short bridges the floors of

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lumber without a street at all hardly change


which were not quite laid, and were ob­liged to send the horses back and continue on foot. We walked slowly and shortly before noon reached a place where the noon blasts were about to b fired, and had to wait for some time until the last one had been fired. W e were able to keep on the grade of the road up to this point, where it was necessary to climb down in­to the river bed, as two bridges close to­gether, which are to cross and recross the river, were not in place.

Just at the other side we were sur­prised to see Fred running toward us and to find that our horses were at a black­smith shop close by. Evarts had been in­formed that it would not be practicable to take horses beyond the camp at the foot o f the zigzag, but had kept working down the trail and by leading them through the river in two places where the road was not completed had brought them half way to Camp Four. We were able to ride most o f the way to the camp at the foot o f the zigzag, leaving our horses only when it was necessary to send them in­to the river bed. We stopped for rest and a lunch at the camp, quite a part of which has just been destroyed by fire. A crowd o f Chinamen were lamenting the

the scene from its natural view, loss o f opium for smoking, which had been destroyed in one o f the burned buildings.

We then took the zigzag trail up the hill, stopping at Loacan for a drink and a short rest at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Lane. Commissioner Forbes’ two fine horses, which he had sent around by way o f Kias trail, went past while we were waiting at Loacan. One o f them was ridden by a man who did not know his business and who used the curb careless­ly, with the result that the horse first reared and then ran away over the hills. It looked for a time as if the horse might, be thrown and the rider killed, but the animal finally quieted down without hav­ing done serious damage to himself or his rider.

W e had a fine ride from Loacan to Ba­guio, reaching the latter place about four in the afternoon. Commissioner Forbes and the remainder o f the party, who re­mained at Camp Four until after lunch, got in late that night rather tired out and without their baggage.

DECEMBER 24THThis day was spent quietly in the vi

cinity o f Baguio, and I rode down the upper end of the new road as fa r as pos­sible, reaching a point a little below the big spring.

Major Carter and I went snipe shoot- (Continued on page 8 6 )

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Baguio City Plan-Daniel Hurson Burnham

The present plan of the City of Baguio dates back to the memorable visitor. D. H. Burnham, the great landscape architect who in December1904, with Pierce Anderson travelled by i he Stage Line which had been inaugurated from Dagupan through Pangasinan to the Bued River. At Camp-4 all passengers had to take the horses and fo llo v a new trail which 7 igzagged up the mountain-side, on an extremely steep grade, where it was often necessary to walk, leading the horses. The trail reached the high levels at a place called Loakan, from which points seven miles of delight­fu lly cool rid ing on easy grades brought one into the site of the fu ­ture of Baguio. The design and con­struction of public buildings for all branches of the government brought ’ ineer the consulting architect and the bureau of public works, and have so continued, since 1913, according to Mr. Forbes. Secretary Taft gave his personal attention to the planning of the cities o f Baguio and Manila, and 't was through his good offices that !he services o f the em inent and pat­riotic architect, Daniel H. Burnham, o f Chicago w ere secured.

Mr. Burnham was recognized as the world’s foremost expert in remodeling of cities at this time, tnd was a tho­roughly practical man. His valuable services were offered without renume­ration of any kind. He accepted mere­ly his travellinp expenses and the

salary of one assistant.Togetner with William Carmeron

Forbes in 1905, he roamed the pine- clad mountains and happily dreamed of a city to be. Gradually, Baguio has grown through his dextrous design. To his plan, the present lay-out of Baguio owes much, and the people, in gratitude have named its principal park and recreation ground after him.

Daniel H. Burnham was born on Sep­tember 4, 1946 in New York, the son o f Edwin and Elizabeth Keith Burn­ham. His father organized and con­trolled the great stock yards and transit business at the time. He al­ways thought of Chicago as his home and he made a City Plan for it which was the greatest of all his works. Be­ing an architect of no mean calibre, he had a vigorous determination to get ahead so much so that before the age of fifty he was the president of the American Institute of Architec­ture. In 1893, Harvard and Yale Uni­versities conferred on him the degree of M.A. Among his outstanding plans were those for Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the National Bank of Illinois in Chicago, post office in Washington and the Union Station.

And his services were also formally recognized by 400 leading "men repre­senting many countries and states. He was given a banquet at Madison Square Garden in New York and presented with a cup.

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The Baguio Country Club in 1909 was already a fixture where the early pioneers gathered at free moments for a round of golf, originally three holes, some tennis or trap shooting. The clubhouse was a rude, grass-roofed shed made of pine slubs. Its doors and w indow s were mere openings which could not be closed. It was erected in about a week.

T op photo was taken in 1907, the original clubhouse boasted of a horse trail where the gentry of early Baguio, led by W. Cameron Forbes, tied their mounts on the w ay to the diversions at the club. At top right, two horses of a couple of golfers are m ore evident in this photo of the late twenties, where a faster means of transportation are shown by what looks like a Model T. Ford.

[ 66 ]

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One o f the first( Continued from page 25 )

camotes, taro and sugar cane. The Spaniards made an attempt to es­tablish a health resort in Baguio and to study the possible way of con­necting Baguio with either Pangas1- nan or La Union.

constructed cottaees

An agent was sent by the Jesuits dur­ing the time of Antonio Bejar, the last Spanish commander of Benguet, to Mi- rador Hill to survey the place for the purpose of erecting an observatory. To the end o f Spanish rule the important

The Pines Hotel in 1907

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town of Benguet then was Trinidad, not Baguio. Successive military governors ruled the district.

CAMP JOHN HAYThe Chapel is used by religious of

all denominations for Sunday Mass, ser­vices. Catholic wind their way towards It on Sundays and Holy Days. Protes­tants hold their Sunday School regularly

in the same place.A flower nursery and the command­

ing general’s residence were designed and constructed. United States High Commif- sioner’s summer residence with charrr- ing gorunds was constructed in 1940 at a cost of P300.000.

The Army and Navy Club, a branch of the Manila Club, built on private grounds adjoining the Post became the

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center of social life of the Post. There were installed an eighteen hole golf course, one of the best in the Orient, modern tennis courts, bowling alleys, gymnasium, children’s playground and scenic motor roads.

The name Camp John Hay was chang­ed to John Hay Air Base in 1955. Among the facilitities the base offers, golf is best known, not only among military per­sonnel, but among civilian Filipinos and Americans alike. The course is open daily for members of the golf club and their guests. All through the day, there are sports activities. After dark, there are the clubs — the Officers’ Open Mess. Airmen’s Open Mess and the Mile Hi

Service Club.Security coordination between the camp

and local law enforcing agencies have been standard operating procedure for mutual help, with representatives of both agencies free to confer, advise and co­

lt is the next-door neighbor on whom one can rely upon and be depended in return.

A continuing program o f improvements is being undertaken for the benefit of transients who make it a point to spend their leaves and furloughs. And when disaster strikes, no soecial invitation has been needed to speed men. materials and equipment to the scenes of unfortunate incidents fires or accidents.


Governor For b e s and Governor Taft in Baguio. The car used by them was one of the most m o­dern at that time.

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Early buildings of Camp John Hay

JOHN HAY AIR BASEA visit to Baguio w ould be in­

com plete w ithout seeing John Hay A ir Base, a ranking attraction to tou­rists. It is am ong B agu io ’s points of m ust-see because o f its beauty un­doubted ly and a h istory that arouses on e ’s interest no m atter how discri­m inating he may be. John Hay Air Base is a recreationa l and furlough center for m em bers o f the United

States Arm ed Forces in the Philip­pines. How and why it was established may be gleaned from the follow ing narrative.

During the early days of Am erican Arm y occupation of the Islands, a move was made to look for a suitable rest camp for the Arm y personnel who were not used to the tropical heat. A N egro regim ent who estab­

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GEN. J. FRANKLIN BFLLim prove and increase the facilities in the camp. He personally designed and supervised the construction o f an open-air amphitheatre that now bears his name. This am phitheatre is at present one o f John Hay A ir Base’s m ain attractions. It has decorative plants and flow ers with a center stage o f rose limestone.

A nice road system was built. M any necessary buildings, such as the con ­crete o ffice rs ’ mess post exchange, library, mess hall, the Italian garden, hospital, bakery, and recreation hall w ere constructed.

A bronze tablet was erected in

lished a cam p at La Trinidad w hile in pursuit o f the insurrectos, brought reports o f the place’s tem perate c li­mate. To substantiate this report, an army medical o ffice r was dispatched to the said place. Finally, the present site o f John Hay A ir Base was se ' lected on some 580 hectares o f land in 1903. Actual w ork on the site was, however, delayed because of the in­surrection and lack o f funds. It was only in 1906 that Captain H ilgard of the Quartermaster Corps was ordered to proceed to Baguio and constructed five sets of O fficers ’ quarters and one barracks building. F or the first tim e the -camp was opened to visitors in Nov., 1906. From a hum ble beginning, the cam p grew totally dependent on availability o f funds. A t first, visitors w ere quartered in tents. Theh other buildings were constructed— a hospital, a headquarters building, stables, and m ore suitable quarters. In a few years, the camp gained cognizance as a rest center.

But the credit fo r making the in i­tial m ove to beautify, enlarge, and equip the camp was given to General J. Franklin Bell who in 1911 assumed com m and o f the Philippine D epart­ment. Through the efforts o f G eneral Bell, funds were made available to

(Continued on page 192)Among the recruited Bontoc Igorot soldiers at Camp John Hay in

1914, on target practice at La Trinidad^

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The name is self-explanatory, coming from the Spanish term, “ mirador” , meaning point o f full view. The observatory was found­ed by the Jesuit Fathers who came to the Islands with the first groups o f Spaniards. They select­ed this hilltop for weather fore­casting and other studies on weather. During the occupation, the Japanese used this for the same purpose.

Aside from weather studies, the place served as a rest home and haven o f quiet sanctuary i'oi' the Jesuits throughout the coun­try.


Started from a low ly beginning and no one would have thought, years ago, that a magnificient building would rise from what was form erly a density of pines, and a few houses and shacks. It was in the year 1911 that a Bel­gian missionary pioneer, Father Seraphin De Vesse, selected this pine-covered hill for a Catholic church which was dedicated to St. Vincent Ferrer. Three years later, Father De Vesse began a primary course for the poor lit­tle children of the vicinity of the church.

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It was founded by Bishop Charles Hen­ry Brent, first Bishop of the Protestant Epi -opal Church in the Philippine Islands in 1905. In previous years the manage­ment of the school was under a Head Master, and all matters of policy or ad­ministration are decided in conference be­tween the Bishop and the Head Master. However, since the year 1956, a compe­tent & experienced principal w as chosen instead to take the place o f the Head Master.

ST. NICHOLAS CHAPELThe St. Nicholas Chapel in

Brent had its humble beginnings at a time when Bagnio was in its green years. The site of this beau­tiful chapel was form erly a low fy stable. For many years from 1909 to 1925, the chapel services were held on the porch of the boy’s dorm itory on an im provised altar set up for the purpose near the door o f the present study hall. In 1925, the chapel was completed and consecrated a few years later by Bishop Mosher.


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THE BAGUIO GENERAL HOSPITALOn this picturesque site of mountain scenery stands a hospital built in .1908. Note

the tuberculosis cottages on the crest of the ridge.

In 1907, the old Baguio Hospital build­in g was constructed and hospital facilities en larged and extended including the con­struction o f a nurses’ home and six cot­tag es for tuberculosis patients. For seve­ral years the management o f the hospital w a s under the direction o f Am erican physicians, beginning with Dr. J. R. Tho­m as and ending with Dr. V incent. This w a s accom plished at the form er site o f the Pines Hotel.

. In 1915, the supervision o f the institu­tion was turned over to the Bureau of H ealth and fo r the first time had a Fi- [ 74 ]

lipino Director with the appointment of Dr. Silverio Garcia. Dr. Garcia was suc­ceeded by Drs. Marcelino Asuzano, Jose Avellana Basa, Teodoro C. A rvisu , Facun- do Esquivel and Dr. Justo R. Rosales.

D uring the incumbency o f Dr. Arvisu the School o f N ursing was established in April 1923. The isolation builidngs were constructed thru the aid o f the Baguio W om en’s Club and local mining com­panies in 1923. Dr. Facundo Esquivel suc­ceeded Dr. Arv: in 1 !*36 and during his incumbency the new concrete building was constructed.

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Graduating Class of the Baguio General Hospital, 1929.—Front row: I.eft to right — Juan Domingo of Be- sao. Bontoc: Mrs, Ma­ria Madrid, chief nurse; Dr. T, T. Ar- visu. chief of the hospital: and Ticong Dario of Bokod. Beil guet.

Back row: Left to right — Asuncion Guizando of Itbayat, Batanes; Adelo Baron of Baguio; Pelagia I.uhigay of Balhala- sang, Kalinga; anil Adcla Wanav of Pan tikian, Kalinga.


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GROWTH OF THENestled among the pine-clad hills

of Baguio, is a little valley with its surrounding slopes and knolls known as the Teachers’ Camp. It is a vaca­tion Camp for teachers where assem­blies, vacation classes and conventions are held annually during the summer months of April and May. The es-

Teachers Camp playground

tablishment of the Teachers’ Camp was due to Governor William Pack of Benguet, Mountain Province. Through his initiative he outlined a letter in December, 1907 to the Secretary of Public Instruction the plan for a camp where the teachers could be accommodated. Approval for the plan was given on January 8 , 1908 and thereupon action became the order of the day. 120 tents were bought from the military stores in the United States, and the 30 tents were ordered from Manila. Tent floors were con­tracted from the Benguet Commercial Company in Baguio; a bath house W’ith complete facilities was provided.

The Teachers’ Camp was opened for the first time on April 6 , 1908, and closed on May 30. It was attended by 217 adults and 24 children; the highest number in Camp at any one time was 190. The life of the Camp was most enjoyable.

The first teachers’ assembly in Ba-

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TEACHERS' CAMPguio opened on April 20, and closed on May 15. The opening address was made by the Hon. Dean C. Worces­ter, Secretary of the Interior who gave a most interesting account of the history of the plan to make a great sanitarium for the people of the Is­lands, and of the Benguet Road. Four lecturers from the United States were present.

The Camp site was known to the Igorots as “ O-rengano” . It was the site chosen for the buildings of the Baguio Industrial School for Igorot boys, and covers an area of more than twenty hectares well timbered with pine trees. A considerable amount of labor was expended in clearing the site. Four assembly tents were put up for kitchen, dining, and storage pur­poses, and two other tents with wood floors for, classes room purposes. A nipa and sawali building which had been used in Manila for the school exhibit at the Philippine Carnival was

transported to Baguio, set up there and used for assembly purpose at a cost of P200.00. The roomy house known as “ Barrows Balay” which was to be used for a dormitory, was thrown open for the use of the camp­ers. Special rates for teachers and other employees of the Bureau were

Teachers taking a lunch

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Close view of Teachers Camp


obtained from ihe Manila - Dagupan Railway and the fam ous Jenkin ’s Transportation, which enabled the round trip from Manila to the Sum­mer Capital. The Benguet Com mercial Com pany was given the concession to supply m eals at the rate o f P2.75 per day. By 1909 the m aterial conditions o f the Camp had been im proved by the building o f the “ K U R S A A L ” which provided a substantial mess hall in p lace o f the mess tent o f 1908, and

which becam e the social center for the assemblies o f 1909. From the be­ginning as appropriations increased, the accom m odations at the Camp were im proved; and by 1910 other buildings were added; road leveling, and wide paths were extended throughout the spacious Camp, at the same time an athletic field has been added. Since it was opened, a Superintendent, or a director had been designated every year to take charge o f the buildings

Boys Band of the Teachers’ Camp in 1916.

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and grounds, and to direct the ne­cessary preparations for the holding of the annual assembly.

The Camp authorities have been providing tent accommodations, each tent being supplied with beds, blan­kets, pillows, mattress, and other in­cidental equipment. Visitors were re­quired to bring their mosquito nets, towels and soap. It was also in 1908 that board is being provided by the Camp Caterer at P3.00 a day or P80.-

Baseball players c f Teachers’

'JU per month ana tne servants ana children were given special rates. Du­ring the early days of the Camp, the Constabulary Band gives twelve con­certs in the morning, and one con­cert by the Cavalry Band through the courtesy of the commanding general of ihe Philippines. Camp fires, “ Ca- niao” dances and other Camp recrea­tions were also held. There was also a daily paper being published since the inauguration of the Camp which

p with Mr. Arthur McCann.

Among the first American teachers who came to the Teachers’ Camp as lecturers.

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Social affair at the Teachers’ Camp in April, 1924. D ifferent districts of Moun­tain Province w ere represented by the follow ing: Miss Kiangan, Miss Bontoc, MissBenguet, Miss Ifugao, Miss Apayao, andpublicized the activities of the as­sembly season.

By Act No. 2182, the sum of twen­ty thousand pe'jOS was further ap­propriated for the construction of a dormitory for Filipino lady teachers. In 1912, the following buildings were constructed: Benitez Hall, Ladies Hall, Secretary’s Cottage, Under-Sec. Cot­tage, Director’s Cottage, and the Asst. D irector ’s Cottage. The Boa Dorm i­tory and the Ladies Hall were built in 1915 and were partly destroyed du­ring the war. They were repaired with W D.C. funds in 1948. Albert Hall which was completely destroyed was also reconstructed with the W. D. C.

Miss Kalinga.tunds in the same year. The large amount of funds appropriated for Teachers’ Camp under the Public Works Act of 1927 made possible the construction of the Teachers’ Hall, the Tavera Hall, and the White Hall in 1927-28. This was also destroyed du­ring the war and was repaired with W.D.C. funds in 194.8. More cottages were built in 1928 and all the bun­galows were completed in 1930. In 1937 General Luna Hall was built by the Philippine Military Academy. Built recently are the Abada Hall, Hernan­dez Hall, Director’s Cottage, and the Quezon-Roosevelt Memorial Hall.

— — - — - o ------------------------



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Teachers’ Camp band in white uniform in 1924.

MRS. ALICE KELLYBenefactors of Benguet

Mrs. Alice Kelly, an American pioneer and benefactress of Benguet made out­standing contributions to the educational upliftment of hunderds and eventually thousands of Benguet Igorot maidens.

She came to Baguio in 1901 accompa­nied by her husband, James Kelly who together with a partner. Pat Galvin, staked out gold claims in Benguet. Her husband, however, was among the un­fortunate victims of the cholera epide­mic. Undaunted by her irreparable loss, she put her sorrows aside and planned a school for Igorot girls whose parents did not believe in the propriety of edu­

cating females. Through her remarkable efforts, hostile parents were won over. Her dreams materialized in a grass thatched schoolhouse. Hers was the cre­dit of having taught health and sani­tation, homemaking, dressmaking, and fundamental subjects of American educa­tion to the otherwise unlettered Igorot girls.

She left the Islands in 1914, but re­turned to Baguio in 1926. Today, grate­ful people of the Mt. Province always recall her struggles and her sh^re in the educational development of the na­tives particularly in Baguio and Benguet.

The String Band of Bua School Dorm itory.

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Brief History of theThe steady and rapid grow th o f Ba­

guio is intim ately associated with the developm ent o f transportation and any h istory to be written o f Baguio would be incomplete w ithout m entioning the great part played by the B enguet A uto Line.

On January 28, 1905 C olonel Lyman W . V . Kennon, the man whose skill and courage w as responsible fo r the successful com pletion o f the present w onderfu l highw ay that now bears his name, drove through to Baguio in the f ir s t wagon to pass over the road. To perfect the construction, the road was closed fo r a few weeks and then fo r service on M arch 27, 1905.

A t the outset no private individual or com panies w ould take the initiative o f establishing some kind o f organized transportation system over the road.

[ 82 ]

Benguet Auto LineThe venture was considered too risky. It was then up to the governm ent to provide transportation and Act. No. 1225 approved in 1904 directed the constabulary to provide transportation for all governem nt supplies to Baguio and Benguet.

In compliance with the law, a mute pack train was established during the later part o f the year. A t that time the Benguet road w as open fo r wagon tra ffic as fa r only as Camp 4. From that point, however, it was possible to reach Baguio by horse, a horse trail having been built over the Kias hill and was known as the Kias Trail. This trail had been used by the Igorots dur­ing the Spanish time and had only to be widened so as to enable the mem­bers o f the Philippine Commission to hold session in Baguio during the sunr

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to operate between Dagupan and Ba­guio fo r the transportation of passen­gers. Dagupan was then the railway terminus.

The Benguet road was declared open fo r service throughout its entire length


mer o f 1904 while the section from Camp 4 to Baguio o f the Benguet road was not yet completed.

On Novem ber 14, 1904 the Philippine Commission passed a resolution direct­ing the establishment o f a stage line

The Stanleys with chimneys like locomotives were something new in those days.

- v .. .^ r H ' - S '


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on M arch 27, 1905 and the Benguet Stage Line (m ule and buggy) was inaugurated shortly after that date. Thus was born the forerunner o f the Benguet A uto Line and Baguio thence­forth became accessible to and linked with civilization.

The fares charged then w ere: From D agupan to Baguio were P28.00 per ton.

The journey from Dagupan to Ba­guio, a distance o f about 50 miles, took exactly 12 hours including stop-over at Tw in Peaks o f one and one-half hours fo r lunch and possibly a siesta, “ P er­haps the greatest inconvenience to pas­sengers was not so much the tedious ride o f ten and a h a lf hours in rickety stages as the d iscom fort at having to w ait in Baguio fo r one’s excess bag- age w hich had to be transported by escort wagons. It usually took from tw o to fou r days’ time, depending upon the condition o f the road, fo r the es­cort w agons to reach B aguio” .

The high command o f the constabu­lary corps appealed to the commission to dispose o f the stage line since it was a drain to constabulary purse and accordingly that body authorized the sale. C. M. Jenkins, bull cart trans­portation contractor and hotel opera­tor in Dagupan and what is now Pines Hotel in Baguio, purchased the line for 1*12,000.

In the year 1908 a railw ay spur line was completed from San Fabian to Camp One to connect with the Ben­guet road and the stage line under Mr. Jenkins made connections with the trains at the later place,” the stage line was still fa r from satisfactory and in order to attract more people to Ba­guio it wias fe lt im perative to shorten the trip.

“ A t about the same time the motor car made its appearance in the Philip­pines. Partly to rescue mail transpor­tation cost and partly as an experi­ment, the Philippine Commission au­


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thorized the bureau o f posts to place an order for two automobiles to fu r­nish mail and passenger transporta­tion between Camp One and Baguio.”

Autom obiles were something new in those day. The stanleys were pictures­que, with chimneys just like locom o­tives, and the novelty o f it all aroused the curiosity o f b ig crowds. One great d ifficu lty encountered at the beginning o f this service was the scarcity o f train­ed chauffeurs.

It was during the administration o f the Bureau of Public W orks that the present line was given its commercial name o f Benguet A uto Line. The Ben­guet A uto Line developed and expand­ed tremendously under the bureau’s management. It was the only means o f m otor transportation between Baguio and the railroad treminus at Camp One.” In 1939, the insular government transferred the Benguet A uto Line to the M anila Railroad Company. Under the M anila Railroad the Benguet A uto Line grew by leaps and bounds, expand­ing in operating territory, equipment and personnel. Other public utilities w ere acquired.




The Naguilian Road had its beginning as a horse trail from San Fernando, La Union to Baguio during the Spanish re­gime. It was then improved and con­verted into a cart trail during the early days of American occupation. The trail was the only route to Baguio from the

west coast. In July, 1911 the Benguet or Kennon Road was disastrously da­maged by a flood to the tUne of approx­imately one million pesos. For two months, the road was closed to traffic and its re-opening and rehabilitation en­tailed a cost of P50,000 in five months lime. This incident paved the way for the Naguilian Road project.

The Naguilian Road, second ac­cess route from the lowlands to and from Baguio.

A big slide at the Benguet Road in 1936.

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Former residence of Benguet governors during the e a r l y days on the site of the Baguio City High School.

( Continued from page 63 ) ing just at dark in the marsh below the Sanitarium, picking up quite a number of birds. We had some trouble in getting about on account of the deep mud, and

the birds had been shot at until they were very wild, so that out bag was not aii that it might have been.

DECEMBER 25TH Major Carter, Evarts and I went for

a duck shoot in the Trinidad Valley, tak­ing Fritz along. We stopped at the Ex­perimental Farm on the way. I found things there in an unsatisfactory condition, owing to lack of water as well as to the ill health of Mr. Jessup and the shift­lessness of Hendrickson, who has done

very little during the past year.The ducks kept pretty well out of

reach. We let the small boy shoot with his rifle to scare them up, and I finally managed to kill three and a couple of snipe. Before the shooting was over Fritz left for the Farm in order to invite the little Jessup girl to go to Baguio and share his Christmas tree. I overtook him at the Farm with an Igorrote to carry the little girl to Baguio, and returned ex­pecting to take a hand in getting the Christmas tree, but found that it had al­ready been obtained and was in process o f being decorated and hung with gifts.

I then went over to look at the horses and other animals on the Government

Dean Conant Worcester's resi­dence at Top- Side on the site o f the Phil- Ameriean com ­pound.

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Hack view of the Mansion House in 1911.

Stock Farm, and found them in first- class condition- also met Mr. Anderson and Commissioner Forbes on a hill on the road to the Kelleys and had some talk with them about the proposed new town site, and with Commissioner Forbes in regard to having Kennon repair the ir­rigating ditch and get water onto the Trinidad station at once.

The Christmas tree, which was put in our sitting room, was lighted up imme­diately after dinner, and was a great suc­cess. Jennie came out and watched the

fun, and Dr. Mallory and Miss Doyle came up from the Sanitarium. The chil­dren had a fine time, which they will doubtless both remember.

DECEMBER 26TH Rode down the new road with Commis­

sioner Forbes in the morning. Much pro­gress had been made since Saturday. Afterw'ard, talked over plans for the town site with Mr. Burnham, giving him my views at his request, and answering so fa r as practicable questions which he

( Continued on page 104J

Part of Baguio’s com m ercial district in 1922.

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The First Automobile Trip $The trip was made in April, 1911 by

Mr. Tinan and 2 companions. The ve- C'ommnn transportation in Baguio hide which they used was familiarly

referred to as “ World Touring Hup- mobile” . The hazardous and uncomfor­table trip was made on a rugged route and which took them 2-1 / 2 days travel before reaching their destina­tion. Together with Tom Hanlon, a mechanic, and Tom Jones, a newspa­perman, Mr. Tinan made the trip without a systematic guide pertaining to road conditions and facilities on the Manila-Northern Luzon route.Their vehicle ■ the “ World Touring Hupmobile” was at the time brought to Manila by J. Walter Drake, vice- president of the Hupmobile Company.

Interesting and memorable portions of the trip included travel on carabao cart trails and rice fields; crossing through a railroad bridge at Peiiaran da by the use of planks to provide

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from Manila to Baguio ina level path for their car; transport­ing the car across a river at San Isi­dro on an improvised raft consist­ing of 20 bamboo poles tied together. Observers were at the time skeptical about the success of the trip and newspapers had a holiday printing- fea­tures of the trip.

After 2 and one half days Mr. Ti nan and his party reached Baguio and thereby gained the distinction of hav­ing made the first Manila to Baguio trip by automobile. It is interesting to note that the “ World Touring Hup- mobile” was shipped to Manila by train from Baguio and was exhibited at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago in 1933.


MR. PERCY WARNER TINAN Was a eomformed Baguio booster since

the day he first saw Baguio and became a resident. He was the publisher o f the

1911official^ M otor Road and Tourist Guide w hich he founded in 1911 as the Phii. M otor Car Blue book (later Michelin Guide) had also many years fam iliarity w ith Phil. Roads.

PERCY W ARNER TINAN An American Baguio Booster

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Author of the Baguio Charter

JUSTICE GEORGE A. MALCOLM, who had come to the Philippines as a young; attorney in the attorney gene­ral's office, deserves the credit for giv­ing Baguio City a liberal charter un­der which she expanded to a well gov­erned modern city.

The Philippine Commission, while Forties was Governor General, voted to

make Baguio a chartered city and young Malcolm was selected to write the charter. He planned a governm ent which could be practically free o f pet­ty local politics and yet be autonom ous. The m ayor was to be appointed fo r his executive ability as a civil engineer by the Governor General and he also serv­ed as city and district engineer. The Vice-M ayor was also oppointed. One councilor was appointed ex -e fficio as commandant o f Camp John H ay and another was ex -o fficio superintendent o f the Constabulary Academ y. Two other councilors were appointed by the Governor General on a strictly non­partisan basis o f capability. A s long as the original charter was follow ed, Ba guio had an efficien t governm ent and although constantly expanding its schools, roads, and public utilities, always had p l e n t y o f money in the treasury. The charter, known as A ct 1963, became effective September — 1909. .X

Malcolm rose to be a m em b er /o f the Philippine Suprem e Court and always kept a fatherly eye on B agu io ’s prog­ress. The city council, as a token o f it ’s sincere appreciation fo r his big assistance, passed a resolution on May 23, 1932 expressing it ’s gratification on behalf o f t h e city o f Baguiio to Justice Malcolm.

From time to time his w ritings about Baguio are recalled and they now serve as indispensable links to the past.


The city council con­vened to act on the revised city ordinances based on the compila­tion made by Justice Malcolm of the Sup­reme court.Seated from left to right: Col. O. M. John­son, appointive coun­cilman; Potenciano La- mug, elected; Justice Malcolm of the Sup­reme Court: In the m iddle is Mayor E. Haisema and at his left are: Felipe .Jose, M ajor E. Speth. retired U.S. Army Officer and vlee-m ayor; and C. C. Soriano, acting secre­tary.

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Under the administration of Lieut. Governor E. A. Eckman of Benguet, the peaceful Igorot population in the province has continued to prosper throughout the year in spite of the unprecedented drought and the re­sulting crop shortage. The conversion of the former Naguilian Trail into a good cart road over which automo­biles of moderate size can pass, and the inauguration of railroad construc­tion at the Baguio end of the new line have afforded opportunity for profitable employment to every man, woman, and child willing to work. Lieut. Gov. Eckman is entitled to spe­cial credit for the efficient manner in which he has supervised both the construction of this road and the per­formance of the railroad grading. He also served as mayor o f Baguio. When Lieut. Gov. Eckman was promoted to the governorship of the Mt. Province, the Benguet people displayed a very genuine regret.

Charles Dandois became Baguio’s chief executive in June, 1918 when he succeeded A. D. Williams. Accre­dited with a fruitful administration, he served until February, 1920 when


Reynold, first mayor of Baguio with a term covering the period from Sept­ember, 1909 to February 3, 1910, draft­ed the first basical ordinances of Ba guio. He served for sometime as As­sistant Fiscal General. For the mayor­ship, he was succeeded by Lieutenant Gov. E A. Eckman.

E. A. ECHMAN Second Mayor

i, 1910 to an. 28,

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F. J- Halsema took over the mayor­ship. His term was remembered for the installation of a water works sys­tem at Pacdal and for the construc­tion of several important concrete buildings. Like his predecessor, A. D. Williams, he ably held three positions simultaneously.


A. D. Williams, who was the fourth appointive mayor of Baguio, served from May 24, 1913 to June, 1918. Du­ring his term when he held three po­sitions simultaneously as District En-

E. W. REYNOLD First Aiayor

Sept. 1, 1909 to Feb. 5, 1910

eineer for Benguet, and as City En­gineer and Mayor of Baguio He ac­credited himself with several achieve­ments among which w ere: construc­tion of the Naguiilan Road, improve­ment of sanitation which was the num­ber one problem of Baguio at the time,- installation of a sewage sys­tem, water works, hydro-electric plant, and construction of roads in Baguio and vicinity.

He, iikewise, served as Director ot the Bureau of Public Works, t 92 ]

American MayorsENGR. E. J. HALSEMA

To Mayor E. Halsema belongs the credit o f having devoted 17-1/2 years to unselfish public service— that of having been at the helm o f the Ba­guio City Administration. His accom­plishments during his incumbency as mayor of Baguio were enormous and almost unbelievable — the w ell-paved streets, a model market place, an ex­cellent waterworks, telephone, and hy­dro - electric systems, well - kept and * ideal parks. In short it was he who

A. D. WILLIAMS Third Mayor

May 24, 1913 to May 16, 1918

has helped greatly in laying a solid foundation for Baguio’s future. Under his administration, Baguio was rated as one of the most outstanding com­munities in the Islands and its repu- tat;on as the cleanest city and the most progressive was indeed unsur­passed.

Mayor Halsema was a man of unu sual ability. Being the chief executive of a city like Baguio with unusual climate and location would have been |very difficult to a man of lesser abi­lity and experience. But to Mayor Hal-

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Who Served Baguiosema who belongs to the front ranks of engineers, running a place like Ba­guio was his chosen field. His suc­cess was due mainly to his great abi lity, unusual diligence, determination, and democratic attitude towards his inferiors. As chief executive, he was also the city’s engineer. Baguio will remember forever Mayor Halsema as the man who devoted the best years of his life to public service — that of giving Baguio the good name it

, has today. Grateful Baguio residentswill always enshrine in their hearts the memory of this great man.

C. S. DANDOIS Fourth Mayor

June 10, 1918 to Dec. 29, 1919

Halsema was born Dec. 12, 1882 in Ohio, New Bremen, the son of a watchmaker and jeweler. He went to

He became an asst, district engineer in Cebu. In 1902 he returned to New Bremen to marry his school sweetheart Marie Boesel, and came back to the Philippines to accept a job as dis­trict engineer o f Pampanga in 1913. Snortly afterwards, he was appointed Mayor of Baguio and Dist. Engineer at the same time as City Engineer. As district engineer of Benguet, he launched a highway program which

was to make Baguio the hub of a network of roads and thus create a new major marketing center in Nor­thern Luzon. The major achievement was the 151 km. Mountain Trail from Baguio to Bontoc. When he retired from the government service in 1937, he became president of the Marsman Construction Corporation in Manila. In 1939 he returned to Baguio to stay. Baguio was his greatest pride.

When W orld W ar II occurred, he helped organize the Baguio A ir Raid spotting service. As the invaders ap­proached the city and government ser­vice broke down he took charge once

E. J. HALSEM A Fifth Mayor

Feb. 7, 1920 to May 31, 1937

more on orders of the U.S. Army and saw to it that essential utilities remained in operation. The Japanese interned the entire family along with other Americans at Brent School on Dec. 27, 1941. Failing in health, and ousted from the cottage he had rent­ed. Halsema entered the Notre Dame Hospital at the beginning 0f 1945 and here during the carpet bombing of March 15, he met his death in the holocaust that destroyed the city. His remains were interned in the Ba­guio cemetery in March 1947.

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Engineer A. D. W illiam s, third appointed m ayor with som e high ranking officia ls and em ployees. Sitting in the middle in the second row is M ayor A. D. W illiams wearing white suit. In the group are: L. Acosta, S. Bernal, A . Quianio, T. Rillera, Sergeant Frigillana, Sergeant Florendo, D. Aquino, G. M endoza, S. Dulay, Francisco Yandoc, Captain J. Keith, M. Oteyza, P. Contreras, L. M alonzo, B. Hidalgo, Mr. Nartates, L . S. Santiago, I. Aspillaga, P. Castaneda, J. Balajadia, I. Castano. V. F lorendo, Mr. Ogbinar, C. Balbuena, G. Pena, P. Tuazon, Judge F. Zandueta, Z. Tolentino, Captain A. Acosta, P. Pacis, M. A lviar, Mr. Diaz, J. Resurreccion, T. Diaz, I. Dumpit.

ft ft

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M AYOR CH ARLES DANDOIS WITH CITY OFFICIALS AND EM PLOYEESTaken at the new ly built City Hall during the terra ot Mr. Charles Dandois as m ayor w ith some high ranking g o v ­

ernment officials and employees. Show n in the middle sitting and wearing a black suit is M ayor Dandois. Am ong the group that may be identified are: Dr. Teodoro Arvisu, Pascual Pacis, Mr. F. Nacnac, Mr. M endoza, Mr. Regino Villanueva, Mr. C. Floresca, Mr. P. Contreras, Martin A lviar, Mr. L. Acosta, M r. V. Florendo, Mr. Antonio Rim ando, Mr. Sixto Diilay, Mr. Anacleto Rim ando, Mr. V ictor Florendo, Mr. Juan Castaneda, M r. William Reese, C'apt. J. Keith, Mr. Juan Resurreccion, etc.

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GROWTH OF BAGUIOAs soon as the Kennon Road was for­

mally opened for regular service on March 27, 1905, the development of Ba­guio was channeled towards a brisk pace as per the famous Burnham Plan drafts ed by the great landscape architect, D. H. Burnham.

On May 28, 1906, the first sale of re­sidence and building lots took place in accordance with the provisions of the Public Land Act. The proceeds from the sale were used for the improvement of

Baguio.In the spring of 1905. the Baguio

Country Club was organized which at the outset was a rude, grass-roofed shed made of pine slabs. In February, 1907, a country Club Corporation was organ­ized with a capital stock of $5,000. From these modest beginnings, the Baguio Country Club has grown into an import­ant institution of today.

The Baguio polo field was constructed with an immense toll on expenses. It

Engineer E. Halsema upon his assumption of office as City Mayor. Among the city officials that can be identified in the group are: City Forester M. Oteyza, C ouncilor P. Pacis, V ice M ayor Taggart, Chief of Police J. Kieth, Councilor M. Carreon, Dr. T. Arvisu. etc

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Officials and employees on the occasion of the retirement of M ayor EusebiusHalsema in 1937.

now stands as a memento to that great builder, Cameron Forbes who financed its construction and maintenance from his private funds.

An important stride towards the growth of Baguio was taken when the gover- nor-general’s official residence was con­structed at a cost o f $15,000. This edi­fice was constructed without Governor Forbes knowledge that he was later to become governor-general.

In 1908, a modern hospital and the governor-general’s residence was comp­leted. The governor-genreal is the only government official being given a free residence. The policy of giving an of­ficial residence to the governor-general in Baguio was adopted to conform with that which gives him one in Manila.

In At>ril, 1908, Teacher’s Camp opened its portals to admit American school teachers from all over the archipelago. One hundred and fifty tents were set up under the shade of the pines for the use of the vacationists. Permanent buildings have been constructed. It has an athletic field, a mess and social hall, and several comfortable cottages.

During the summer of 1908, the Bu­reau o f Lands initiated a move of send­ing a number of its employees to Ba­guio and quartering them in tents Other

bureaus followed suit tnat during the hot season of 1909, more than two thou­sand persons made their sojourn to Ba­guio.

(Continued on pagelGO;

Engineer W. Ryan ploting the Cemetery.

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Baguio’s Finest” the first police force organized by M ajor Joseph Keith.


When Baguio was still a township, its police force was composed of only twenty five men under one, Mr. Eliseo Arzadon as Chief o f Police. This law-enforcing body was directly under the immediate supervision and control o f the Philippine Constabulary then under Lt. W. E. Dos­ser, a former Baguio resident. When Mr. Eliseo Arzadon, resigned, one Mr. O’Neil succeeded him. No record is available as to the latter’s personal circ*mstances or any other information regarding him can be traced.

On September 1, 1909 when Baguio be­came the second charted City in the Phil- ipines, a distinct police department also


came into being. Mr. J. J. Keith was transferred from the Manila Metropolitan Force to head the Baguio Police Depart­ment. He was an efficient Chief of Po­lice for his time. He was born in East­land, Texas, on July 2, 1878 and came to the Philippines in 1899 as a member of the 48th Regiment of the U.S. Army Vo­lunteers. He was with the Metropolitan Police Force for nine years prior to his coming to Baguio in 1910. He was the Chief of Police up to 1942. He stayed in

Members of the 1917 Tire De­partment Force.

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this City throughout the occupation and left for the United States after libera­tion. He died in Russeville, Kentucky, U.S.A. at the age of 81. Although his administration was many steps below par when compared to the one we have now, it is safe to conclude that during his ad­ministration, the force began earning the name of “ Baguio’s Finest” .

During the Japanese occupation, every­thing was topsy-turvy. Most o f the 73 members of the police force left without permission and the few who stuck to the Department were advised by friends that their presence was imperative. Then a sort o f order was restored. Lt. Felipe Bu- gayong, a former officer o f the Depart­ment was appointed Chief of Police. He stayed in this position until all police de­partments in the Islands were incorpo­rated in the puppet Bureau of Constabu-


lary. Then the Baguio Police Department became the 4th Mountain P. C. Company with Inspector Florencio Abacan as com­manding officer. He was later relieved by Capt. Ali Alraschid, a former PC officer and a graduate of the former Philippine Constabulary in this City. He was linked with the underground movement and was thereby executed by the Japanese. Capt.

CAPT. JOSEPH J. KIETH Chief of Police

Baguio Police Force, 1910-1942Dictimo Ponce followed him as Comman c ing Officer.

On April 27, 1945, there was no poli«t department functioning. As soon as tfcie Americans arrived the 33rd Military P o ­lice, U.S. Army took over the m ainten­ance of .peace and order in the city. The=i on May 3, 1945, the Baguio City P olice Department was resurrected under time auspices c f the Phil. Civil A ffa irs Unit 1 o f the U.S. Army. However, discipline wa.s sadly lackiM and that the members wer<

^ ( Continued on page'll^ )

One o f the pictures of the entire police force taken in 1937, with Chief Police Joseph Kieth in grey uniform.

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SESSION ROAD in 1912, as seen by the camera of F. T. Ryan. Among the struc­tu res , from left to right, are theV.A.P. Hall, later used as the post-office; prison camp, Sly’ s bar, store and lodging house; the Nagatomi studio, Valles building, the Wagner and Cuidno Carantes residences, and Ping’s Store. In the foreground is the Burnham lagoon, with the first building on the Baguio Printing site at the right

Construction of Session Road

(Continued, from page 9 7 )To help further in the development

of Baguio, Mr. Forbes, then secretary of commerce and police decided to set the example by building a handsome and ex­pensive home in Baguio. He formulated a plan by which a group of government buildings, a mes,s hall, and a large nurr- ber of small and inexpensive cottages could be rented by government officials and employees, so that Baguio could be the true summer capital o f the Philip­pines.

A milestone in Baguio’s development was achieved when it was made a char­tered city September, 1909.

A real boom began during the sea­son of 1910. The old sanitarium was leased to a private individual as hotel,

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adding to it from time to time. The railroad had been extended to Camp One and a regular automobile service service was established for the conven­ience of the public between Camp One and Bajuio. The Jesuits constructed a rest house and an observatory while the Dominicans purchased the neighboring hill to erect a concrete building to be used for college purposes and as a rest house.

At Camp John Hay, development be­gan early. It is now a well-organized army post and furlough center.

The religious orders sent their mis­construction of

sionaries to help build Baguio. The Sis­ters of the Assumption erected a hand­some building which served as a rest home and a girl’s school. The Belgian Canonist Missionaries erected a recupe­ration center and a school for girls. Bishop Brent established an excellent school for American boys and girls and a mission priests otherwise known as

Missionary Priests of the Church o f San Patricio,” established their headquarters in Baguio.' v •

Vng 1914, the Philippine Constabulary School building was established. It wasA ha nan. Street

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W ork on Burnham Park, Baguio’s central park, started as early as 1914. Igorot laborers, under the supervision of Am erican engineers, are shown above breaking ground and levelling the site of the park. In the background (upper righthand corner) on Kisad Road, may be seen two of the first buildings in the

constructed on a hill that commanded a magnificent view of the surrounding areas and later transfered to Loakan.

Business firms such as the Compana General de Tabacos de Filipinas erected rest houses for their officers and emplo­yees. Filipino residents of Manila also did their share by building attractive

private and summer residences.With regards to public utilities ope­

rated by the city government, the fol­lowing are consecutively arranged as per their establishment dates: Telephone sys­tem inaugurater, 1903; market establish­ed, 1908; water supply system began ope­rating, 1910; garbage system was inau

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— -"ty . one owned by the late Representative Juan Carino and the other by the Hamada family. The house owned by Carino was destroyed during the last war while the building owned by the Hamada family still stands and now houses the Baguio Printing Press plant.

gurated in 1911; slaughter house was electric plant completed, 1924; Baguio established, 1911; ice plant in 1912; se- auditorium was finished, 1924; electric weragc system started 1913; sanitary fountain was completed and first operat- cam p established 1913; rock crusher in- ed in 1926; Baguio Central School corn- stalled, 1916; vegetable market building pleted, 1924; extension of sanitary sewer was completed, 1918; concrete pipe fac- beyond Trinidad Irrigation, 1929. lo ry was established, 1920, city dispen- The greatest development strides were sary was established, 1920; first hydro- undertaken from 1911 to 1918 during

(Continued on page 114

A m ong ine first buildings constructed along the market in 1918.

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( Continued from page 87 ) wanted to put. W e all went out fo r a ride over the M ilitary Reservation and obtained some m agnificent views. I took Mr. Forbes to the hill where I hope ulti­mately to purchase a house lot.

The afternoon was spent in transacting business with various callers, and in vi­siting Governor and Mrs.. Pack. In the evening we had a fine turkey dinner at the Sanitarium.

A telegram was received from Captain Nathorst, who was to have accompained me on my trip from Vigan and who was at that place purchasing necessary food and a camp outfit, stating that he had been requested to furnish f ifty Igor- rote constabulary men for service in Ba-[ 104 ]


vtangas or Samar, and that he desired tfr go with them, as he did not know how they would behave under a strange o f f i ­cer. He further suggested that Mr. Kane, the Supervisor o f Lepanto-Bontoc, would meet me at any point which I chose to indicate and would make the trip with me, and inquired whether the suggested arrangement would be satisfactory. I wired to Colonel Baker, the A cting Chief o f the Constabulary, quoting Nathorst’s telegram and stating that the arrange­ment therein suggested would be satisfac­tory to me in case Nathorst was needed elsewhere.

DECEM BER 27THI le ft Baguio about six in the morning

for San Fernando, Union.

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The Philippine Constabulary School in 1914 at Camp Henry T. Allen.

The Philippine Military Academy, reme in its per.nanent home in Loa­the nation’s builder o f men and lead- kan, eight miles from the heart of Ba­ers o f tomorrow, is an institution that cherishes a proud heritage and a glo­rious tradition. Today it stands sup-

guio with approximately an area of three hunderd and seventy three hec­tares. The site which was fittingly

General Nathorst, second from left, is shown with Colonel Duskworth-Ford Supt. of the P.C. Academy, Colonel Livingston. Quartermaster, assist­ant P.C. Surgeon, fo l­lowing the Inspection and Review held in Camp Henry T. A l­len, Baguio.

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Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (116)

MILITARY ACADEMYnamed Fort Del Pilar or Del Pilar Heights after the renowned Filipino patriot General Gregorio del Pilar, he­ro of the battle of Tirad Pass has an administration building, a c a demic building, cadet barracks, cadet mess hall, tennis courts, parade ground.

Looking back four decades ago, the Academy had its humble beginning as an Officers' School o f the Philippine Constabulary at Sta. Lucia Barracks, Intramuros, Manila which was opened on February 17, 1905 and started by Brigadier General Henry T. Allen the conditions then obtaining in the Islands necessitated the opening of such a school to solve the problem o f officer supply to replenish the need for o ffi­cers to direct operations against ram­pant banditry, cattle rustling, and pet­ty cases of local rebellion. Years later, on September 1, 1908, the school was moved to Constabulary Hill, Baguio, now known as Camp Henrv T. Allen, named after its founder. The mainten­ance and operation of tile school was

Acting Gov. General & Mrs. Bute, taken at the Philippine Constabulary. I.eft to right, Mayor F.arns- shaw of Manila, Act­ing Gov. Gen. Bute, Col. R.A. Duskworth- Ford and Mayor Hai­sema.

Brigadier Gen. H. T. ALLEN Founder, Philippine Constabulary

Academ y

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£*!*» 1*01 BROOK ADDRESSINGuim Rf̂ ecve or ■

con I'i niiod 011 A pril II. JSM4 bv the passage o f appropriation A ct No. 2311). The m ' I h i o ! was later renamed “ Aca* <lcmy for O fficers o f the Philippine C onstabulary” and its course o f ins­truction was extended to nine months. Still later, on Dec. 8 1928, the Philip pine Legislature passed A ct No. 3490 d eclaring as o ffic ia l name o f the school “ The Philippine Constabulary A cade­m y." The course o f instruction was made -i year, and the A cadem y was vested by law with the status o f a col­lege. Hut it was on Dec. 21, 1935 that the Academ y rose to full stature as a m ilitary academ y with a four-year course and the final change o f its name to the present Philippine M ilitary Academ y.

A fte r the war. the Academ y was re

activated on June 28, 1946. Polo FieldsBaguio, summer home of the Academy was opened on May 1, 1947 and the first post-v.far batch of cadets admitted. Colonel Tirso Fajardo became the first post-war superintendent. The curricu­lum underwent changes to conform with modern trends and present needs. The curriculum committee was headed by Colonel Vivencio I). Dayot who devoted months of comprehensive study to the job of revising the curriculum.

A few months after its reopening 20 months to be exact the PMA has Fort Del Pilar which can now truly be called its home. Times marches on and with it the PMA advances to per­form its vital mission with courage, loyalty and intergrity.

railnatien with President M . I.. Quezon

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This group of passengers and Ba­guio citizens who came out to wel­come the arrival of the first aerial taxicab, February 21, on the- Polo Field. i n c l u d e (reading left to right) E. M. Bach- rach, L. Charles Backes, pilot, Mrs.J. E. H. Stevenot.Mayor E. J. Hal-

* sema, Major T. H.Monroe, Major E.Speth and Don Antonio Melian.

In 1919, Major Brown, of the U.S. Air Corns successfully landed the first plane on Burnham Park. The presence of an ap­propriate airport in Baguio, necessitated the establishment of an air field in La

, Trinidad. This was, however, abandonedafter sometime when a plane crashed there due to adverse conditions. Seve­ral attempts were made to land on Burn­ham Park. But it was Major J. E. H. Stevenot and E. M. Bachrach who inau­gurated safe Baguio aviation by landing on Polo Field in a Philippine Aerial Taxi airplane.

The development of the Baguio Airport began in December, 1926 and much of the credit for the establishment of this Loakan field went to the then governor general Dwight F. Davis for his untiring interest and indispensable help in secur­ing the site. Others who did their part in the advancement of aviation in Br- guio by establishing the Loakan Airport were, namely, the board of Air Corps Officers who selected the site; General

Hines who gave commendable and end­less support to the project; Lt. Col. Max­well Murray who facilitated the landing field negotiations, H. O. Heald who ori­ginally discovered the possibility of Loa­kan as an airport and who did his bit for the success of the project through his capacity as President of the Baguio Chamber of Commerce; F. D. Jost who surveyed and mapped the site; Creed C. Hammond who arranged for the re­lease of funds to be used in the pro­ject; Major J. E. H. Stevenot who con­tinuously lend his assistance and advice; Major Harms and Major Brooks, aircorps, who gave their cooperation and technical knowledge; Major E. Speth who escorted boards on visit to the site under consi­derations; Capt. F. J. Heraty, Command­ing Officer of Camp John Hay who gave invaluable assistance; and residents of Baguio and Manila who lend material support for the realization of a Baguio Airport.

The Philippine A e ­rial Taxi Airplane that landed at the Polo Fields.

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In 1917 the first concrete building was erected. As years passed, several struc­tures were constructed to provide space where businessmen could carry on their trade. In the early days, the Baguio Market was just a place where the natives sold their garden products and other wares which they exchanged for other ne­cessities.

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In Building 1—A which is the oldest building, wooden cuivlngs of the natives are sold. This are the handiwork of the skillful Igorots who carve beautiful articles.


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View of Burnham Park, shows on the left foreground, the race track grand­stand (later the pre-war auditorium). Left of the old city hall is the old garden theatre owned by H. P. Whit marsh. To the right, approximately where the Sun-

In 1913 a move was initiated by Mr- Charles Stones, ex-manager of the Pines Hotel, to establish a race course on the site that is now occupied by the boulevard that encircles the Burn­ham Lake. The move was enthusias­tically endorsed by a committee of[ 112 ]

THE BAGUIO RACEBaguio merchants, residents, and transients. So great was the interest shown that the funds accumulated reached the P10.000 mark. The fifty foot wide kilometer oval was made possible after utilizing the service of hundreds of laborers. Similar to a

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shine Bakery now is, are the old P.C.C. store and the Mountain Hotel run by Mr. O'Dows. The big building in foreground is the former Benguet deputy governor's office and quarters.

...w* 9

COURSE OF LONG AGOcountry fair track, the course was banked and improved. A grandstand was constructed on the southern end o f the track and a two story judges’ ftand. The race track was inaugu­rated in 1914 and an unforgettable festivity was ushered in. Racing events

were broadcasted in approved fashion by means of billboards sensationally designed to at'.ract attention. The events were among the most memora- ble ever seen in the history of local horse racing.

[ H3 ]

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THE SESSION ROAD IN 1921(Continued, from page 103) the incumbency of A. D. Williams as city engineer, mayor, and district engi­neer all in one. Frank T. Ryan was Mr. W illiam’s efficient foreman. Outstanding achievements during the administration of A.D. Williams were the follow ing: the laying out of the city cemetery; grading of Burnham Park; opening of a race­track: widening most of the roads: in­

stallation and improvement of water supply; building of the Naguilian Road; solving the sanitation problem which was then a major headache of the gov ernment.

Regarding the government machinery when Baguio assumed the status of a chartered city, the city functioned through five members of the city council includ­ing the mayor and the vice-mayor. The

The Valles Stahles

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Igorot Advisory Council was composed of five members while the board of Ap­praisem*nt was then composed of three members. The city treasurer handled ad­ministration cash, accounts, registration, internal revenue, and collection. The city health officer took care of health and sanitation while law administration was in the hands of the Citv Attorney’s Of­fice and the Justice of the Peace Court.

The fire department, traffic control and city jail were handled by the Chief of Police. The two members of the coun­cil were elected by popular vote. All other officials were appointed. The ma­yor acted as city engineer a»id district engineer simultaneously for efficiency and to save salaries. The city treasurer was also the citv assesor and mining re­corder for sub-province of Benguet. The

The old stone market pictured in 1925. Note bull carts from the Mt. Province and distant lowlands converged with merchandise for sale at the market place.


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View of the Mountain Supply Store before the outbreak of World War II. It was destroyed during the bombing of the city.

and Atok Mines to the point of almost Mountain Supply Store, monopolizing the business along the line. He was survived by his three daugh- It took another war to ruin his business ters and a son who inherited his bus- assets. In 1944, he died. Determined to iness knack.perpetuate his name in the business Time passes on but his memory will field, his children opened the Sunshine be kept alive as a “ Chinese-Filipino ci- Bakery with a combination o f grocery tizen who is a counter-part of Baguio’s and hotel on the old site of the formpr nmeress

The Sunshine Bakery forerunner of the Mt. Supply Store is now being managed by the heirs of the late L. K, Ling, Sr.

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city attorney was acting as the prov- vincial fiscal. The post of vice-mayor was designated to ranking U.S. Army officer. One councilor acted as superintendent of the Philippine Constabulary.

Baguio which is known by various epi­

thets as show window of tourism, city in the hills, dream city, “ Little America” and others, was formerly a municipality that comprises the following barrios; Pugo, La Union, San Pascual, Acupan, Tuding, a part of Itogon, a part of Tuba

Partial view of Baguio in 1930


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and Baguio proper. Baguio proper was a part of Guisad Valley which was the main town during the Spanish days. Ses­sion Road, Old Lucban, Irisan, Guisad, and Loakan were the old Igorot villages o f yesteryears.

The present site of the Session Thea tre was a penal colony composed of about 500 liberty prisoners. The Happy Glen Loop area was the camp site for laborers of the Bureau of Public Works The Post Office site was once a consta hulary barracks and later a convent. Other reminiscences of what was once Baguio include the following: Boy Scouts Headquarters site was formrely the site o f Bcguio’s hospital and later a post office until its demolition when the Benguet Auto Line occupied the place; the road entrance to the La Salle cor- . ent from Legarda Road was a cemetery

used during the Spanish and American regimes; Teachers’ Camp athletic grounds was an and O.d Lucban were formerly catlle ranches of the Carantes family; the Carino ranch extended from Camp John Hay to Burnham Park. Constabu­lary Hill was formerly owned by the Romeros during: the Spanish rule and later sold to the Government. The first catholic schools were the St. Patrick School for boys and the Saint Louis School for girls.

The all time most colorful Baguio carnival was in 1915 when Chainus, the charming Igorot girl from Bua, was che sen queen. The only one who could run against her was Josephine Ryan.

As to public holidays, Rizal dav was the one most generally celebrated with a big parade. The Fourth o f July ran a poor second.

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS, Baguio Carnival and Exposition, 192:!. Standing from left to right: H. T. Hayakawa, Ceferino Floresca. Deputy Gov. Juan Gaerlan. Mr. James A. Wright, A. V. Jacinto and C. A. On. Sitting from left to right: Jose Castro, Director General. Col. F. E. Taggart. Dr. Teodoro Arvisu, First Lieutenant Howard Edmunds and Mr. V. Valle.

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The Baguio Civic League was founded sire to help Baguio prosper. Funds wereby the late— Mauricio Oteysa. Among its raised during the Carnival fo r the Rizalfirst project was the 1923 Baguio Carni- Memorial Hall. They made a profit o fval the object o f which is to awaken in P10,000 and this money was used for thethe people civic conciousness and the de- construction o f the above mentioned hall.



The Exposition is intended to demons­trate the natural resources, the local in* dustries and the activities of the people of the Mountain Province and the conti­guous Ilocano provinces from whence came, in a great measure, the culture and examples which developed the industries o f the mountain peoples. Down through the centuries have come traits o f indus­try and character, traits brought with them when, perhaps thousands o f years ago, an Indonesian migration came in from the north and west; came from lands already well advanced in civilization. In­deed, at the time of the Spansih invasion of the Philippines these highlanders were living in a state o f civilization similar

to what Pizarro found amongst the In- cas o f Peru their intensive rice produc tion by means o f terraces, their weaving and wood-carving and basket-making, their knowledge o f mining and working gold and copper, as well as their system o f ownership of real property, all were remarkable now.

These, then, are the people whom you are asked to come and see in their own beloved mountains. To see their advance­ment, their adaptation on the more mo­dern methods of industry as well as that of form er years. It will be an Exopsition demonstrating also, the home life o f these sturdy mountaineers, their typical vil­lages, their sports, their contests of war and peace, all will be brought together for your information and your admiration. They are friendly and kindly, these high­landers, and they cordially invite you to visit them.

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CHAINUS GUIREYKnown as t*>e Benguet Queen and sweet­heart of the Mountains.


The empress ai;d queens with their consorts of the 19/3 carnival



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CARNIVAL QUEEN OF IStrsThe former Martina Salming, now Mrs.

J. Carantes. The late Dr Hilary Clapp was her consort.


The Bensuet Auto Line muse.-.

1 1 3

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An igorot diggings in Antamok during the later part of the Spa­nish regime.


The Igorots were among the first in the Islands to produce gold. Through their primitive attemtps at mining, they were

An igorot “miner" using simple tools for excavation in his tunnel.

able to trade with the early Chinese traders for gems in exchange for gold. Interesting discoveries had been made in the Benguet hills by archaeologists to give proof of old Igorot mine workings. It is. likewise, a community belief that long be­fore the coming of the Spaniards in the Mountain region, the Chinese emigrants prospected for gold. Igorot labor was at the time exploited by the Chinese invad­ers. Among the most interesting primitive methods o f mining which were handed down from generation to generation were the following:

Igorot woman with stone crusher

Surface ore was removed by a simple method. In the hollow of one rock, the ore was ground to powder by means of a small rock fitted into the hollow of a larger stone. The small pieces o f rock- ore went out and gold was then melted o ff this crude mortar without the use of chemicals to segregate the gold.

A second ancient method was burying great quantities o f ore containing gold in a dark tunnel until it w'as disintegrated. Gold then was later panned out.


Using his simple tools the Igorot has made many excavations along the line of the gold bearing veins. He would break

[ 124 ]

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down the rock by building a fire against its face and dashing cold water on the heated surface. He carries out the ore in baskets, the gangue likewise; or drags it out in larger baskets or stoneboats made o f hollo\.ed logs attached to cara­bao hide thongs. Many tunnels are ne­cessarily small and tortuous-following the ore in the hard rock; but some credit­able shafts, raises, winzes, stopes, and fills are seen. The best Igorots methods of timbering, stoping, and back filling are admired even by American miners.

The Igorot worked in and down as far as feasible; driving tunnels many meters long and putting in raises or shafts until stopped by very hard rock or waterflow. They endured the foul air until their smoky torches refused to burn. All the modern mines are developments of old, partly abandoned, Igorot workings.

Still another method was panning o ff the free gold found above water level and skillfully washing the gold-bearing sands from the river beds. Because of the ab­sence o f tools, machinery, and explosives, the natives made use of a washing board and a large shallow wooden bowl. Quartz

the rock due to the action of the steam produced from the water content of the rock. The native cop­per was picked out of the ore and the bal­ance was roasted in a furnace.

GOLD MANUFACTUREWhile of necessity, much of the gold is

disposed of in the form of bullion, the Igo­rots o f course love the beautiful metal for itself and have made ornaments and utensils for their own use. They mould and hammer out earrings, necklaces, finger rings, carabao and pig figures; and at Tabio they mined the gold which they beat out into gold dishes and even a hat. Jose Fianza, a former rich owner o f an Antamok mine, had manufactured from gold a whole set o f dishes and numerous other articles.

While gold is "by far the chief mining interest of the Igorot, he has mined some salt, flint, opal, mag­netite, possibly coal and iron; but his oth­er main mining inte­rest has been copper.

The copper ore bo­dy in Man k a y a n,

where streaks may carry about 20% cop. per, was successfully worked for centuries before the advent of the Spaniards.

The ore was bro­ken down by means of iron instruments, and by fire; which was also used to break up

An Igorot woman panning the gold dust,

was pulverized by hand and then washed. For a trip hammer, a sapling was fasten­ed to a heavy stone. For an anvil, an­other stone was utilized. Thus, the quartz placed on the anvil is crushed by the trip hammer. The crushed quartz was then pul­verized and washed in a coconut shell containing “ gogo” sap juice. The “ arras- te” or the wooden bowl has a charge of 50 pounds.

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In the picture above E. A. Shevlin is p ic­tured with three Igorot miners, washing the ore they have obtained through mining meth­ods used for centuries by the natives.

They said, “ Thar is gold in them thar hills.”

The Americans who came over with the U.S. Army some 50 years ago, were an adventurous lot of pioneer stock and many of them stayed to make their fortunes and help develop the Philippines.

The lure o f gold called some of the hardiest ones to the wilds of the tangled mountains of Benguet, long renowned for its production of gold and copper by the natives.

Seeking “ gold in them thar hills” a party of ten men, U.S. Volunteers lately discharged from the service, made their way to Suyoc prospecting for gold and to Mankayan for copper. Shortly joined by others, they were Billy Birch, Jimmy Chambers, W. F. Hale, Frank Johnson, Dan Ming, Charley Pettit, C. E. Nathorst, Tom Newcomb, Henry Reader, C. M.

Pioneers who blazed the trail for the mining industry in Benguet pose for a picture. From left to right are: Joseph K. Icard, the late Mrs. Lillie Icard, the late George M. Icard, Mary Icard, Tom Phil­lips, Miss Liggett, an English teacher; Carl Schneider and Edward Shelvin.



Thorndyke. (a mining engineer from A r i­zona), A1 W right (form er color bearer in Roosevelts Rough R id ers ), and Bill W ood­ward. That same year another party,George Icard, G affney and Probosko, came over land through Candon and joined ■ them. Later on others cam e: A lfred H ora,

First gold pouring at a P.I. cya Hide mill at Ai.tamok in 1!I07.

John Muller, Meader, AI Pettit, John Gillies, V. Lednicky, Pat Hoover, C. P. Dugan, S. J. Douglas, etc.

The first comers got together and or­ganized a Mining Association, adopted the U.S. Mining Law (two years before the Philippine Islands government did) and then started staking mining claims. Hav­ing little money and finding native me­thods most profitable, they mined the rich stringers at Palidan, Dugoay and Isamy. Hale and Thorndyke were the first

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Americans to bring an assay outfit to the Philippines. Muller, a husky young German, distinguished himself for his re­cord run over the steep Igorot trails to distant Baguio and back bringing medi­cine for Meader. He is said to have made it in a little over two days. Muller was the first civilian in the Philippines to be struck by a Jap bomb from which death resulted.

Exploration work was done during’ the ■ John Muller ana James Chambers both oldtimers and mining propectors in Baguio and Mt. Province posed for a picture with their Igorot farming. Others, like Ex-Governoi Hale, Col. Nathorst, Hoover and Icard went on to make fame or fortune else­where.

The pioneer prospectors did not strike it rich; but profited mostly in the rich thrilling experiences which they had: al­though some (either they or their heirs)- like Cahmbers and Muller, have become well to do by means o f their interest in the claims which they staked and retain­ed always insisting that they were rich.

Among the pioneer prospectors and miners in the Baguio gold district were J. D. Highsmith, Jack Hartwell, Cal Horr, J. F. Reairs, Clyde Pat Galvin, Nels Pe­terson, P. J. O’Neill, H. H. (Blondy) Ho­ward, C. P. Dugan, A. I. Reynolds, George Icard, Louis Hil Vaid, Tom Phi lipps, W. A. Ebert, L. L. Banon, Carl Schneider, Gus Peterson (Igorots Pete) M. A. Clarke, John Morrison and Jim Keliy-

------ o------


The Headwatersfollowing years the Mankayan-Suyoc area. However, no* mine was developed un­til, during the big mining boom (in 1932- 37) the strong Lepanto and Suyoc min­ing companies were organized to explore and developed the ore bodies there.

Some of these early pioneeis such as Hora, Reader, Gaffney, Pettit, Douglas, Gillies and Dugan found good wives among the native women, settled down (as well as such pioneers can for awhile) to raise families, making their living partly

Larry Wilson prospecting in Abra

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Possibly the first of the American miners was Jack Hartwell, who in 1901, set up a three stamp mill on Hart­well Hill near Sumayao. Hartwell died o f small pox in a hastily constructed iso­lation shack in Burnham Park, attended by L. L. Bar­ron. Dr. J. W McDill, who had grub staked Jack, had the claims patented and they were afterwards purchased by John Hausermann for Benguet Consolidated Mining Company.

Another old timer was Cal Horr, who located his claims along the Kias trail and lived for years on the ridge where a mill was later built by the Cal Horr Mining Company, owned and operat­ed by Benguet. Cal Horr drove many of the tunnels with his own hands and when broke, would make another grub-stake working as a teamster for the U.S. army. Some American missionaries also helped him. Finally Carl Horr was killed, probably by unknown Igorots, while rest­ing under a pine tree on his way back, to the mine with a load of food stuffs. His cargador was also murdered and his body buried in a nearby canyon, throwing sus­picion on him.

One o f the most picture­sque characters was J. F. “ Tex” Reavis, who had come with army as teamster. He was an old Alaskan sour­dough, who came to Baguio and operated a small stamp m i l l with amalgamation plates powered by a Pelton wheel, on the Camote and Clayton claims at Antamok, now owned by Benguet. At clean up time Tex, also an old cow puncher, would sad­dle up his pony and ride up to the Pines Hotel. There he would deposit his bar of gold on the bar and treatL 128 ]

C. Patrick Dugan A miner and prospec­

tor who became well-to-do during the miningboom.

everybody until it was used up. He would entertain visi­tors to his mine by feeding them soudough bread and singing to the music of his violin. A fter he sold his claims to Benguet, he made a trip to the States and there married Juanita of Joaquin Miller the poet. However, she did not follow him her­self; but only with divorce proceedings. Next he bought Klondyke Hot Springs, built a hotel and sold it. Then he married a young Igorot and settled down at Camp 4 to raise goats, starting with 30 and ending up broke. Judge Hausermann pensioned him to live at the Benguet mess; but he pined away and died; being buried in his own pre­viously made coffin during a raging typhoon in the Bag­uio cemetery: ever news to the reporters.

Nels Peterson was the industrious prospector who staked out many of the claims which are now held by Baguio Gold, Benguet Consolidated and Balatoc Mining Companies. He also acquired claims of the pres­ent Itogon Mining Company organized in January, 1925 which had been staked out

by H. H. “ Blondy” Howard and P. J. O Neill. His wife Mary, who became Mrs. Jan. Marsman, inherited these in­terests and the two became wealthy from these mines and others.

Nels Peterson and Clyde were the first to install a mill in the Baguio district It was at Antamok. Gov. William F. Pack described their activities in these words.

“ These men made their own mill, with its stamps, and with their own hands put it together again every- time it would fall apart. It was a crude flimsy piece of machinery, with an amalga­mating plate so small that; it would ordinarily be consi­dered impracticable, probably about2- l / 2 feet long, yet with their indomitable ener­gy and perseverance these men worked about 300 tons o f ore through this little mill, and saving perhaps G0 % o f the gold in ore, the rem­aining 40% being left in the dump.

C. P. Dugan arrived in the Phil, in 1910, assigned to Troop “ K ” 2nd cavalry U.S. Army, and helped pacify the Moros in Mindanao and Su- lu. A fter two years, his troop returned to the States where they spent three years stationed mostly along the Mexican border. Dugan re­turned to the P.I. in the Q.M. Dept., being assigned incharge of a mule pack train which made frequent trips from Camp John Hay up the Mt. Trail and on as far as Lubuagan. One camp was at Suyoc where he was fascinated by the high grade ore which the Igorots were grinding with rub rocks, and resolved to get his discharge and settle there. However World W ar I took him to Fiance and Germany.

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Construction work on the new 10-stamp mill of the Benguet Consolidated Company, Baguio. As­say office to left, mill site near center, storehouse to right, pipe line and haulage tunnel from mine in background.

Coming back in 1920, Du­gan headed for Suyoc. He be­came the mines shift boss at

• Benguet Consolidated; until1929, also at Itogon, Ba- latoc and Su.voc. Finally finding something of his own, he became general su­perintendent of Benguet Ex­ploration.

The late J. J. Murphy had mining as his main interest. While paymaster on the Kennon road he located the claims (later called Benguet

1 Goldfields) where a gold de­posit had been opened up by road construction, later ab­andoned. He turned this group in with, the adjacent Demonstration Gold Mines, Ltd. ( organized in 1932 with a capital o f PI,000,000) dur­ing the boom and became its controlling back holder.

W . E. “ Billy” Ebert was a kindly prospector who staked out what became the property of the Antamok Gold Fields and also other claims in Tuding. After Eb­ert’s death in 1929 John Mul­ler and Rudolph Kappel bought for P500 the claims on which Antamok Gold Fields was organized in 1932 with a capitalization o f Pl,- 375,000.

H. H. “ Blondy” Howard was another colorful figure. He was lanky, bald headed and had blue pock marks on his face, gotten in a suppos­ed misfire powder blast while working to build Ken­non road. He was a first class hard rock miner and a top prospector; but never worked very hard at them as he figured that he can get along on his wits. He did ma­nage to just get long with the help of friends. Among other claims he located were those at Itogon, Gold Hill and the original claims in Atok of the Atok Gold Min­ing Company.

ON the prospects o f early pioneer prospectors mines

were gradually developed cul­minating in the big mining boom getting underway in 1931, gathered momentum each year, and coming to a bursting climax late in 1937.

Benguet Consolidated Min­ing Co. was the first mine to really go into production. Organized as a Sociedad Ano- nima on the claims staked at Antamok by Clarke, Clyde and Nels Peterson in 1905- 1907, it erected a small mill at Antamok creek which was wiped out by a devastating typhoon flood in 1909; and

with it the interests o f Clarke and Clyde.

Reorganized with a capita­lization o f PI ,000,000 by Atty. John W. Haussermann, who in 1913 became presi­dent, the company finally constructed a 200 ton mill. But it had its ups and downs until in 1924 the long Colbath drainage tunnel was driven and ore was developed on ex­tensions of all levels. An ambitious expansion program was adopted; the size o f the mill increased and the rich Balatoc Mining Company taken over on a 50-50 operat­ing basis. During the next

Pre-war Balatjc

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CAL HORR MINESdecade, Benguet took over se­veral other valuable proper­ties, including the huge chro­mite deposit o f Consolidated Mines at Masinloc, staked by L. L. Wilson in 1933. The company greatly increased its capital stock and issued lush dividends which example was one o f the big inspirations of the mining boom. The happy combination o f circ*mstances which influenced the begin­ning o f the boom was; ( 1 ) a higher price for gold; (2 ) the presence o f considerable Spanish and Chinese capital which could not be sent home due to civil wars; (3) the ex­tremely prosperous conditions in the sugar and coconut in­dustries, thus making money plentiful; (4) the prosperity o f the few already going mines and the known pre­sence o f mineral deposits not yet exploited.

The increasing output and the successful operation of Itogon, Baguio Gold, Big Wedge and afterwards Lepan- to also added to the momen­tum o f the local mining boom.Big Wedge Mining Company


was organized on another old Igorot mine at Muyot. Dr. Thomas, early connected with the Baguio Hospital, had a claim patented there. Later Whitmarsh brought a mining engineer named Tom Philipps, from Australia to explore


the gold deposit. Then in 1921-1922 the Muyot group of mineral claims was located by Gus Peterson (Igorote Pete), A. L. Reynolds, W. A. Ebert, George M. Icard and Fred Hardin. The Reynolds group had also been located

Baguio Gold

two years before by A. I. Reynolds and George Icard.The Igorots, who were allow­ed to mine there in lieu o f a assessment work, and Joe Icard opened up considerable ore. In 1931 the Big Wedge Mining Company was organ­ized on these groups includ­ing Antamok Central, and F.B. Morehouse, recently from Korea, was put in charge. A small amalgamation mill was installed and the capital spent in exploration and de­velopment work.Atok Gold Mining Comapny, ' meanwhile had been organiz­ed by group o f the Baguio Gold people. Its own prospect at Atok proving fruitless,

Atok took over Big Wedge and installed a modern cya- nide-flotation mill; so it was able to declare its first 1 0 % dividend in 1937. In 1948, Atok combined with Big Wedge to form Atok-Big Wedge Mining Company with an authorized capital o f F6 ,- 000 ,000 .

Lepanto Consolidated Min­ing Company, was organized toward the heieht of the min­ing boom by Nielson & Com­pany upon the strong recom­mendation of its geologist George Scholey. As narrated hitherto, it was on the site of an old Igorot copper mine where the Spaniards had

Benguet Consolidated

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done extensive tunneling and obtained some copper. Several fortunes had been spent there during the years, but the ore body had not been found. However, mining engineer Victor E. Lednicky was still persistent in his belief that a mine was there and so most o f the mining claims were combined into Lepanto Con­solidated and a 400-ton flo­tation mill was started up to mill the old Spanish dump and some of the exposures. Luckily as the ore was fol­lowed, a tremendous body of good grade silicified shyolite coppei-gold ore was opened up under the capping of an- desite. Thus this mine has

Pre-warbeen developed into the big­gest copper mine in the Orient.

Meanwhile Gold Creek Min­ing Company with a Pl,- 000,000 capitalization had been organized by C A. O’' Dowd and his associates and the ore milled by the nearby Antamok Gold fields Mating Company wihch was organiz­ed by A. Soriano. A company was organized which built a mill on Cal H orr’s old mine. It was operated by Benguet Consolidated. Benguet Explo­ration w a s organized on claims secured or located by J. D. Highsmith, Pat Dugan, and J.H. Sampson. Gold Ri­ver Mining Company was in­


corporated through the ef­forts of Joe Rice on claims located by “ Igorote” Pete and associates. Demonstration


Gold Mines, Ltd., was largely the result of the work o f J. J. Murphy in a combina­tion of his Benguet Gold- fields, o f Whitmarsh’s old Copper King and Crown Mines, Inc.

In the Suyoc-Mankayan


district, the Suyoc Consoli­dated Mining Company was organized on claims secured or staked out by Douglas, Pedro Tawas, L. L. Wilson and others. Twin Rivers Gold Company Inc. was planned to re-mill the supposedly rich tailings o f the gold mills at Antamok and Balatoc. South­erly of Itogon Mining Com­pany is the Macawiwili Gold Mining & Dev. Co., Inc. Ba- tong Buhay Mining Company was organized on a rich vein in Kalinga, originally staked by L. L. Wilson.

During the boom all these latter mines were being ope­rated, but they were gradual­ly closing down one after an­other until the war closed the rest and none were in condition to open after the war. However some have ex­cellent possibilities as general conditions improve and will be operated again in time.

Pre-war Atok Big Wedge


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CHARLES HENRY BRENTFirst Missionary Bishop of the Islands and Founder of

the Brent Schoolm

The late Bishop Charles Henry Brent, “ everybody’s bishop,” loved and remembered for the extent of his mis­sionary work in the Philippines from 1901 to 1917 and acclaimed the first missionary bishop of the Islands, was born in Ontario, Canada on April 9, 1862; the son of a rector and of a mother who was “ the peer of the best.”He was ordained priest in 1887. Because of the nobility in his mission he became known far and wide in Manila,

Ch a r l e s h . b r e n t the Mt. Province and even as far as Mindanao. But hiswork among the Igorots attracted his greatest sympathy.

He was the pioneer in the Chirstianiza- at first primarily to minister to the 4tion o f the natives o f the Mt. Province, needs of Americans and Europeans re­in Baguio, Brent School was organized siding in the city.

Father FLORIMOND CARLUPioneer Spiritual Leader

He came to Baguio in 1914 and found a catholic com­munity composed of a handful, sadly in need of guidance.The little church which he built in place o f an old chapel had to accommodate the growing catholic population. And with the help of generous permanent and transient parish­ioners, he built the Baguio Cathedral.

In Campo Filipino, he received the first St. Agustin- ian Sisters (Belgian Sisters). He worked with them and aided them rebuild the Holy Family Convent and the Saint Louis School. He introduced productive industrial works, forerunner of cottage home industry — broom mak­ing, lace making, carpentry, tanning, shoe-making, silver- smithing. Among other things, the public schools were not neglected in his cycle of activities where he regularly gave religious instruction with the help of his assistants.


Father GEORGE C. BARTERFounder, Church of Resurrection

Father George C. Barter’s first glimpse riding was the only available means of o f Baguio was in 1904 when horseback transportation. It was Bishop Brent who

offered him the career ot a priest and after six years of tutelage, he was ordained priest by Bishop Brent in 1909. As chaplain of Saint Luke’s Hospital, Manila was his first assignment. He was next assigned as priest in Sagada, Bon- toc Mission. After 5 years, he was reassigned to his old post as chaplain of St. Luke’s Hospital.

In 1929, he came to Baguio with his wife to organize the Church of Resurrection with a chapel of Easter School which was later reverted to a handsome structure in 1933. He and his wife were concentrated in the Baguio Internment Camp. Upon release he took his wife to the U. S. where she finally passed away. He returned to Baguio in 1947 as a retired priest, and died a few years later. He was born in Maidstone County, England on Sept. 16, 1876.


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Dr. H. E. STAFFORDDirector of the First Civil Hospital

Dr. H. E. Stafford, recipient of an Order o f the Purple Heart for meritorious service during the early American oc­cupation of the Philippines and author o f several Igorot tales like “ The Sun God’s W ife” which are now Congressional Li­brary rarities, was the man responsible for opening the Ba­guio Santarium in 1902. A ranking surgeon, he came to the Philippines with Gen. Arthur MacArthur Jr. and served as personal physician to all former American governor-generals o f the Philippines from W. Howard T aft to Cameron Forbes.He was the director o f the first civil hospital in Manila and became an active member and one time liberation he went to Sta. Cruz, Califor- president of the Baguio Rotary Club. He nia with his wife and had their residence was considered one o f the important fig - there. He died years ago. ures in Baguio and Mt. Province. A fter


Another name in Baguio’s gallery of pioneers and old- timers, was among the American volunteers who fought during the Spanish-American W ar in 1898. Baguio became his home shortly after his retirement from the Army. He worked for the Baguio Gold Mining Company and the Ben­guet Consolidated and engaged in mine prospecting. By his first marriage, he had 4 children. His second wife, Lily whom he married in 1933 opened the first Christian Science School for Igorots. In 1936, he contracted a third marriage with E ffie Grey o f California.

During his lifetime he organized several mining cor­porations — King Solomon, Nayak Mines, Icard Mines, Gold Coin Mining Co. He was a form er stockholder o f the Atok- Big-Wedge Mining Co. He died in San Francisco, U.S.A. on February 4, 1938.



Among Baguio’s builders, he came over building the Kenncn Road from 1901 to with the American troops in 1900 and 1904. From 1908 to 1912, he served as was among those who v.-e; b employed in Disbursing O fficer and property clerk of the Bureau o f Public Works. When Baguio was made a chartered city in 1909, and when the need for wholesome en­tertainment became more acute, he built the Baguio Cine and engaged in various business enterprises. In no time he made his enterprise a going concern. He built a concrete theatre edifice and named it Alhamar-Chainus, the best in town at the time. The mining boom merely made the show business more lucrative. He later sold the Alhamar to the Bachrach Motor Company.

Born in Detroit, U.S.A. on May 3, 1878, he made Baguio his permanent home together with his family. He was one time office manager of Heald’s Sawmill and was among the organizers o f the Baguio Chamber o f Commerce.



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H. C. HEALDFounder, Heald Lumber Company

H. C. HEALDcorporated on April Lumber Company continued to grow side by side with Baguio City.

Today the Company ranks as the fore­most commercial lumber operation in

H. C. Heald, among the pioneer-builders of Baguio came to the city in 1906 when it was still a wilderness. With Oscar F. Campbell as a partner, he saw the vast possibilities of the lumber business in Benguet, especially in Baguio. He took over Whitmarsh’s sawmill and in 1908 founded the Heald Sawmills.

Starting with a small timber concession, he initiated the first aerial tramway at a 4,000 feet span and succeeded in spite of skepticism on the part of observers. From a small beginning and after the Company was formally in- 20, 1934, Heald Baguic City and the Mountain Province,

which position, can mainly be credited to the growth and progress of Baguio City itself.


J. D. Highsmith came to the Philippines in 1900 with the U.S. Army, but it was in 1902 that he first saw Ba­guio. His name will always go side by side with the dis­covery o f Antamok Goldfields, Benguet Exploration, and the rich quartz vein that made Balatoc, the ranking enterprise in Philippine mining.

In 1904, he worked in H. P. Whitmarsh’s sawmill. In a short time, he contracted a strong susceptibility to gold prospecting. In 1907 he had H. B. Gallager, now deceased, as his co-worker. They soon located the Leonora group, now a part o f Baguio Gold. He later joined Cal Horr in the same endeavor.He got the thrill o f a lifetime when he succeeded Thomas Philips as superinten­dent o f Balatoc Mines which was then the Acunan. His conscientiousness was


rewarded when he found the rich quartz vein.

At Tip-Top, Baguio, he built his home adjoining a house owned by his son, Tom on a spacious lot.


JOE RICEPioneer Businessman

He came to Baguio after twelve years of service in the U.S. Army as a private first class. Baguio conditions awakened his business instinct and with a capital o f merely a few pesos, he launched a business career by opening a small store. Later, he engaged in the vegetable business bringing the much needed commodity to Manila. It was he who ori­ginated the baskets in which to ship produce and who initiat­ed the move to develop strawberry growing. He imported strawberry planting on a large scale. He engaged in other ventures and, likewise, succeeded— real estate brokerage, and ways known to be civic-minded and charitable especially to the needy.

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JOHN W. HAUSSERMANN(Baguio’s Adopted Son)

Any resident or non-resident of Baguio City who has not heard of the name of JOHN W. HAUSSERM ANN has not set foot on Philippine soil. For the name HAUSSERM ANN automatically means GOLD in big golden capital letters. Jurist, businessman, civic-leader, philan­thropist — Mr. HAUSSERM ANN has showed, in his lifetime, a love and respect for the things that Mother Earth would show him. In his own ingenous way of handling everything worthwhile in life, he was very successful in putting Philippine Mother Earth to his own use for the be­nefit and welfare of the Filipinos.

HAUSSERM ANN is synonymous with the Philippine gold mining industry. A fter a colorful life in the Philippines running the gamut of a respectable dispenser of punishments according to the law to business executive, from when he earned the sobriquet of JUDGE, this grand old man of the gold mining industry finally settled down to make Mother Earth help him make his adopted country as happy a country as he would like it to be. It was mainly due to his faith in the gold mining industry that the Philip­pines became a gold producer. His Ben­guet Consilidated gave employment to thousands and thousands who, otherwise, would be tilling the farms or be lying idle for want o f something better to do.

Later, his numerous philanthropic projects endeared him to the talented but financially handicapped. His interests ran from the simple but hard-working laborer to the high-browed scientist who never turned out the evening lamp in the eternal fight to make mankind happy and healthy. To this day, HAUtSSERMANN is mentioned with awe, respect, and dignity everywhere you go in the country.

What is BAGUIO TO-DAY is one of the crowning glories of HAU SSER- H AN N’s life, variously dubbed with no small measure of awe and deep respect by even the most hardened businessman as Philippine Mining Magnate, Philippine Gold King, Pioneer o f Modern Industry, Mining Wizard, Outstanding Captain o f Industry, he has consistently shown a hu­mility that reminds one of the Scriptures. He has never forgotten his humble begin­nings as a young graduate of law (aged

Judge John W. Haussermann President


20 years) o f the University of Cincinnati, from when he moved on to the Leaven­worth, Kansas, where, soon, enough, he earned his spurs to merit an appointment as City Attorney. He served well and creditably. When American volunteers were called to the colors to assist in the “ liberation” of the Philippines from Spain, young H AU SSERM AN N was a 2nd Lieutenant o f Company C o f the Kansas volunteers. Preferring to remain in the islands, he was instumental in the drafting o f the first Manila Charter. Soon, he became an Assistant Attorney- General. Retiring from government ser­vice, he became a partner in the Coudert Bros, law firm. He was immediately in the thick o f private law practice in Mani­la and soon became senior partner o f the HAU SSERM ANN , Cohn, and Fisher law offices. On his setirement from private law practice, he gave all his fight to the development of the mining industry in the country. Becoming Baguio’s prime booster was then inevitable.

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(July 29, 1892 -M ay 5, 1956)

With the passing of Jan Hendrik Mars- man, the world lost a man o f vast vision. Had he spent his time solely assembling his ideas that the men around him could have understood his contribution to the Philippines and the rest o f the world would have been much greater than they are. Perhaps the reason the Marsman or­ganization is as great as it is today is he and his w ife in the early days work­ed as a team. Mrs. Marsman understood his ideas perfectly and could lay them out clearly enough to have them followed.

Mr. Marsman, born in Ansterdam, Hol­land, was educated at the Middelbaar Technische School In Amsterdam (1911) and received his degree in civil engineer­ing from the College o f Technology in1913. He became assistant to Dr. W yn- berg, inventor o f the Norit process. This process is widely used in the refining of raw sugar. Following his association with Dr. Wynberg, Mr. Marsman was made a representative o f the General Norit Co. and travelled for his concern throughout Europe, A frica and the Orient. He came to the Philippines in January 1919 to con­struct and operate the only sugar refinery in the country at that time, the Malabon Sugar Co.; and shortly afterward was appointed Vice-President and Manager of the corporation. It was the Malabon Su­gar Co. that exported the first white re­fined sugar from the Philippines and it was of an excellent quality. Together he and Mrs. Marsman started a candy fac- [ 136 ]

tory and in 1923 had closed contracts with various large stores in the United States where they had met the representatives ^ o f these companies at the sugar conven­tion in Atlantic City. The candy factory was a paying proposition from the start, and had Mr. Marsman continued in Ma­labon Sugar Co. no doubt these candies would have been known throughout the Far East.

In 1924, Mr. and Mrs.- Marsman moved to Baguio to start the development of a group of mining claims there. The fol­lowing year they incorporated the Itogon Mining Co. in which Mr. Marsman not only served as General Manager, Trea­surer, etc., but who actually worked very hard to make it a success. He gave two solid years of his time solely to the de­velopment of the Itogon Mine. y

Mr. Marsman organized Marsman & Company, Inc. in 1929 in a small office on Session Road in Baguio that was to become later the core of 26 associated en- < tities. Each year saw a great stride to­wards progress, so much so that the com- pany’s activities became international in scope that included diversified business in mining, sawmilling, construction, smelting, freight hauling, financing, trading and in­surance not only in the Philippines but also in Batavia; Hongkong, Thailand,Burma, Malaya, Netherlands, East Indies, London, San Francisco and New York.

For his vast contribution to the mining industry in the Philippines, Mr. Marsman was conferred the honorary degree of “ Doctor of Engineering” by the Colorado School of Mines, U.S.A., in May 1939.

A business magnate of international re­nown, he tackled with ingenuity the task of rehabilitation and reconstruction of the tremendous damage inflicted by the war on his industrial empire.

In the Philippines particularly, Mr. Marsman was responsible for the organ­ization of the Philippine Abaca Develop­ment Co., co-organizer of the Palawan Quicksilver Mines, Inc., the Palawan Con­solidated Mining Co— proofs of his in­genuity, foresight and executive and or­ganizational ability.

To Baguio and the Mountain Province he left his imprint upon progress.

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He was born in Wurtzburg, Germany. At the early age of14, he left Germany and settled in Ledville, Colorado. It was there that he acquired invaluable experiences in mining. During the Spanish-American War, he joined the Colorado Regiment as a volunteer and was among the first to ar­rive in the Philippines. Upon his discharge from the ar­my, he together with James Chambers, Sr., engaged in mine prospecting in Mankayan, Mt. Province. Later, he served as foreman in Cervantes under the Bureau of Public Works.

From the year 1924 to 1932, he work- ing Co. ed as foreman in the Benguet Consoli­dated. During the same year he bought the claims of Mr. Evert and Mr. Rudolph Kuphell in the Antamok Goldfields Mines.In Lepanto, he and Mr. Chambers staked their claims in an assessed area which were later entered into operating con­tract with the Lepanto Consolidated Min-


Since his arrival in the Philippines and until his death as a war casualty in 1942, he lived in Baguio and the Mt. Province. He was married to the form er Laney Ngaosi o f Mankayan with whom he had 11 children, 6 sons and 5 daughters.


Colonel W . E. DOSSEREx-Lt. Governor of Ifugao

Colonel W. E. Dosser, one time commander of the first military district o f the Philippine Army with headquarters in Baguio. As a young constabulary lieutenant from 1908 to 1909 he maintained order and won the confidence of some 13,000 turbulent Ifugaos. He was appointed Lieute­nant Governor of Ifugao on June 13, 19^6 whose term lasted until Feb. 1, 1927 when he was assigned as district com­mander of northern Luzon with headquarters at San Fer­nando, La Union. On Feb. 1, 1929, he relieved John C. Early o f the governorship of the Mt. Province. A fter this, he was called upon to serve as inspector general o f the Phil. Army followed by a resumption of his form er post as District Commander of Northern Luzon. W herever he was assigned, he helped build roads and trails, established schools and important stations, erected buildings, and sub­dued hostile tribes.

GEORGE O. STEWARTA pioneer in transportation

ippines as eariy as 19U1 as a civilian clerk employe of the U.S. Arm y until 1912. He worked with the Manila Rail-

George O. Stewart came to the Phil- road and later entered into a partnership with Frank Smith in a tri-enterprise transportation, hotel, G. o . S t e w a k xand general store in Bauang, La Union. With a Baguio branch, their freight service in no time included ihe various mines and the government mail. Later in Bauang, La Union, he became an independent hotel and transportation owner.In Baguio, he set up in 1925 the Pines Garage with 30 busses and freight trucks. With the assistance o f his only son Claude Stewart, he managed the enterprise until 1933 when it was sold to another party.

He was born in August 10, 1879 in Morant Bay, Jamai- i ca, British West Indies. He passed away in 1938.

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Mrs. J. H. Marsman as a hostess at a charmingly arranged dinner at the Pines Hotel celebrating the birthday of J. H. Marsman, B.J.S. Ohnick, EX. Hobbs, David Blythe and Doornboscb, an annual net-together occasion (or old friends daring Use pre-war days.


ing industry in the Philippines.Mrs. Marsman took over the tremendous

responsibilities of the Marsman organ­ization when the late Jan H. Marsman, one of the ablest industrial leaders o f the country, died on ̂ May 5, 1956.

She had watched, seen for herself, and actively engaged in the prowth and ex­pansion of the Marsman interests by dint o f faith and hard work. She provided the solid basis of the success of the late Mr. Marsman as an industrialist and business­man.

The people of Baguio and Mountain Province may know very little the role that she is playing in the furtherance of progress in this part; of the country. But the part that she is contributing towards a sound economy for the young Republic cannot be ignored or disregarded, and as long as she lives vse are certain she will keep that faith and radiant hope in the bright future of not only Mountain Prov­ince but also the Philippines which she has come to love.

A firm believer in the riches of Philip­pine soil, Mrs. Marsman by using her per­sonal funds is working steadily to make the Philippine Abaca Development Co. a paying proposition. One-half o f the plan­tation is being planted to rubber which she fully believes the Philippines can and will produce in quantity. The lower ground is planted to coffee, coconut and

cacao and in order to help bring in an in­come cover crops are grown; as the soil is very fertile and productive, the cover crops pay part of the expense. She hopes that by the end of next year it will really be a worthwhile long-range project.

She was solely responsible for the founding and development c f the Palawan Quicksilver Mines, Inc., the only quicksil­ver (mercury) mine in the Philippines and one of a handful in the world. Under her management as President, the mine is undergowing further expansion. This company is a very consistent dollar earn­er for the country and has paid out more than a million pesos in cash to stockhold­ers in addition to a 50r/- stock dividend.

She is President of the Hoechst-Mars- maa, Inc., which was recently established. Farbwerke Hoechst is one o f the largest chemical firms in Europe located in West Germany. She is also the President of the chromite and mercury mine, the Palawan Consolidated Mining Co.

The Business Writers Association of the Philippines at its annual awards meeting voted Mrs. A. Marsman as Wo­man Executive of the Year (1958), for outstanding executive ability in the man- agment of the vast Marsman enterprises.

Mrs. Mary A. Marsman became a Fili­pino citizen on January 5, 1934. She was born in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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MRS. MARY A. MARSMANOutstanding Woman Mining Executive

Mrs. Mary A. Marsman is an outstand­ing woman mining executive whose con­tribution towards progress in Baguio and Mountain Province are very noteworthy and indisputable. She is one of the very few women executives in the world, if not the only woman top executive, who ac­tively heads and manages a commercial, industrial and agricultural organization o f the size and scope of Marsman & Com­pany, Inc., one of the most progressive entities in the Philippines.

To write about the contributions of Mrs. Marsman towards the industrial and economic progress in Mountain Province is to dwell on the early years of mining ventures and experiences of her first husband, Mr. Nels Petersen o f Goteburg, Denmark, who discovered the Benguet Mine in 1899 and, later, located Bua- Headwaters, Acupan and other mining properties farther north and in the south; it was after his marriage that they found Itogon and Suyoc.

Together with Mr. C. M. Eye and Mr. George Icard, mine foreman, Mr. Nels Petersen formed the Benguet Consolidat­ed Mining Co. in 1910. Mr. Petersen left for the United States and it was while he was there that he married Mrs. -Mars- man. He returned to the Philippines in1914, arriving on the same ship which carried the mining machinery and equip­ment for the Benguet Mine. Mrs. Mars­man, then Mrs. Petersen, arrived in Manila March 6 , 1915. She and Mr. Pe­tersen lived at Benguet Consolidated in a small nipa house built by him on a mining claim given to them by Dr. Mc- Dill as a wedding present.

Mr. and Mrs. Petersen returned to the United States in April 1918; and in Oct­ober of that year Mr. Petersen died sud­denly. Mrs. Petersen then returned to the Philippines on January 9, 1919. In Jan­uary of 1920 she met Mr. J. H. Marsman and they were married September 8 , 1920. At that time Mr. Marsman was Manager and Director of the Malabon Su­gar Co. Mrs. Marsman continued the work at the Itogon Mine with Sotero de Guz­man and J. W. Howard, popularly known

as “ Baldy” an old American prospector.In 1924, Mr. and Mrs. Marsman gave

serious thought to the formation o f a company and shortly after Mr. Marsman separated from the Malabon Sugar Com­pany he took over the engineering part of Itogon. A company was organized and the Headwaters mill was brought and in­stalled at Itogon. The early days of I5en- guet Consolidated and those c f Itogon were not easy. Mrs. Marsman built the first school in Benguet Consolidated and actually ran the school with the aid of two Filipino teachers. The school was also used for church services and sometimes as a recreation center for the employees. Mrs. Marsman started the M. P. Tranco, Inc. in 1930. Mr. Marsman then had al­ready opened a small office, which was his hobby, and which today is called Mars­man & Company, Inc.

This organization, established in Oct­ober 1929, grew steadily and developed into a group o f 20 entities which, prior to the outbreak of the war in the Paci­fic, was successfully engaged in mining, sawmilling, construction, transportation, smelting, financing, trading and insur­ance. The Marsman organization was the first to organize a complete management, operations and supply service for the min-

Mrs. Mary A. Marsman President


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Mr. Otto Scheerer while searching for the famous Mummy Cave, with Dr. Jose 1M. Carino and some relatives.

Dr. & Mrs. Eugene Stafford, Baguio oldtimers are shown in their spac­ious garden. Note the blooming Easter Lilies and other imported plants that have been introduc­ed by them during their stay here.


During the early days horse riding was one of the com­mon pastime of Ba­guio oldtimers. I11 the picture are Mr. and Mrs. F. X. Ryan with one of their friends i n Camp John Hay.

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t h e v is it in g c o n ­g r e s s io n a l DELEGA­TION were warmly wel­comed by Baguio citizens at the reception given by tne Gold Mining Ass. at the Baguio Country Club. Standing left to right, E. M. Bachrach, Chief of Police J. J. Keith, Vice - Pres. John M. Garner, Major J. E. Stevenot, Dr. H. E. Staf­ford, Judge John W. Haussermann, and Dr. Teodoro C. Arvisu. Seat­ed, Mrs. Arvisu, Mrs. Stevenot, Mrs. Garner, Mrs. Stafford and Mrs. J. N. Evangelista.

Opening of the Baguio Gun Club. Here the group is shown in the midst of festivities, about 50 mem­bers and guests attended the opening of the Ba­guio Gun Club which was held on Sunday, May 8, 1937. Tom Highsmith and Capt. J. J. Kieth were the only marksmen able to make perfect scores of 25 hits. The lechon, hot dogs, and draft beer were much en­joyed by all.

tOne of the trips

of Mrs. Mary Mars­man in Baguio dur­ing the early devel­opment of the mines. In the same group are Mayor E. Halse- m i, Mr. Marsman a n d vice - m a y o r Speth.

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ront row, from left to right: Nick Kaminski. Alvin Rudquist, J. A. Hamton, Frank Krueger, M ajor E. Speth, H. L. Fisher, H. Eugene Stafford, John Grau, J. A. Nlll, Mike Ryan, and D. Walstrom. Second row, from left to right: Walter E. Smith James

sses, J. D. Highsmith, Mathias Kier. Arthur E. McCann. Chief of Police J. J. Keith and Jorge Ratcliffe.\MERICAN VETERANS CELEBRATE OCCUPATION DAY ON AUG. 13, 194C

To commemorate the 42nd anniversary of the occupation of Manila by the Amer­ican soldiers, veterans of the Spanish- American war in Baguio gathered at the Shamrock Hotel. Directly responsible for

this oldtimers’ gathering was J. A. Nill. These oldtimers v.'ere prominent figures in government, business, and mining circles. The gathering served to recall the early experiences they had in the Philippines.

Resplendent with their service medals, the veterans looked back with pride to their achievements to boost the welfare and pro­gress in the Islands. Thess 18 pioneers are included in the picture.

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Baguio Post No. 9 of the American Legion held a regular monthly meeting at the private picnic grounds of Major Hill Speth’s home, May 1, 1940. Eighty-seven World War veterans headed by General W.S. Grant, commanding general of the Philippine Department attended.

Dignitaries seated in front from lett to rignt: co l. J. E. Cambell, General J.T.H. O’rear, Capt. Kenton, P. Cooley, W.T. Graham, Ed Mullaney, Gov. Walter Hale, General W.S. Grant, Major E. Speth, Col. R.M. Carswell, Major John D. Hood, Col. J. M. Love, E.E. Little.

Members of the American Legion, Philippine Department, Baguio Post No. 9. Taken during installation of Past Officers at Baguio, September 1937.

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Baguio Teacher Training Institute, April 2-12, 1923. This picture was taken at the old United Church of Christ building at Burnham Park. In the group are some American and Filipino teachers who attended the Institute.

One of the pre-war meetings of the Christian Science Organization at the City Auditorium with Mr. & Mrs Marv Icard.

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Manuel L. Puezon and visitors to his Pines City home during the legislative leader’s trip to Baguio. Left to right: M. Reyes, Dr. Andreas Trepp, Mayor E. Hal- sema, Mr. Quezon, Major E. Speth, J. Rosenthal, Manuel Nieto, and James Wright.

A picnic party given by Vice-Mayor Emil Speth in honor of President Manuel Quezon during one of his trips to Baguio. In the same group are; Dr. Manuel Canizares, Mayor E. Halsema. M. Reyes, Sixto Laraya. etc.

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Among the leading founders and builders of Baguio were Masons who were wont to informally gather together. Some time in 1920 they organized into the “ Square and Compass Club” which held its meetings on the second floor of the Senior Mess Hall at Teacher’s Camp.

Deciding to form a Masonic Lodge, petition was filed with the Grand Lodge of the Philippines and on December 23, 1920, the Most Worshipful Grand Master issued the necessary Dispensation and a Charter was granted on January 25, 1921. Thus the Lodge was constituted and the first officers were publicly installed with a big party and dance in the Union Mess Hall at Teacher’s Camp on March 28, 1921. The principal officers installed were:

W.M., Bro. J. w. Smith (Capt., U.S.Army, Camp John Hay);S.W., Bro. C Bowers (Col., P.C., Camp Allen);J.W., Bro. Saturnino David (City Treasurer);Sect., Bro. Mauricio J. Oteyza (District Forester);S Deacon, Bro. Arthur E. McCann (Custodian, Teachers’ Camp).From Teacher’s Camp the Lodge Hall was transferred successively to the

P.M.A. Hall at Camp Allen (1921), the B.P. Hall, and the Executive building, Government Center, where in 1924 this picture was taken.

Bottom Row: Francisco Gumula, M ajor Pedro Dulay, Arthur E. McCann, Capt. J. W. Smith, (G en .) Simeon de Jesus, Casiano Rivera, and Mauricio J. Oteyza.

Middle Row: Edilberto Madrid. Prim o San Pedro, Pio Rosas, Mr. Whitaker, James Wright, Capt. Olympia and Capt. Relosa.

Top R ow : Juan Resurreccion, H. Blancas, W. H. Reese, Martin Carreon, Eugenio Plata, Ceferino Floresca, and Francisco de Gala. Thus the Lodge grew.

Prospecting, in 1935 while Juan Medina was Master, the Lodge purchased a two story building on Abanao St. from Fiscal Zandueta and established its lodge hall there.

However, the Lodge was desirous of having a suitable building and about two years later sold the Zandueta building for P20.000 and bought a lot on Legarda St. near the Baguio Central School, assessed each brother P50 for a building fund, and planned a temple.

While Juan Resurreccion was Master and John Woodson was secretary in 1937, the property was mortgaged to Joseph Rice for P18,000 (payable P100 monthly) and a handsome temple costing some P32.000 was erected to St. John. There followed several good years.

Came the 2nd World War which dispersed the brethren and placed about

Top Row: Juan R e surreccion, H. Blancas, W. H. Reese, Martin Car- reon, Eugenio Pla­ta, Ceferino Flo- rcsca, and Fran­cisco de Gala. Thus the Lodge grew.

Middle Row: Edit- fcerto Madrid, Pri­m o San Pedro, Pio Rosas, Mr. W hita­ker, James Wright. Capt. Olympia and Capt. Relosa.

Bottom Row: Fran­cisco Gumula, Ma­jo r Pedro Dulay, Arthur E. McCann, Capt. J. W. Smith, (Gen.) Simeon de Jesus. Casiano Ri­vera, and Mauricio 3. Oteyza.

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LODGE NO. 67, F & A.M.

32 o f us in the Baguio Internment Camp where only one meeting was held, with Carl B. Eschbach, P.M., serving as Master.

During the liberating carpet bombing by U-S. forces on March 15-17, 1945, > the handsome temple was burnt. The Masonic Building Association was not

revived nor was any application made for war damages and, since no payments were made on the mortgage, it was later foreclosed by the Joseph Rice estate and the property lost by the Lodge.

Immediately after liberation, efforts were made to revive the Lodge, begin­ning with those of Bro. M. Eugene (D r.) Stafford. It was reorganized on October 20, 1945 in the partly finished house of Bro. Rufino Rogel on Laubach Road. Secretary Primo San Pedro (now deceased) was notably active in reconstituting the records of the Lodge.

After holding lodge in several places about Baguio, Snider Hall at John Hay Air Base was settled on and the sturdy narra furniture, still in use, was donated by Bro. Raymond T. West. He also helped us secure our present chairs at a low price.

Another pose of the members and of­ficers of the Baguio Lodge No. 67, F & A.M. In the group are Mauricio J. Ot­eyza, Casiano Rivera, Primo San Pedro, Edilberto M a d r i d . Martin Carreon, Lau- reano Santiago, Juan Resurreccion, Ceferi- no Floresca, Fran­cisco de Gala, Capt. Olympia, Capt. Re- losa, and Quintin Paredes fourth from the left in the first row.

Meanwhile a new temple was being advanced. Each Lodge member was as­sessed P12 yearly for the building fund. In 1952 secretary Laurence L. Wilson made an application for a city lot on Legarda St. facing the Baguio City Hall. This was allowed in 1957.

While Anastacio B. Querimit P.M. was Master in 1958 an attractive temple costing nearly P20,000 was constructed on the lot and dedicated by the Grand Lodge. It was free of debt.

The Officers of the Baguio Masonic Fraternal Association Inc., which con­structed the temple, consisted o f :

Anastacio B. Querimit, P.M., Pres.; Jack E. Gesner, vice Pres.; Esteban Bs- ngaan, Sect.; Tomas Galgala, P.M. Treas.; Protacio R. Ritumalta, Auditor; Eugene J. Kneebone, P.M.; Stanley J. Willimont, P.M.; Eric G. F. Nordstrom, P.M.; and Laurence L. Wilson (serving as Hiram), board members.

Since Bro. John W. Haussermann made the large donation of P10,000, the building is called Haussermann Hall.

Here we trust the Lodge will prosper.

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FRANCISCO YANDOCOne of the First Elective Councilors

He found himselfFRANCISCO YANDOCh© invested in a store, in nc time, a real estate owner of subs- stantial holdings. He was one of the first elective councilors of Baguio with a term from 1916 to 1919, and a lifetime hono­rary member o f the city board o f asses­sors. He left behind him his children who

Francisco Yandoc, cited by the city government o f Ba­guio as among the pioneers who made substantial contribu­tions to the development and progress of Baguio, featured as one o f the first batch of Christian lowlander arrivals in 1907 and took up permanent residence in the city ever since until his death on November 9, 1939.

He spearheaded his trek to Baguio by operating a store on wheels for the laborers who were working on the Kennon Road. He followed the road until its final completion, there­by reaching Baguio in 1907 with an accumulated capital which

are now prominent citizens of the city.Born in Angeles, Pampanga, he was a

member of the Veterans of the Philip­pine Revolution with the rank o f lieute­nant colonel. He was the proprietor of the then Yandoc Hotel and Apartments in Ba­guio.

BASILIO M. CAGUIOAProminent Businessman

as 1909, stage of

He came to Baguio as early when Baguio was in the initial becoming a chartered city.

A fter having undergone numerous hardships as hotel helper under Mr. Jen­kins and a Baguio Observatory assistant under his uncle, he engaged in business in a small scale with practically very meager capital. In no time he found him­self a successful businessman dealing in groceries and fuel otherwise known as “ talacsan” prior to the outbreak o f the BASILIO M. CAGUIOA

World War I. In 1918, he was supplying food to the German prisoners taken into custody by the Americans who were brought to the site which is now the Stone Market. Due to financial reasons, he went for some time to Bauang and engaged in farming. Up to 1930, his products found their way in the Baguio markets. Success came to him in a landslide so much so that in 1930 he found himself the owner of a few trucks which were under con­tract by the Bureau of Public Works un­

til the outbreak of the World War II. His trucks were how­ever, taken by the Americans and the Japanese. His losses were repaid by the W ar Damage Commission. With five new trucks he resumed his business as contractor dealing in lime, stones, and gravel. Besides being the owner of the St. An­thony’s Lime Factory, he is, likewise, the proprietor of the newlv constructed Caguioa Building located along Trinidad Road.

His personal data show that he was bron on March 4, 1885 in Villasis, Pangasinan; the son o f Joaquin Caguioa and Anacleta Morante. He is a widower with five children all successfully established in their chosen line.

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LAM PINGPioneer Businessman

Born 83 years ago in Canton, China, he came to the Phil­ippines at the age o f 20 . As a stepping stone he joined a group o f Chinese workers in the Cavite shipyards under the U.S. Navy. As early as 1909, he came to Baguio to invest together with a partner in a small store which was then lo­cated near a creek along Session Road, now the present site of the Hotel Plaza. He found himself in no time the sole owner of several stores in different parts o f the city. In1930, he put up a long concrete structure on his lot along Ses-

l a m p i n g sion Road which housed the then pre-war Highland Supply.It was destroyed during the bombing and his unselfish services to the development was only rehabilitated after the libera- o f Baguio.tion. He is also a recipient o f a diploma Married to Wong Nam with whom he o f award from the city government for has five children.

CASIANO RIVERAEx-Superintendent Benguet Auto Line

He hailed from La Union where he was born on Aug­ust 13, 1892. He started from the bottom as a ticket sel­ler in the Benguet Auto Line from Dec. 20, 1911 to August 31, 1912. Promoted to station agent from September 1,1912 to August 31, 1918, through merit, he was again pro­moted to assist, supt. and held the position capably from Sept. 1, 1918 to July 11, 1919. Finally, he rose to the position of superintendent on July 12, 1919 until March15, 1930. The Benguet Auto Line was then under the Bureau of Public Works. Mr. Rivera was prevailed upon to continue his work in recognition of his meritorious ser­vices. He became superintendent from March 16, 1930 up to Jan. 28, 1957 until he retired. Married to the former Marina Baiiez.

FAUSTINO P. NACNACFormer Assistant Chief of Police

His experiences in line with service tilitie? in the Fil-American war, Mr. Nac- began when he served as a guerrilla un- nac joined the Philippine Constabulary in der the command of G. Aglipay and Gen. Vigan, Ilocos Sur. In 1903 he made a J. Aleiandrino. Upon the cessation of hos- brilliant record such that he was one of

f a u stin o p. n a c n a c tjiose called upon to represent the PC in the Universal Ex­position, St. Louis, Missouri of 1904.

On June 27, 1910, he joined the Baguio Police Force. From the ranks he rose to become the assistant chief o f police serving until 1943. During the war he joined the underground movement as an informer.

Born in Dingras, Ilocos Norte on February 14, 1884, the son of Lazarc E Nacnac and Maria Pompa, he attained his early education from the Spanish School until he fi­nished 3rd year from 1893 to 1898 in Laoag, Ilocos Norte. He is married to the former Angeles Pascua with whom he has five children.

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FRANCISCO DE PAULA DE ROMERO - ,Oldest Spanish resident

Francisco de Paula de Romero y Gomez, son of a rank- mg miiltary man ir Spain, arrived in the Philippines in 1890 when from his native Andalucia, Ronda, Spain, he came with some Spanish government officials to work as “ Ayudante de Inginiero” in San Fernando, La Union. He further served as a forestry officer and during the last year of Spanish rule in the Philippines, he held the gov­ernorship for Benguet sub-province. Under the American, administration, he was the first to register his wife’s claimfor a tract of land covering more than twenty hectares f . p a u l a de rom ero which is now the present site of the e^er, bought it later to the tune ol

P200,000.He married form er Adela Vibes Agui-

naldo, a first cousin of Gen. E. Aguinal- do in 1901. He died on May 30, 1931.

Constabulary Hill and a part of the mar­ket site up to Manzanillo lot, under Gov­ernor Whitmarsh, first governor o f Ben­guet. He won rightful possession of the land in question. The government, how-

PASCUAL PACISPioneer In Government Service

PASCUAL PACIS Pascual P ads’ record o f service dates back to the Spanish regime when he served as a public school teacher and as a major under the command of Manuel Tinio’s brigade. During the American administration in the early days he was appointed by Gov. William Pack as treasurer and was appointed by Governor William Pack as treasurer and secretary in Adaoay, Tublay, La Trinidad and Di'sdis from 1904 to 1906. He served in different categories after this— in 1907 as deputy and clerk of Benguet under the administration of Governor Pack, as property clerk of the Division of Mt. Province under the Superintendent of Schools: as custodian from 1908 to 1909; as solicitor o f law for the 4th Judicial District and notary public for the Mt. Province.

He served for three times consecutively as a mem­ber of the City Council o f Baguio from 1916 to. 1925. He was Justice of the Peace in Bontoc from 1926 to1931. He resigned to practice his profession as notaryPUbIiC- WONG YIP

WONG YIPPioneer Businessman

A Chinese oldtimer who knew Baguio in its infancy, he came to Baguio as early as 1904. He served as cook for one of the engineers working on the Kennon Road Later, he became assistant cook in the first Baguio Sani tarium. He switched to business at the time of the first Baguio Carnival & Exposition. Since then and until the outbreak of World War II, he concentrated his work in bus- ness. His business enterprises were ruined during the war

He died at the age of 79 in China.

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He came to Baguio during the years when he had to travel by means of bullcarts from Dagupan to Baguio. The Benguet Road, then was completed as far as Camp 3, and for the first time he saw Baguio, Session Road was yet un­der development. Since then and until his death in 1935, he lived in Baguio and became part and parcel o f Baguio’s business progress. First, he opened a small sari-sari store.Then he established the Baguio Bakery along Session Road which catered mostly to the miners. Accidentally, the said store was among those burned in 1936.

Before coming to Baguio, he was first employed at the Cavite Navy Yard under the direct supervision o f a Span- l e u n g m i n g iard.. He acquired a working knwoledge one time as one of its directors. A ll o f o f Spanish and English from a private his 7 children were Baguio-born and tutor. Born in 1899 in Canton, China, some o f whom are now naturalized Fili- he was one of the founders of the then pino citizens.Baguio Chinese Ass. whtre he served at

EUGENIO M. VALDEZThe late Eugenio M. Valdes who died on June 24, 1929

will be remembered as a pioneer in the government service. As early as 1904, he settled in La Trinidad and figured prominently in government affairs. He served as clerk un­der the Spanish Governor, Jose Martinez in La Trinidad. Then followed invaluable services as a public servant which in short revealed the following: as secretary-treasurer o f Kapangan; transferred to Legleg, Terba, Benguet, from to La Trinidad and then to Camp 4; as an internal revenue agent in La Trinidad, then in Bokod, transferred to Bagu- lin, Benguet, then to Prego and Sablan and later to Baguio; Deputy Sheriff in Baguio under Judge Harvey from 1923 un­

til his death at the age of 60. civic affa irs of the city. He married the A product o f the old Mar.ila High former Catalina Octaviano o f Balaoan, La

School, he is survived by his six child- Union, ren who are all active in business and

JOSE D. LISINGJose Dizon Lising who was among Ba- lang, Pampanga where he spent his ear-

guio’s prominent oldtimers until his ly youth as a sacristan. He saw action oath on July, 1953, hailed from Maga- as a soldier in the Filipino revolt against Spain under Gen. Makabulos. After his marriage to the JOSE.D. LISINGlate Timotea Romero, prominent landowner of Tarlac, Tar- lac, he devoted his time managing his w ife’s landholdings.Unfortunately, he lost all his material possession through gambling. It was then that he accepted an invitation from relatives to settle in Baguio in 1910. In Baguio, he en­gaged in a carinderia business for one year. The following year, he entered the government service as a road cons­truction foreman and later as general construction foreman of the Bureau of Public Works under Engineers Peredo and District Engineer A. D. Wiliams. He was among those who built the Halesma road, formerly the Mountain trail. He resigned from the government service as soon as his seven children were old enough to take over.

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F. B. JALON Irisan until 1929 m e n he engaged in dry goods business and in four years he was able to put up an apartment build­ing which was unfortunately destroyed during liberation. A few years after li­beration he put up the Plaza Theatre. He was one of the top ranking golfers of

FRANCISCO B JALONPioneer Businessman

He was born in Zamboanga, Zamboanga on Dec. 3, 1882, the son of Manuel Jalon and Gregoria Barrero. Three years before the arrival o f the Americans, he was an agricultu­rist. Under the American regime, he was a m o n g the first to volunteer as a soldier in Zamboanga for one year. Upon his discharge from the Army, he ventured in hat making with Isidro Duenas in Pangasinan until 1913. He came to Ba?uio during the later part of 1913 and established his own hat factory with a silversmithing shop until 1915. In 1916, he constructed a dancing hall in Campo Filipino and at the same time acnuired a lumber concession in

the Baguio Golf Club.He acquired 14 trophies for excellent

‘golfmanship."Mr. Jalon’s better half was Francisca

Dulay with whom he had one child who is married to Dr. J. de la Rosa. He like­wise, adopted a son.

REIIKITZE HAM AD AAn Early Japanese Pioneer in Baguio

Reukitze Hamada, from Kagoshima, Ja­pan, was among the first Japanese to immigrate to |the Philippines from tne Land o f the Rising Sun, and one of the very first to arrive in Baguio. He was by occupation a mechanical foreman.

He was in Baguio as early as 1908. He married into the Carino family, taking as wife Josefa Carino, the eldest daugh­ter o f Mateo Carino, by whom he had


three children, all boys, Ortega, Oseo and Sinai.

Hamada was the first foreman of the Heald Lumber Company. It was while employed in a sawmill o f the company at Ilang that he met an accident which caus­ed his death. He slipped under a circular saw and his body was cut in two.

He opened the first Japanese general store in the city of Baguio, which was doing a thriving business until his death. The store was in the vicinity of the Ba­guio Hotel today. It was the precursor of the pre-war Japanese Bazar.

This Japanese' died on January 14, 1912 at the early age o f 31 years. His conduct as an immigrant was exemplary. He left quite a legend in the community upon his death.

Kagoshima is the southern most point of the Japanese archipelago where most of the generals in the history of the Japanese Imperial Army come form. The first military ad­ministrator of the Japanese occupation in Baguio, General Nagasaki, is from Kagoshima. Natives of Kagoshima are be­lieved descended from Malays v h o reached the southern shores of Japan from Malaya and Indonesia. They have a dialect o f their own, not understood bv the common Japanese.

The sawmill in which Hamada worked was moved two or three times before the fatal accident. The first substantial houses constructed in Baguio were supplied boards from the sawmill in which he worked. He became one of the big Japanese abaca planters in Davao before the war.


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JUAN GAERLANPioneer in Government Service

Juan Gaerlan, was one of the first Filipino to obtain a berth for Mt. P ro v in ce in Congress in 1931. He was among the deserving group named by the then Gov. General Davis to represent the Mt. Province.

Born in Tagudin, Ilocos Sur on July 7, 1884 to an Ilo- cano-teacher couple, he obtained his higher education from San Juan de Letran and an American night school. Having passed the civil service examination in 1903, he was designat­ed by Gov. Dinwindie of Bontoc-Lepanto as interpreter in Spanish, English and Igorot languages. Then, he was namedtreasurer and later deputy collector until advisor for the Mt. Province, deputy gov- 1909. Afterwards, he assumed various ca- ernor for Benguet in Jan., 1922. pacities prior to his appointment as re- Among his achievements were: the ini- presentative for the Mt. Province, name- tiation o f settlement organization, the ly, exchange officer, assistant postmaster, construction o f school buildings, the corn-

' secretary provincial treasurer for Lepanto pletion o f the Bontoc highway, the edu- sub-province, mining recorder, Cervantes cational upliftment of the mountaineers, town treasurer and notary public, proper- His wife was the former Adela MiLs, ty clerk o f the provincial treasurer’s of- daughter of Spanish engineer Don Jose fice and road foreman, agriculturists for Mills. >La Trinidad and Bontoc until 1919, farm

HENRY KAMORAEx-Representative, Mt. Province

One who figured prominently in the educational upliftment o f the natives and Later, he became the first Igorot to be struggled to elevate the living conditions employed as Sec-treasurer under the then obtaining from barbarism to civiliza- township government in Kabayan in 1907. vion is Henry Kamora, mayor of the He was also responsible in establishing Municipal district o f Kabayan. He at- the first intermediate school in Kabayan. quired his early schooling from Mr. Cle- To his credit, the following achievements mente Abellera who was then the Secre- may be mentioned: as township president tary of Adaway Rancheria; from a dor- o f Kabayan in November o f 1913. Ag- mitory school in Baguio and from San ricultural Inspector of Benguet in 1915- Fernando High School, La Union where reelected municipal district president of he finished a part o f the first year high Kabayan in 1922; appointed representa- school. tive for the Mt. Province on Nov. 17,1923 to succeed the late Juan Carino, reappointed as repre- HENRY KAMORA sentative on July 16, 1931 to succeed Rufino Hidalgo; appoint­ed military governor for Benpuet by Col. Volckmann in May 1945, organized an office in La Trinidad in Aug., 1945 to maintain post-war peace and order; elected municipal dist. mayor o f Kabavan in 1959.

He was born in 1888 in Lutab, Kabayan, the son o f Apo- linario Arinos Dimot and Shara Otot Palasi. » &

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LEUNG KWAN LINGChinese immigrants who have trekked

to Baguio as early as 1900 have devel­oped close relations with the city resi­dents such that ths Chinese community has often been identified with the bus­iness and civic affairs of the city.

Enterprising Chinese businessmen were among the first merchants to open dry goods and hardware stores, restaurants, and retail stores to serve the early set­tlers of Baguio.

City residents remember Leung Kwan Ling who was among the first Chinese

businessmen in the city. As early as 1894 during the Spanish regime, he came to the Philippines and worked as a car­penter in Manila. In 1906, he joined the ranks of the pioneers by coming to the “ Dream City” , which was then a wilderness. First he was employed as carpenter in Benguet Consolidated Min­ing Company. It was in the mines that he discovered his knack for business. He opened a small store to cater to his co-employees. Time however, put him to a series of tests. His store was unfor­tunately robbed resulting in the death o f two laborers. Later a typhoon dam­aged his store. Undaunted by his mis­fortunes, he together with some Ameri­can and Chinese partners organized the Baguio Bakery which was then lo­cated along Zandueta Street. This new­ly created partnership was shortlived for it was dissolved and the Baguio Ba­kery changed ownership when the rela­tives of Leung Nang took over. After this, the Baguio Grocery was born which was another partnership. In 1929, when business conditions changed for the bet­ter, he established the Mountain Sup­ply, a combination bazar and grocery.

In a short time he expanded his bus­iness to include hardware and main­tained successfully branches in Antamok

y One of the busiest places in Baguio during the early days. The front cor­ner site was occupied later by the Mountain Sunnly Store.

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MAURICIO SAN JUAN OTEYZAFather of Philippine Forestry

Mauricio San Juan Oteyza, chosen by the Philippine F o ­resters’ Association as the “ Father of Philippine Forestry” and drafter of the Master Plan on the Reforestation of the Philippines was born in Binondo, Manila in 1887 as the son of Mauricio Sr., now deceased.

Orphaned at an early age he enjoyed the tutelage of his grandmother. Inquisitive and incessantly movable, he grandmother, Torres. Inquisitive and incessantly movable, he learned fast and in no time, he was enrolled at the Ateneo

MAURICIO OTEYZA ^ Manila, as a “ medio interno” . As a student, he was ex­ceptionally brilliant. Among his prized United States at his own expense and mementos were medals which he won in financed his studies in agriculture through oratorical tilts. A holder o f a Bachelor o f self-support. He came home in 1913 and Arts degree, he finished priesthood at the served as an instructor at the Los Ba- age of seventeen. However, because of nos Agricultural School. Not long after- his youth he was not ordained as a wards, he married Dolores Sta. Maria of priest in Vigan as planned in 1904. Upon San Mateo Rizal, whom he took to his his return from Vigan, he accepted an ap- new assignment in Baguio. For many pointment as a teacher in the first normal years, he took charge of Baguio beauti- school in Manila. fication. He founded the Baguio Fruit

He qualified as a member o f the second Nursery and organized the Baguio Lodge batch of Philippine pensionados to the for masons.United States. He died in 1929 in Baguio, and was

It was there that he finished a fores- survived by his wife and two children, ters’ course and attached a master’s de- Victor and Virginia, gree to it. He prolonged his stay in the •

The Late SALVADOR VALLEJOFounder, Vallejo Hotel

If there are any few pioneers in the Mountain City who devoted most of their time in the field of business, Don Salvador Vallejo was among them. Having spent more than 33 years in the summer capital until he died, Don Salvador had obviously contributed valuable aid to the growth of Baguio. Don Salvador came to the Philippines as early as 1901. Upon reaching the country he tried his luck by opening a restaurant along T. Pinpin Street, Ma­nila, known as Liondor Restaurant. Not contented with this, he later sold it and established a distinctive hotel in the same section in 1915. After a few months later he changed his mind in this venture, and engaged in the dry goods importing business in 1922. In 1923 he came to Baguio to establish the Vallejo Hotel in order to ex ­pand his business. Since then the said hotel gained cog­nizance from visiting transients and tourist. As one of

c A iv iT in R V 4 H F K ) tlie early !l0tel operators in Baguio, he had contributed ‘ som ething for the economic stability of the city.

He was born in Ronda, Spain where he served as a captain. He was the son of Salvador Vallejo, Sr. and Maria Ramirez. He was married to the former Justina Sa- nares with whom he had six children. 2 boys and ‘1 girls.

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Dr. TEODORO CENIZAL ARVISUPioneer in the government service

Dr. Teodoro Cenizal Arvisu, fondly called the Father of the Baguio School of Nursing was born in Tanza, Cavite on November 9, 1890; the son of Felix Arvisu and Dorotea Ce­nizal. He graduated from the Cavite High School in 1909 and obtained a medical degree from the College of Medicine and Surgery, University o f the Philippines in 1914. He be­came a government pensionado in 1921 and thereby under- took post graduate studies in the Harvard Medical School.

His service record is outstanding and seldom can there be found one to equal it. His record includes achievements and positions held which in brief are, namely, resident pe­diatrician of the Philippine General Hosptal from 1914 to 1919; instructor in pediatrics at the uni- the 18th International Red Cross Confe- versity of the Philippines College o f Me- rence in Toronto, Canada; chairman of dicine and Surgery from 1914 to 1919; the Baguio Planning Board from the Director of the Baguio General from time of its creation in 1947 to 1958; 1919 to 193G during which the Baguio member of the Philippine Independence General Hospital Training School for Mission to the United States in 1931 as Nurses was established; City Health Of- personal physician o f President Manuel ficer of Baguio from 1919 to 1924; City Quezon; President o f the then Baguio councilor o f Baguio from 1936 to 1941 and Civic League of Baguio; President of again in 1947 as an appointee o f the late the first Baguio Carnival and Exposition President Roxas; Assistant Manager and in 1923; charter member of the Baguio laterManager of the Philippine W ar Da Rotary Club; past Grand Knight o f the mage Commission, Baguio branch in Father Cai-lu Council No. 3336; present 1947; formed the Baguic-Mt. Province President of the Baguio Home Owners Oouncil, Boy Scouts of the Philippines Association and vice-chairman o f the Ad- with Dr. Eugene Stafford, became its visory Board to the Mayor of Baguio, first president and served as such until He is married to^the former Miguela the outbreak of World W ar II; chairman Leyco of Marinduqiife, a nurse by profes- o f the Baguio Mt. Province Chapter, Phil- sion with whom he has 4 children. One ippine National Red Cross and Repres- o f his sons, Father Teodoro Arvisu, S.J. entative of the Philippine Government to died in 1957 in the U.S.

EUGENIO E. PLATAFormer Captain, Philippine National Guard

Eugenio P. Plata twice councilman of the Baguio City government who served for two successive terms from 1925 to 1928, and from 1928 to 1931, was born in San Miguel, Bulacan on June 20, 1884 to Zacarias Plata and Engracia Pecson. A product of the Jesuits Normal School and the American Normal School, he finished his secondary educa­tion by correspondence. From a mere clerk, he rose from the rar.ks to become a notary public and general contractor. His service record reveals the follow ing: clerk, Department of Engineering, Manila, 1904 to 1905, clerk, J. C. W hite & Company and Meralco, 1905 to 1909, classified clerk, Insular Treasurer’s O ffice from 1909 to 1911, civilian employee in Philippine U.S. Military Guard, 1918 to 1919.

He married former Magdalena Cruz y Reyes by whom he h!>d six children.

Mr. Plata was also active in the civic a ffa ir o f ihe city ar.d also a member of the Baguio. Lodge No. 67, 7 A.M.


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MARTIN RIVERA CARREONEx-Member, Baguio City Council

M artin R ivera Carreon spent the best years o f his life in Baguio, saw its initial stage o f development, and par­ticipated in its grow th until death fin a lly claim ed him on A p ril 9, 1945. H e unfortunately met his death in Baguio together w ith his w ife in the hands o f the Japanese during the W orld W a r II.

He hailed from A ringay, La Union where he had his early schooling in a Spanish School and where he for some­time taught Spanish in La U nion before com ing to Baguio. W hen he cam e to Baguio, specifically during the height o f the Benguet R oad construction, he joined the lowlandei-pio-

MARTIN B. CARREON neers in his capacity as a businessman. He was elected tw ice as councilor o f Baguio in 1919, and masons and was thus rubbing shoulders in 1922. H is w ife , the form er Juliana F lo- with some o f the prom inent pioneers who res, also from A rin gay , La U nion w as figured in the early developm ent o f the his partner in a lu crative tobacco busi- Pines City.ness. He w as an active member o f the He is survived hv 5 children.

SIXTO A. GAERLANEx-Delegate to the Constitution Convention

The late Sixto A. Gaerlan, Baguio city councilor from 1929 to 1931 and elected delegate o f Baguio to the cons­titutional convention, was born on April 12, 1896 in San Juan, La Union to Pedro Gaerlan and Clara Aquino. A product of the La Union Provincial High School, he ob­tained the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture in 1925 from the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, Los Banos. He first served as elementary school teacher from 1925 to 1933. He distinguished himself as a businessman-farmer-politician during his lifetime.

He was married to the former Matilde Cabariero of Narvacan. Ilocos Sur with whom he had three children.

JUAN C. RESURRECIONFormer Supt., City Public Utilities

He came to Baguio in 1904 Galleger, a remnant of the U.S. Army.Born in Luna, La Union in 1890 to He started working at the age of 14 as a

Don Miguel Resurrecion and Dominga machinist at Camp Wallace, Poro Point Cortesa, young Juan lost his father when for two years before coming to Baguio, he was merely aged nine. His schooling On his sojourn to Baguio, he was accom- was then, borne by his stepfather, Mr. panied by his step-father. His services

to the government covers a wide area— 1906 to 1910, as a machinist in Whitmarsh Sawmill; 1910 to 1914, as a machin­ist in the Bureau of Public Works; 1914 as an employee of the Baguio City Public Utilities until the resignation of Mr. Hendrikson when h< meritoriously earned the promotion to the superintendency.

Among his outstanding achievements are the construc­tion of four hydroelectric plants and the expansion and steady improvement of the telephone system.

He took an electrical engineering course through the International Correspondence School. Married to the for­mer Maria Sobrino, he has 11 children living.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (168)

FRANKLIN THOMAS RYANPioneer in the government service

The late Franklin T. Ryan’s attachment to the Philippines dates back to 1906 when as a soldier he was aw a rd ed on July 4, 1906 a Congressional Medal of Honor and a certificate of merit for saving human lives during the hostilities. This spark-plugged a long continuous career of service not only in Baguio but in many places of the Philippines. From 1909 to 1911, he was employed by the Bureau o f Public Works as irrigation investigator; 1911, port surveyor of Manila; 1911- 1918, foreman, city of Baguio. During A. D. William’s admi­nistration, Ryan laid out the city cemetery, graded Burnham Park and made a race track, installed a System; Peneranda Dam and Canal; con- modern sewer system and incinerator, struction of the Amburayan River Bridge widened and surfaced most of the roads, and San Ildefonso Pier. A fter liberation increased the water supply, built the Na- he became project engineer for the Tar- guilian Road down to Salat, made sur- lac Bridge under the Marscon Co. From veys for hydroelectric plants, and other 1950-52, he served as general superinten- improvements; 1918 Chief Hydrogfer of dent of the Ambuclao Access road and Northern Luzon; 1919-1921, as acting from 1953 to 1954 was the general fore­project engineer o f Tagudin and Ambura- man on the Ambuclao Dam under Guy yan Irrigation; 1921-1935 engaged in ge- Atkinson Co.neral contracting; 1935-1937, prospected He was born in Mississipi, U .S.A. on in mining. Dec. 5. 1884. He was married to Rosario

Among his achievements: completion of M. Ryan, the Tagudin and Amburayan Irrigation

MAJOR EMIL SPETHEx-Vice Mayor, Baguio City

Some interesting record of his army had the distinction o f having been in com - service covers a long period. He arrived in mand of the same company for over 19 the Philippines with the 18th Infantry, years, the longest period for any officer U.S. Army and served with that regiment jn the U.S. Arm y since the Spanish- during the Philippine insurrection until American War. M ajor Speth’s Scout com- he was given a commission as First Lieut, pany had also the distinction o f being the o f the Philippine Scouts in July, 1901, first organization o f native troops who being selected as one of the first twenty made the highest record in marksmanship, fiw tjS ficers when the scouts were creat- considered the most efficient in drill di-

—- ^ Previous to this, he was incharge of c i j)l i ne in competition with the entire U.S. the Civilian Scouts and had taken part ;n the year many engagements in the Islands. He Since his retirement in Jan. 1920. and after a short stay in the U.S., M ajor .'.(^th returned to the m^JOR EMIL SPETH Philippines and was made superintendent o f the San Ramon Penal Colony in Mindanao until 1922 when he decided to make his home in Baguio. During his life time in Baguio, he was appointed vice-mayor and participated in the civic affairs of the city. He also served the Baguio Country Club as Vice- president., and president of the Baguio Fraternal Ass. and was connected with the Baguio Improvement & D ev elop m en t Corp.


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WILLIAM H. REESEFormer Overseer, Baguio Construction Works

He was born in Pittsburg. Penn., USA on Dec. 10, 1878, the son of David Reese and Sarah E. Reese. He joined * the U.S. Army Volunteers who was stationed first in Cuba and from there, he was sent with his contingent to the Philippines during the Spanish-American war. Upon his dis­charge from the army in the Bicol region, he got a job in Baguio as overseer of government construction works. Simultaneously, he substituted for the city engineer during the latter’s absences. He served as foreman in roads and

bridges construction as far as Naguilian Station for 4 years, then as paymaster Road. Two years before his retirement for 3 years in the Nayak Mining Co. from the government he married the During the war, he was among those form er Susana Sobrino of Baguio in 1937. who were sent to St. Tomas concentra- i Upon his retirement, he was employed tion camp. He died on Feb. 4, 1945. as cashier in a Bpguio Caltex Gasoline leaving 4 children and his wife behind.

ARTHUR E. MacCANNFormer custodian, Teachers' Camp

He came to the Philippines with the batch that brought Americans who later figured prominently in the develop­ment of Baguio and the Mt. Province. Arriving in Manila on October 14, 1899 with the Engineer Corps, he worked for many years with the Bureau of Navigation. In 1913, he came to Baguio to do his bit for bolstering development and progress. He became custodian of Teacher’s Camp and later joined the Heald Lumber Company. He held the dis­tinction of having took charge of the All-Filipino baseball team in the United States which made a satisfactory re­cord o f winning 26 games out of 60 engagements.

Mr. McCann was m arried to the form - Clara McCann w ho is now Mrs. Eduardo er R ufina A ld ay o f San Jose, Batangas. de los Santos, w ife o f the C ity Engineer.They had eight children am ong whom is


He was among the city’s oldtimers who district Engineer A. D. Williams. Among came in 1917 and worked as Custodian, his contemporaries in the government Bureau of Public Works under the late service were the late Casiano Rivera of M.R. DE LOS REYES tlle BAL; Primo Sampedro, chief clerk, city hall; Mr. Bal-

domero Nevada, now retired; former district forest&r ̂ n d now Atty. Arcadio Leano; and a host of others. 1

He was an active member of the Legionaries del Tra- bajo, the counterpart of the Rotary and Masonry clubs of our present day, which was headed in the Philippines by the late Manuel i_> Quezon. This organization was headed in the city by the late Eugenio Plata, father o f Arturo, one of the leading businessmen in the city. The Legiona­ries now only exists in California, USA.

He also did prospecting and together with Mr. Hook an American, started the development of the La Paz Gold claims at Acop which was later abandoned due to lack of funds. In the same area a few years later rose the Acop Gold Mines.

He is married to Cristeta Cordevilla by whom he has 3 sons and 3 daughters. The eldest, Marianing, Jr., is owner-proprietor of the Colorado Hotel and Restaurant in Baguio and is also an active labor leader.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (170)

E L M E R W . H E R O L DFormer Vice-President & General Manager

Heald Lumber CompanyMr. Elmer W. Herold, former first vice-president and

general manager o f the Head Lumber Company was born on Feb. 15, 1893, in Bridgefort, Wisconsin.

Coming to the Philippines, as an educator, he was in the teaching sta ff o f the Bureau of Education from 1922 to 1928. Most of his years as a teacher were spent in the Mountain and Ilocos provinces, the provinces he had come to know so well.

It was duriny his teaching years in the Mountain Prov­ince when the rich and thick forests in the locality attracted his adventurous mind. Realizing the great potentialities of the verdant forests, his interest fell for the lumber industry. He retired from the Bureau of Education and joined the staff o f the Head Lumber Company.

Starting only as a master mechanic in 1912, he rose to the highest administrative position in the Company after a few years, and later elected first vice-president o f the firm.

In 1941, World War II broke out, and as a result the buildings and sawmills o f the company were all destroyed. A fter a brief rest in his native land, he returned to Baguio and reestablished the company business.

ELMER W. HEROLDMarried to the former Miss Ethel To­

mas whom he has two children. Mr. He­rold is a product o f the Lawrence College in Appleton, Wiscousin where he obtained his Bachelor o f Science degree. He was a World W ar I veteran having served as officer from 1917 to 1920.

During his stay in Baguio he was a member o f numerous civic organizations. When he and Mrs. Herold left fo r the U.S. the City Council passed a resolution adopting them as Honorary Citezens o f Baguio City.

PEDRO A. FUENTESPioneer in Government Service


Pedro A. Fuentes is the son o f Manuel elementary schooling at the Instituto de Fuentes and Esperanza Arnaldo o f Capiz. Capiz in 1904 then at Ateneo de Manila City. He was born on 1861.' He took his were he finished' his high school. He ob­tained (he degree of Bachelor of Arts at San Juan de Letran in 1912, and Bachelor of Laws at the Escuela Derecho de Manila and at the La Jurisprudencia on December 23, 1919.

It was while taking his law course that he passed the civil service examination and was appointed clerk o f Court at the Land Registration in Manila from 1912 to 1914. Later when the General Land Registration was created, he was ap­pointed clerk and acting cashier and disbursing officer from 1914 to 1925, and Register of Deeds of the Land Registration O ffice from 1925 to 1936.

During the Japanese occupation, he was appointed recor­der in the office o f the Register of Deels in Baguio and Sub­province of Benguet from 1942 to 1945, and after liberation as Cadastral Stenographer. He was named subsequently act­ing Register o f Deeds and a year later as permanent Register o f Deeds until his retirement in 1959.

He is married to the former Concepcion Romero o f Ba­guio with whom he has three daughters and a son, who were all born in Baguio.

After liberation he also served as member of the Housing Committee under Mayor Placido Mapa. He was also appoint­ed as chairman o f the Igorot Claims by Pres. Magsaysay.

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LAURENCE LEE WILSONIgorot Folklore Writer and Baguio Booster

Devoting much o f his life to prospecting for gold and other minerals not only in Baguio and Mt. Province, but in many places in the Philippines, Mr. Wilson is playing an un- disputable role in the development of the natural resources o f the province.

Mr. Wilson, besides helping establish several mining com­panies like the Consolidated Mines, Inc. when he located chromite deposits at Masinloc, Zambales, has written much about Igorot culture, mining and other interesting subjects in the Mt. Province.

His chief interests are mining, anthro- named after him. pology, archaeology, paleontology and Born on September 16, 1885 in Omaha, newspaper work devoting considerable Nebraska, Mr. Wilson came from paren- time on the later. He is the author o f the tage of early American colonists who “ Tales of the Mt. Province” , “ Apayao fought in the American Revolution. He L ife and Legends” , “ Igorot Mining Me- graduated from the University of Cali- thods” , “ Ilongot L ife and Legends” , fornia in 1910 with the degree of B.S. “ Skyland of the Philippines” , and article and took special training and further contributor to the Philippine A rt Asso- studies in mining, geology, and anthro- ciation and the Baguio & Mt. Province in pology. Married to Susie Manuel, he is a Making publication and Memoirs o f Ba- g00d family man and a rabid believer of guio. the democratic ways o f life. Mr. Wilson’s

As a paleontologist, Wilson has disco- aspiration is to see the Philippines as- vered many fossil bones and teeth of ele- Sume its rightful place as a show window phants and rhinos, etc. One new specie is 0f democracy in the Far East.

MAXIMINO C. NEBRESMaximino Crispin Nebres was born in

Bacnotan, La Union, on December 5, 1888.He is the fourth child among the 12 chil­dren o f the late Don Pio G. Nebres and Dona Guillerma V. Carbonell, both of Bacnotan, La Union.

He was married to Gregoria L. Rulloda o f Aringay, La Union. They had two children — Dorcas Salvacion, who died January 2, 1936; and Daniel Stephen, w ho is a Minister o f the Gospel, Hh. B., and a graduate o f the Union Theological

Seminary, Philippines.He studied in the Spanish Preparatory

School (Primera Exsenanza) at Colegio San Geronimo, Bacnotan, La Union.

While studying in the La Union high school, he was certified to accept a cleri­cal position in the Bureau o f Public Works at Baguio, occupying various posi­tion being that o f cashier and special dis­bursing officer.

He headed the founding in 1911, o f the United Brethren Evangelical Church in

Baguio, now the United Church of Christ of Baguio. He al­so organized the first Christian Endeavor Society o f the same church in Baguio and he was elected unanimously as the first president.

During his stay in Manila for 12 years, he served con­tinuously as elder of the United Church of Manila and he was called by and among his associates “ dean” of elders. Being an active church elder o f the Baguio Church and his asso­ciates call him the “ grand old man” of the fold. He is an active member o f Nilad Lodge No. 12 o f Free and Accepted Masons in the Philippines, joining the Fraternity in 1927, of which he is a life member.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (172)

FELIPE JOSEPioneer in the Government Service

Born in Barrio Sumacab, Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, the son of poor parents, he attained success through hard work and self-help. These are his pertinent data: married to the former Eliodaora Gomez of Pangasinan; finished elementary education in Malolos, Bulacan; took an optometry course by correspondence and obtained the degree o f Doctor o f Opto­metry from the School of Optmetry in 1929; served in various capacities, namely, as a school teacher in Victoria, Tarlac from 1905 to 1908, as an internal revenue agent from 1909 to 1910, as editor o f a bilingual paper, Plaridel, as a colla­borator of Spanish and Tagalog newspapers from 1913 to 1917, as a businessman from 1917 to 1928, as writer and cor- FEliIPE JOSErespondent of the National News Service ince from 1935 to 1938, as senior assis- from 1924 to 1927, as founder and first tant in the Department o f Labor in 1938, president of the Workers and Peasants as national organizer and supervisor of Ass. from 1927 to 1928, as a supervisor the National Tradig Corporation in 1946, of the Rural Credit Division, Bureau of as technical assistant in the Philippine Agriculture from 1928 to 1929, practiced Senate from 1946 to 1947, technical ad- optometry from 1929 to 1931; as a mem- viser on labor o f President Quezon, mem­ber o f the Baguio City Council from 1931 ber of the Agrarian Commission under to 1934, as member o f the Independence President Roxas, two-term vice-president Mission to the United States in 1933, as o f the Labor Congress o f the Philippines. Baguio Delegate to the Constitutiional He has travelled to various places in the Convention in 1934 to 1935, as represent- world, Italy, France China, and India, ative of the second dist. o f the Mt. P iov-

HON. RAMON P. MTTRACongressman, 2nd District, Mt. Province

In the political arena, few if ever can surpass or equal the achievements of Congressman Ramon P. Mitra in line with the improvement o f his province and the educational, social, and econo­mic uplift o f the people whom he re­presents.

In the past, Mr. Mitra has been large­ly instrumental in the organization of much-needed adult education classes in the Mt. Province. He left no stone un­turned to raise the percentage o f lite­racy in the province and with the co­operation of the then Office of Adult Education, he laid out an extensive pro­gram of adult education in the Mt. Pro­vince. To him, likewise, belongs the cre­dit o f having secured the maintenance of primary education in Baguio and the municipal districts by the national gov­ernment. This achievement in many ways has helped solve the recurrent school problem in the province.

To further bolster popular education, Congressman Mitra facilitated the grant o f scholarships by the national govern­

ment to a number of deserving natives o f the Mt. Province to take up courses in universities and colleges. Aside from this excellent gesture o f service, he se­cured funds fo r the construction o f m o­dern school buildings.

In line with the improvement of pu­blic works, new roads and bridges have been constructed and are being cons­tructed with funds secured through the unceasing efforts of Congressman Mitra. In fact Mr. Mitra’s name is often con­nected with anything and everything that spells progress for Baguio and Mt. Prov­ince.


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ver Use Medal” , one of the highest de­corations given by the Boy Scouts of the Philippines for meritorious service rendered.

Other data pertinent to services ren­dered reveal the following positions which he at one time or another held: chair­man of the Committee on Integration of all Electrical Communications of the gov­ernment; president of the Baguio Rotary Club; President of the Manila Council, Boy Scouts of the Philippines; vice-pres­ident and later president of the Philip­pine Chamber of Industries; under-sec­retary of Public Works & Communica­tions from 1939 to 1940.

Members of the City Council In 1940. From left to right: Vice mayor Emil Speth. Mayor N. Valderosa, Isaac Dizon; sec., councilmen Teodoro Arvisu and Sixto Gaerlan.

NICASIO VALDERROSABaguio’s Mayor of the ‘39s, a worthy

successor to the pioneering Sergio Bayan, Mr. Valderrosa was also the first Mayor o f Basilan City when this was created in 1948.

Mr. Valderrosa’s monumental work in Baguio City encompassed a wide range of projects intended to strengthen the faith o f the people in the government and re­affirm their faith in the future o f the City. Thus, he stablized finances, put up the W orkmens Village, transferred the squatters to the Aurora Hill, and started the Sto. Tomas Waterworks.

In Basilan City, Mayor Valderrosa started road-building, put up the Basilan Electric Plant and the Isabela Market. Wherever, he went, Mr. Valderrosa re-

' fleeted the vigorous, energetic, honest, and industrious public official that characterized his actuations as a Baguio City booster.

Mayor Nicasio Valderosa with some prominent Baguio citizens at the Baguio Air Port who welcomed the first arrival of the Iloilo-Negros Express on February 12, 1941.

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A candid photo of Baguio before the outbreak of World War II.


The Baguio Cham ber ot Com m erce w as organized on January 23, 1927 b y a group o f businessmen and pro­m inent citizens w ith the late G over­nor Samuel R. K ane as president protem pore and chairm an. The cham­ber w as organized with a m ulti-pur­pose am ong which were the prom o­tion, developm ent, protection o f trade, com m erce, and industries in B agu io ; the centralization o f all e ffo r ts de­

voted to the developm ent and ad­vancem ent of the Mountain Province and its people; the exchange o f ideas and promotion o f the commer­cial, industrial, m ining, and agricu l­tural resources o f Baguio and Mt. Province; the cultivation o f friend ly relation between Am ericans and oriental people; the enrolment o f all residents to bring about a closer association. F irst am ong its outstand­ing achievements was the construct­ion o f its own building to the tune o f P11,000.

Members of the Baguio Chamber of Commerce under Major Emil Speth, vice mayor of Baguio welcoming the first arrival of the IIocos-Negros Express at the Baguio Air Port.

tm m o c h m b e r T c o m m e r c e

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IPartial panoramic view of Baguio after its destruction.

The story of the Japanese occupation and final libera­tion of Baguio will occupy its seat of honor in the threshold of the unforgetta­ble long years to come.

While Baguio was among the first places in the Phil­ippines to ' be attached by Jap forces, it was also am­ong the very last to be li­berated. When Camp John Hay was bombed on the morning of December 8, 1941, excitement rose and precautionary measures were undertaken. The civil gov­ernment continued to func­tion even after the evacua­tion of Camp John Hay by the U.S. Army on December23. Japanese civilians were interned in Camp John Hay.

Not long afterwards, on December 27, 1941 to be exact, the Japanese columns arrived at Km. 4 on Nagui- lian Road. Under the lead­ership of the late Chief of Police Keith, Baguio w a s declared an open city. The occupation of the city by the Japanese was effected without the firing of a sin­gle shot. The first headquar­ters were set up at the Ja­

American soldiers in their foxholes at the B a­guio cemetery shortly before they liberated the city.

panese School on Trinidad Road, then at the Baguio Hotel, and later at the Ma­sonic Temple.

The Nippon forces imme­diately organized the milita­ry police administration and third degree chambers. Most of the people of Baguio took to the hills for survival. The guerilla movement figured prominently at this time. While the Jap atrocities were mounting, the people’s hat­red was steadily reaching its breaking point.

A marker of the 13(Jth Infan­try, located near thfe cemetery along the Naguilian Rd.

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On January 8, 1945, the liberation forces raided the ci­ty, but it was not until April 26, 1945 that the city was finally liberated. T h e ad­vance elements of the 33rd and the 37th divisions marc- ed into a city of ruins.

Baguio experienced a me­morable event in its history when it was made the site o f the final surrender of the Jap forces. Yamash*ta sur­rendered to General Wain-wright in the U.S. Embassy Remnants of the Japanese Army Forces under the ,at Camp Joan Hay on Sept- comman(j 0f Yamasita who took refuge in the Cordillera ember 3, 1945. Mountains, surrendering to the American Army Forces in


SURRENDER of Gen. Yamash*ta on 3 September 1945 is shown in oil painting, from official U.S. Army photo. Painting, a gift of the Filipino people, is hung in room where historic event took place, at the present Baguio home of American Ambassador, inside Camp John Hay compound.

A view of the Session Road in 1946 a few days after liberation.

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BAGUIO April 27th, 1946

To celebrate the libera­tion of Baguio from the hands of the enemy a four- Some spectators who witness the first night day festival was held to show celebration of the festival at Burnham Park.

gratitude everythat

The beauties of the liberation festival with their consorts and an army men from Camp John Hall.

peace-loving citizen of this wonderful city feels.

During the first day of the festival April 25th, a dance was held in the Auditorium together with the corona­tion ceremonies, an import­ant highlight of the evening. Miss Guerilla; Princess Er- linda I was crowned by Col. Wilmer S. Philips assisted by Mrs Rafael Uson; Miss Victory, Princess Nancy I by the then Mayor Pedro Ar- mena assisted by Mrs. Gene- roso Buendia; and Miss Li­beration, Queen Muriel I by the Congressman-elect Hon. Jose Mencio.

independence day celebration, July 4th, 1946 in front of the City Hall.


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (178)


E. W. Reynolds, M ayor Wm. M. Haube, Councilman James F. Quinn, Councilman H. p. Whitmarsh, Councilman M. R. Hilgard, CouncilmanC. P. Hatheway suceeded Councilman Quinn,

October, 1909 E. Eckman succeeded Mayor Reynolds, F eb­

ruary 3, 1910 Howard C. Page, appointed Acting M ayor in

the absence of M ayor Eckman July 15, 1910

Charles E. Kilbourne, appointed temporary Councilman in the absence o f Councilman Hatheway, Vice John R. White, September 20 , 1910

Rev. Robb White, designated temporary Vice M ayor, October 17, 1911

L. H. Reithinger, designated temporary Vice M ayor upon resignation of V ice Mayor White, effective July 31. 1912

Eugene Reybold, designated temporary Coun­cilman, October 22, 1912

FEBRUARY, 1913 — OCTOBER, 1916

C. P. Hatheway, Acting Vice MayorE. R eybold. Councilman Charles H Brent, Councilman M. R. Hillbard, CouncilmanA. D. Williams, designated Acting Councilman,

March 15, 1913. T ook oath as Mayor, May 24, 1913

Col. W. C. Rivers, appointed Councilman, A ug­ust, 1913. Reappointed Councilman, Decem ­ber. 1913

James C. Rhea, designated temporary C oun­cilman during the absence o f Col. Rivers from July to August, 1913

Peter W. Davidson, appointed Councilman, D e­cember, 1913

Teodorico Angeles, appointed Councilman, D e­cember, 1913

John R White, appointed Councilman. June, 1914

Martin Carreon, appointed Councilman, N ov­ember, 1914

Capt. F. W. Darrah, appointed Vice Mayor.Decem ber. 1914

Dr. F. W. Vincent, designated Councilman, December. 1914

3 . S. Holmes, designated Councilman, Septem­ber. 1915

Salvador Lagdameo. designated Councilman, September, 1915

OCTOBER, 1916 — OCTOBER, 1919

A. D. Williams. MayorF. W. Darrah, Maj. U.S.A.. Vice MayorG. S. Holmes. Maj. P.C.. Councilman Francisco Yandoc. elected CouncilmanH G. Ppham. Maj. P.C.. succeeded Councilman

Holmes, October, 1917 Henry M. Bankhead. Maj.. U.S.A.. succeeded

Vice M ayor Darrah, Feb. 1917 R. E. Fisher. Maj. U.S.A.. succeeded Vice

Mayor Bankhead. July. 1917 John H. Neff. Capt. U.S.A.. succeeded Vice

Fisher. October, 1917 Antonio Costosa, Capt., P C ., succeded Coun­

cilman pham, March. 1918 Chas. D. Dandois. suceeded Mavor Williams.

June. 1918Alfred Ballin, Capt. U.S.A.. succeeded Vice

Mayor Neff, February. 1919

[ 170 ]

OCTOBER, 1919 — OCTOBER, 1922

Chas. D. Dandois, Mayor Walter L. Clark, Vice Mayor Clarence H. Bowers, Councilman Pascual Pacis, Councilman Martin Carreon, elected Councilman E. J. Halsema, succeeded Mayor Dandois, Feb­

ruary, 1920E. F. Taggart, succeeded Vice Mayor Clark,

September, 1921 J. N. Evangelista, succeeded Councilman Bo­

wers, October, 1921 Ralph W. Jones, relieved Councilman Bowers.

March. 1922OCTOBER, 1922 — OCTOBER, 1925

E. J. Halsema, MayorE. F. Taygart, Col., U.S.A. Retired, Vice Mayor Ralph W. Jones, P.C., Councilman Martin Carreon. elected Councilman Henry Knauber, succeeded Councilman Jones.

March, 1923Col. C. E. Livingston. P.C., succeeded Coun­

cilman Knauber, No. 1924 Maj. E. Speth, U.S.A. retired, succeeded Vice

Mayor Taggart, June, 1925OCTOBER, 125 — OCTOBER, 1928

E. J. Halsema, MayorE. Speth, Maj., U.S.A. retired, Vice Mayor Eugenio Plata, elected Councilman Col. C. E. Livingston, P.C., Councilman Nicanor Sison, elected Councilman Col. Luther R. Stevens, P.C., succeeded Coun­

cilman Livingston, 1927OCTOBER, 1928 — OCTOBER, 1931

E. J. Halsema, MayorE. Speth. Maj. U.S.A.. retired, Vice Mayor Eugenio Plata, elected Councilman Col. R. A. Duckworth-Ford, P.C., Councilman Col. O. M. Johnson. P.C., succeeded Council­

man Ducksworth-Ford, 1933OCTOBER, 1931 — OCTOBER, 1934

E. J Halsema, M ayor Maj. E. Speth. Vice MayorCol. R. A. Ducksworth-Ford, P.C., Councilman Potenciano F. Lamug, elected Councilman Felipe E. Jose, elected Councilman

OCTOBER, 1934 — OCTOBER, 1937

E. J. Halsema, Mayor Maj. E. Speth, Vice Mayor Potenciano Lamug, elected Councilman Antonio Rimando, elected Councilman Col. O. M. Johnson, P.C., Councilman Sergio Bayan, succeeded Mayor Halsema, May,

1936Dr. Teodoro C. Arvisu, succeeded Councilman

Johnson, 1936 Sixto Laraya, succeeded Councilm an-Rim ando,

1936 ̂ ^OCTOBER, 1937 — OCTOBER, 1940

Sergio Bayan, Mayor E. Speth, Vice Mayor Teodoro Reynoso, elected Councilman Sixto A. Qaerlan, elected Councilman Dr. T. C ./A rvisu , appointed Councilman



Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (179)


N. Valderosa, Mayor E. Speth, Vice Mayor Florendo Aquino, Councilman Dr. Teodoro C. Arvisu. Councilman Mrs. Virginia O. de Guia, succeeded by Sixto

La ray aMARCH, 1942 — JUNE 9, 1944

NT. Valderosa, MayorDr. Jose M. Carino, CouncilmanDr. Bienvenido R. Yandoc, CouncilmanVitaliano A. Gorospe, Councilman


Ramon P. Mitra, Mayor Dr. Jose M. Carino, Adviser Dr. Ernesto L. M. Abellera, Councilman Rafael S. Sison, Councilman Tranquilino Lising, Councilman Dionisio de Leon, Military Gov. of Northern


AUGUST 23, 1945— NOVEMBER 29. 1945

Placido L. Mapa, Mayor Lucas Paredes, Vice Mayor Sixto Laraya, Councilman Rufino S. Bueno, Councilman Virginia O. de Guia, Councilwoman

NOVEMBER 29, 1945 — JANUARY 31. 1946Isidoro Siapno, Mayor Pedro Armena, Vice Mayor Juan F. Zarate. Councilor Luis L. Lardizabal, Councilor Maximino Carantes, Councilor

JANUARY 31, 1946 — JULY 20. 1946

Pedro Armena, Acting City Mayor Virginia O. de Guia, Vice Mayor Juan F. Zarate, Councilor Maximino Carantes, Councilor Luis L. Lardizabal. Councilor

JULY 20, 1946 — JULY 30, 1946

Virginia O. de Guia. Acting City Mayor Luis L. Lardizabal. Councilor Maximino Carantes, Councilor Juan F. Zarate, Councilor

JULY 30, 1946 — AUGUST 15, 1946Jose M. Carino, City Mayor Virginia Oteyza de Guia. Vice Mayor Juan F. Zarate, Councilor Maximino Carantes, Councilor Luis L. Lardi7abal, Councilor

AUGUST 15, 1946 — JULY 4, 1947

Jose M. Carino, Mayor Virginia Oteyza de Guia, Vice Mayor Sixto A. Dommondon, Councilor Honorio Millora. CouncilorTeodoro C. Arvisu, Councilor (up to September

4, 1947)JULY 4, 1947 — JANUARY 6. 1948

JANUARY 6, 1948 — JANUARY 3, 1952

Jose M. Cariflo, M ayor; succeeded by Luis P. Torres, April 11, 1950

Virginia O. de Guia V ice Mayor; Acting M a­yor, August 15, 1950

Luis L. Lardizabal, Councilor Roman Ayson, CouncilorLuis C. Castro, Councilor (From January 19,

1948)Gil R. Mallare, Acting City M ayor, Februarv

22, 1951Francisco I. Ortega. A cting City M ayor, April

5, 1951

JANUARY 3, 1952

Francisco I. Ortega. Acting Mayor. January 3, 152. Succeeded by Gil R. Mallare. Jan­uary 24, 1952

Benito H. Lopez succeeded Gil R. Mallare as M ayor on July 10, 1953

Virignia O. de Guia, succeeded by Patricio C. Perez, Vice Mayor

Benito H. Lopez, Councilor Luis L. Lardizabal, Councilor Luis C. Castro, succeeded by B ienvenido B.

Yandoc. January 31, 1952


Gil R. Mallare — January 14, 1952 to July 9.1953

Benito H. Lopez — July 10. 1953 to Decem ber 21 1953

Gil R. Mallare — Decem ber 22, 1952 to January 10, 1954

Alfonso Tabora — January 11, 1954 to D ecem ­ber 30 1959

Bienvenido Yandoc — January 4, 1960 to F eb­ruary, 1960


V. Oteyza de Guia — July 4, 1946 to April 18, 1952

Patricio C. Perez — April 19, 1952 to Septem ­ber 24. 1952

Carlos R. Lazo — D ecem ber 24, 1953 to Jan­uary 15, 1954

B. R. Yandoc — January 16, 1954 to 1959


Benito H. Lopez — January 1, 1952 to O ct­ober, 1959

Luis L. Lardizabal — January I, 1952 to Sept­em ber 6, 1953

Eugene P. Pucay — Decem ber 3, 1953 to 19o6 Luis C. Castro — January 17, 1948 to January

24, 1952B R. Yandoc — January 25, 1952 to Septem ber

24, 1953Delfin S. Sian — January 15, 1954 to May 23.

1954Filomeno Biscocho — January 15. 1954 to 1957 Norberto de Gunman — January 1, 1956 to

October 30. 1959

jose M. Carino, Mayor Virginia O. de Guia, Vice Mayor Sixto A. Dommondon. Councilor Francisco S. Reyes. Councilor

[ H I ]

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SERGIO rtAYAN June 1, 1937 to Sept. 11, 1939

NICASIO VALDEROSSAOct. 27, 1939 to May 3, 1944

RAMON P. MITRAMay 4, 1944 to March 17, 1945

PLACIDO MAPAMay 23, 1945 to Nov. 4, 1945

ISIDRO SIAPNONov. 5, 1945 to Dec. 21, 1945

PEDRO ARMENADec. 21, 1945 to July 4, 1946

JOSE CARISOJuly 20, 194-6 to April 8, 1950

LUIS TORRESApril 9, 1950 to Feb. 15, 1951

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (181)







GIL R. MALLAREFeb. 16, 1951 to April 2, 1951

FRANCISCO ORTEGA April 3, 1951 to Jan. 12, 1952

GIL R. MALLAREJan. 14, 1952 to July 7, 1953

BENITO H. LOPEZJuly 10, 1953 to Dec. 21, 1953

GIL R. MALLAREDec. 22. 1953 to Jan. 10. 1954

ALFONSO TABORAJan. 11, 1954 to Dec. 30, 1959

BIENVENIDO YANDOC Jan. 4, 1960 to Feb., 1960

LUIS LARDIZABALFirst elected Mayor

March 1, 1960 to the present-



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A July 4th celebra­tion In 19tG during the term of Mayor Armena. Shown with him in the grand stand are Mons. J. BUllet, Mrs. V. de Guia; vice mayor and Lt. S. Tooping. I

A stalwart Nacionalista leader, politi­cian, and businessman was born in Da- raga, Legaepi City on September 17, 1900, the only son in the second mar­riage of Don Jovito Armena and Dna Irene Villanueva, both deceased from Al- bay province.

A self-made man who worked his way up from the grade schools to college, he was a product of the public schools of Daraga, Albay Provincial High School, and the Seminary-College of Naga, Ca- marines Sur where he graduated and obtained with high honors (Sobresalien- te) his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1921.

To his credit may be cited the fol­lowing outstanding achievements in va­rious fields- appointed in 1934 as the first Filipino executive to hold a res­ponsible position in Erlanger and Ga- linger, Inc., an American firm; estab­lished in Baguio in 1937 a business en­terprise, the “Pedro Armena Company” , a reputable Filipino firm that competed favorably with foreign business establish­ments at *he time; became a founder, charter member and ex-director of the Baguio Rotary Club, 1938 to 1939; was founder and Honorary President of Ba- euio International Chamber of Commerce, 1945; was founder and President of the then Baguio Citizens League; became chairman of the Nacionalista Party in Baguio-Benguet after liberation; appoint­ed City Mayor of Baguio as the last City

Mayor of the Philippine Commonwealth government and the first City Mayor un­der the new Philippine Republic; worked for the protection and safety of the lives of the civilians and evacuees in Baguio during the liberation period; aided the underground movement.

At present, this crusader for a clean, honest, economical and efficient govern­ment is the technical assistant to the Chairman of Finance in the Senate, Sen-f ator Gil J. Puvat.

As City Mayor of Baguio during those hectic and trying days following a few months after liberation, he showed his unusual executive ability, tact, industry, resourcefulness, honesty and statesman­like approach to his people, thereby he restored immediately peace and order that enabled the people of Baguio to set­tle down to work consertedly on the tre­mendous job for the speedy rehabilita­tion and reconstruction of war-torn Ba­guio City. For this accomplishment in his administration, he enjoyed the con­fidence, love, cooperation and respect of the people of Baguio, as he carried with him the deep, sincere and everlasting gratitude of his people whom he sincere­ly and earnestly served to the best of his ability.

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Members of the City Council of 1948. From I. to r: Dr. Teodoro C. Arvisu, Mrs. Vir­ginia de Guia; vice mayor, councilmen h o norio Millora and Atty. Sixto Domondon.


During his incuinDency as Mayor, he began the move to segregate the Sunrise subdivision exclusively for low-salaried employees of the city. From the time he assumed mayorship the city was then in. the red, and lack of money prevent­ed the completion of a majority of the projects which he intended to rehabili­tate and construct. However, among his outstanding accomplishments are, namely the construction of the new city audito­rium; completion of §to. Tomas Water­works; the building of the new City Hall which was then only inaugurated by his successor Mayor Torres; procure­ment of a loan for six buildings in the market; rehabilitation and opening of Asin Hot Springs; construction of Old Baguio Central and Campo Filipino Schools; rehabilitation of Sto. Tomas Rest House and the Rizal Memorial Health Center.

He was appointed by the late Pres­ident Roxas to be Baguio’s mayor under the Republic of the Philippines enjoy­ing its early years of independence. With a strong determination to prove his true worth as a public official, he carried on and executed his duties and responsibi­lities with zeal and commendable con­scientiousness. It was he who first put into action the wheels of rehabilitation in the Pines City. He assumed office from July 30, 1946 to \pril 11, 1950.

Beirnr a product of tnp iirst Amer

ican School in Baguio and the Philip­pine Normal School in 1911, his thirst for knowledge was further quenched when he took a medical course in the College of Medicine University of the Philippines. Due to his failing health, however, he had to stop his studies. As soon as hfs health permitted, he went abroad in February, 1914 to continue his medical studies. Much to his satisfaction he was awarded a M.D. degree and for one year served as resident physician in the Pittsburgh General Hospital. U.S. Upon his arrival in the Philippines in 1919, he took the board examination and passed it. From 1919 to 1920 he worked as re­sident physician of the Baguio General Hospital followed by a position as Health Officer for the sub-province of Benguet. But the crowning glory of his career came when he was elected delegate to the Philippine Constitutional Convention in 1934. From 1935 to 1941 he engaged in business and the practice of his pro­fession.

Dr. Jose 'M. Carino was born in Ba­guio on January 25, 1892 as the son of Maria Bayo^a Ortega and Don Mateo Ca­rino, a prominent and influencial ex-“ca- beciila” and headman of the community under the Spanish regime. He is married to the former Juana Cortes, a former nurse who bore him three children, Grr- eiana, Jose and Leandro.

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GIL R. MALLARE He continued holding his position un­til June 28, 1948. From January 20, 1950,

Former Mayor Mallare joined the gov- to December 31, 1950, he served as Su-ernment in 1923, as Assistant Civil En- pervising Engineer of the Bureau of Pu-gineer of the Bureau of Public Works blic Works in Manila, and from Januaryin Tarlac. Subsequently, he was assigned 1, 1951, until his designation as Actingas District Engineer of Palawan, Antique, City Mayor of Baguio on February 16,Abra, Ilocos Norte, Albay-Catanduanes 1951, he was Construction and Mainte-and Iloilo during the intervening years nance Engineer under the reorganizedup to 1937. From July 16, 1937, up to Highway division of the B.P.W.the landing of the Japanese on April As City Mayor of Baguio, he did his16, 1942, in Panay, he served as an ex- best in eliminating unnecessary expensesofficio City Engineer of Iloilo City. He as a measure of pulling the City out ofheld the position of Acting Mayors of the red, overhauled the personnel in theIloilo City for about six months in 1940. City Hall. His keynote then was auste­


Mayor Luis P. Torres with Pres. Elpidio Quirino during the inauguration of the new City Hall. In the group are some government officials and employees.

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As Acting Mayor of Baguio, July 15, 1953 to Dec. 22, 1953, thsse are some of his outstanding accomplishments.

Opening of the public market walls, start of construction of new Baguio City High School building, salary increases of P5 and P10 to more than 800 govern­mental empolyees and laborers (the first increases in a quarter of a century), im- plimentation of National Teacher’s Sala­ry Act, payment of salary differentials of teachers in the city;

Construction of four health centers in Aurora Hill, Campo Filipino, City Camp, Pacdal, repairs of all government bunk- houses, construction of Baguio Athletic Stadium and grandstand, responsible for securing of Regional Health training, center for Baguio;

First Mayor to get P100.000 national aid since liberation, groundwork and planning for conversion of Loakan air­port into an international airport by Clark Field officials as early as July and August, 1953;

Sacrificed so much personally and Lc- pez Poultry Farm was abandoned for public service. Lopez said, “I cannot serve two masters at the same time. My masters are the people.” He won the Bus­iness Writers’ Association of the Philip­pines award to his farm as “The Poultry Farm of the year 1953.” He said he stopped farm operations when he was appointed Mayor in July, 1953.

An appraisal from Isaac Dizon, admi­nistrative officer of the Mayor’s office who has worked with 17 mayors before

and after the war: “ No Mayor has done so much for Baguio in such a short space of time as Mayor Lopez did.”

City Councilor: Implementation of the minimum Wage Law for government em­ployees and laborers, improvement of Roads, including City Camp roads, cons­truction of playground center at Aurora Hill, repair of Lucban elementary school and Loakan elementary school, construc­tion Aurora Hill elementary school play­ground Sponsored some 153 constructive resolutions during his term from Jan. 1, 1952 to July 15, 1953.

Promotion of tourism in Baguio. And lastly, acted as a constructive member of the city council of' Baguio.

Born in Jaro, Iloilo on August 20, 1908, he is married to the former Azu- cena Perfecto. A dynamic leader to rec­kon with both in business and public administration, he majored in economics and business as an alumnus of the Jose Rizal College, class 1926 and the Univer­sity of Michigan, U.S.A., class 1930. A lover o f music, a sportsman and versatile businessman, he held several important po­sitions in several organizations: presid­ent, Laong-Laan Tennis Club from 1937- 1941; president, Philippine Society for Chamber music, 1936 to 1941; president Lopez Enterprises Co., 1936 to 1941, vice- president, University of Michigan Alum­ni Association, 8th District from 1948 to 1951; president of the University of Mi­chigan Club of the Philippines for se­veral years.

Seated coun­terclockwise: Ci­ty Treasurer D. Cabali, Patricio Perez, Isaac *M- zon, Mayor Be­nito H. Lopez, City Secretary Norberto de Guz­man, and Dr. Bienvenido Yan­doc.

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BAl-ANOA8 A«UIPFirst StSSion OF t h i »A&ujoeirrceuncrL

WITH CDUWllO F-Bis«oc«o-ioi»o*m.

Seated clockwise: Atty. Delfin Stan, Eugene Pucay, Be­nito H. Lopez, Atty. Norberto de Guzman, Mayor Alfonso Tabo r a. Isaac Dlzon, Dr. Bienvenido Yan­doc, Atty. Fllome- no Biscocho. and C i t y Treasurer Domingo Cabali.


When the achievements of the city mayors of Baguio for the first, ten years after the liberation are assessed. Mayor Alfonso Tabora would easily stand out as the “ Father of Baguio Rehabilitation.”

Mayor Tabora assumed the office of chief city executive on January 11, 1954, at a time when a new national adminis­tration headed by President Ramon Mag- saysay took over from the Liberal Party. The City of Baguio was “ broke” at the time. The city coffer was emotv.

If Mayor Tabora deserves being called the “ Father of Baguio Rehabilitation,” two outstanding achievements of his ad­ministration should justify this distinc­tion accorded to him. First, he had con­ceived the idea of drilling artesian wells in Baguio in line with his d-eam of solv­ing the perennial water proolem of the summer capital once and tor all. The artesian well idea of Mayor Tabora ap­peared to have “clicked” and even Pre­sident Magsaysay, who believed in the drilling of more artesian well in the country solidly was happy to know that artesian wells in the Burnham Park had bejn successfully dirlled. For the firsttime, Baguio had a “ flowing” ariec,lan well right in the Burham Park. It was also upon Mayor Tabora’s insistence and determination that tke new Irisan water project was constructed, thus bolstering

considerably the water supply of Baguio during the summer months.

Little was known of the fact before that water could be the key to Baguio rehabilitation. Many property owners in Baguio had been hesitant to put up homes on their lots due to the inade­quacy of water supply in the city. But when it became known to these property owners that supreme efforts were being exerted by the city to solve its water problem, the private lot owners changed their mind and started a building cons­truction boom, the likeness of which had never been witneseed before.

The second achievement of Mayor Ta­bora’s administration was the stern po­licy squatters or the makeshift cons­tructions in the city. The city council enacted City Ordinance No. 195, which considered temporary or makeshift struc­tures in certain commercial and business sections as “ fire hazards.” A deadline for the demolition of such fire hazards was set on December 31, 1954, and the city stood pat on it.

When it became apparent that no am- mount of compromise could move the city to moving its deadline, the make­shift constructions, particularly along the Session Road were demolished one after another, and in their place were cons­tructed permanent structures, which had changed considerably the city’s skyline.

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A session of the all-elected mem­ber* of the City Council with Ma­yor B. Yandoc, last mayor to serve Baruio un­der it* old char­ter.

Mayor Tabora was bor_j on November 24, 1900, in Santo Tom asT^' Union. A f­ter finishing his elementary studies, he enrolled in the National Univeristy, Ma­nila, where he finished his high school and obtained his Bachelor of Laws de­gree. He was a working college student, having served as a reporter in the Ma­nila Daily Bulletin h » i la te r on in the Philipwjyiis Herald. ForSl*-s time after

-d^^ffluation, he served as secretary to the rector of Ateneo de Manila.

He was later appointed as Justice of the Peace for Bacnotan, San Juan and San Gabriel in 1926 and served in this position before the outbreak of the Pa­cific W ar in 1941. He then went into tb^w-man\??ss^uring business ni Da-

* mortis, La Union.Mayor Tabora is married to the former

Gerarda Laurel Gonzales, daughter of General Nicolas Gonzales, who served three times as Governor of Batangas. With his wife, he has seven children.

DR. BIENVENIDO R. YANDOCLast Mayor to serve Baguio under its

Old Charter

Yandoc as vice mayor is the seventh vice mayor since Baguio became a char­tered city in 1909. He is not new at city hall as he was an appointive city

councilor under the Liberal administra­tion in January, 1952 until he resigned in Sept. 1953 to campaign openly for the NP-DP coalition ticket.

His late father, Don Francisco Yandoc served as an elective city councilor from

1916 to 1919. Dr. Yandoc then was a student in the Baguio Elementary School_^^-< and at the same time helping his_ ja61 ther run the hotel bearing the family name. He finished his secondary course at the Pampanga High School.

One of the successful professionals in the City, as a dentist is considered high­ly in this profession, which accounts for his having been elected four times pre­sident of the Baguio Dental Association.

He is also an active lefeer in civic organizations. As Roiarian and past pre­sident of the Baguio Rotary Club, Dr. Yandoc represented this International or­ganization in 1951 as Baguio delegate.He was designated conference secretary of the 11th Annual District Conference of Rotarians all over the Philippines which was held in Baguio.

Ex-mayor Yandoc who was born in Tarlac, Tarlac served for sometime as Baguio Mayor upon the retirement of Al- fonzo Tabora on Dec. 31, 1959. He took his oath of office before Judge Jesus de Veyra in Dec. 31, 1959. His adminis­tration was short but memorable.

Mayor Tabora was born on November24, 1900, in Santo Tomas, La Union. Af­ter finishing his elementary studies, he enrolled in the National Univeristy, Me- nila, where he finished his high schooi and obtained his Bachelor of Laws de­gree. He was a working college student, having served as a reporter in the Ma­nila Daily Bulletin and later on in the Philippines Herald. For a time after graduation, he served as secretary to the rector of Ateneo de Manila.

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Baguio’s First All


ATTY. LUIS LARDIZABALFirs* Elective City Mayor of Baguio

Atty. Luis Lardizabal, Baguio’s first elected Mayor was born on June 21, 1914, the son of Rafael Lardizabal and Petra Lasmarias, poor farmers of Tagu- din, Uocos Sur. After completing his se­condary education at the National Uni­versity in 1£31, he took up law in the University of the Philippines and grad­uated in 1937. He successfully passed the bar the same year and since then has been in active law practice.

An indefatigable worker, he acted as legal counsel for the first Baguio Labor Federation, the M.P. Tranco Labor Un­ion, and labor unions in Antamok Gold- field and Demonstration Gold Mine.

In the political field, his achievements are outstanding to say the least. His re­cord reveals the following: 1946, ap­pointed City Councilor of Baguio: 1947,

was elected as City Councilor with an overwhelming majority; 1951 was reelect­ed as City Councilor; 1953 ran as can­didate for representative in the second district of the Mt. Province; 1959 was elected the first elective Baguio Mayor. As a mere councilor, he did his utmost for community development. The welfare of the working masses was his first concern.

Now as the City’s Chief Executive he has pledged to solve and give priority of attention. Ja^he various problems that the City is beset such as public works projects, sanitation problems like sewe­rage and garbage collection, unemploy­ment, the water and lighting system, market fee reduction and others.

True to his civic aims, he had been at one time or another president or member of va^tffs civic and social or­ganizations and clubs in the *pit^^ike the Lion’s Club, the Baguio Lawyj'r?’' League and the Rotary Club of Baguio.

He is married to the former Crescen- cia V. Valdez.

NORBERTO DE GUZMAN ,Vice M a y o ^ ■.

Born in Bauang, La Union on Sept-N ember 8, 1910.

Resident of Baguio since 1945. Finish­ed elementary schooling in Bauang Ele­mentary School, Bauang La Union, and Government Center School in Baguio Ci-

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (189)

-Elective City Council

ty. Finished secondary schooling at La Union High School. Obtained Bachelor of Laws degree at the National Law School of the University of Manila. Pass­ed the Bar Examination in 1938.

Lawyer and Government Official.Worked with the Division of Investi­

gation, Department of Justice, 1937-1939; Justice of the Peace for Itogon, Tuba, and Tublay in 1946, City Secretary of Baguio, 1947-1954; City Councilor of Ba­guio City, 1955-1959. Practising lawyer.

Married to Teodora Fenix who was born in Manila. She is a housewife. They have seven children: Delia, Daisy, Cyn­thia, Norberto, Jr., Leilani, Jennifer and Teddy.


Born in San Fernando, La Union on April 19, 1925.

Resident of Baguio since 1925. Finish­ed elementary schooling at Government Center School, Baguio. Finished second­ary schooling at Baguio City High School. Obtained Associate in Arts and Bachelor of Arts degrees at Baguio Colleges.

Newspaperman.Worked as laborer, PCAU Unit 7, 1945;

clerk, Resurrecion and Astudillo Law Offices, 1946; clerk, office of the City Mayor, Baguio City, 1949; Baguio cor­respondent, Manila Daily Bulletin, 1950- 1959; confidential secretary, City Coun­cil, Baguio City, 1952-1955; public re-


iations officer, Baguio City, 1953; civilian public information officer, John Hay Air Base, 1957-1958.

Vice President, Baguio Press Club; Member, National Press Club of the Phi­lippines.

Married to Nieves Peralta of Balaoan, La Union. She is a housewife. They have one child: Pedro.


Born in Naguilian La Union on Oct­ober 4, 1926.

Resident of Baguio since 1934. Finished elementary schooling in Gusing Elemen­tary School, Naguilian, La Union. Finish-



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ed secondary schooling at Baguio Col­leges. Obtained Associate in Arts and Bachelor of Laws degrees at Baguio Colleges. Passed the Bar Examination in 1954.

Practising lawyer.Worked as custodian of the Vice Pre­

sident’s summer home in Baguio, public school teacher, Baguio correspondent of the Manila Chronicle, manager of the Baguio bureau of the Manila Chronicle, assistant circulation manager of the Ma­nila Chronicle, news editor of the Ba­guio Midland Courier, and editor of the Mountaineer.

Member of the Baguio Press Club, Ba­guio Lawyers Association and the Fede­ration of Parent-Teacher Associations in Baguio.

Married to Nenita Molintas of Baguio. She is engaged in business. They have seven children: Louella, MacArthur, Ben­jamin, Jr., Elizabeth, Ruth. Daniel and Rogelio.


Born in Naguilian, La Union on Oct­ober 7, 1907.

Resident of Baguio since 1922. Finish­ed elementary schooling at St. Louis College (Campo Filipino). Finished se­condary schooling at St. Louis (Campo Filipino). Obtained Bachelor of science in Education degree at the University of Santo Tomas.

High School teacher since 1933.Member, Knights of Columbus; mem­

ber, Holy Name Society; Member, Ado- racion Nuctorna, Baguio.

Married to Valeriana C. Alabanza of Vigan, Ilocos Sur. She is a housewife. They have eleven children: Joseph, Libe- rato, Gloria, Floro, Alberto, Jaime, Er- linda, Andrew, Remedios and Ramon.


Born in Aringay, La Union on April17, 1927.

Resident of Baguio since 1953. Finish­ed elementary schooling in Agoo, La Union. Finished secondary schooling at La Union High School. Obtained Asso­

ciate in Arts and Bachelor of Laws at the University of the Philippines. Pass­ed the Bar Examination in 1952.

Lawyer.Public Relations Officer, Office of the

City Mayor. City Secretary, Baguio.Member, Baguic-Benguet Council, Boy

Scouts of the Philippines.Married to Lilia Guirnalda of San Juan,

La Union. She is a former school tea­cher. They have five children: Raul, Jt., Einstein, Agaton, Roland and Brenda.


Born in Naguilian, La Union on Feb­ruary 14, 1927.

Resident of Baguio since 1927. Finish­ed elementary schooling in Government Center School, Baguio City. Finished se­condary schooling at Baguio City High School. Obtained Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws at Baguio Colleges. Passed the Bar Examination in 1957.

Newspaperman and practising lawyer.Worked as laborer and janitor. Tele­

phone operator at Camp John Hay. Work­ed as correspondent of the Manila Daily Bulletin, Philippine Herald and Philip­pine News Service. Staff member of the Philippines Herald in Manila. News edi­tor of Baguio Midland Courier and cor­respondent of the Manila Chronicle. In­structor in the College of Business Ad­ministration, Baguio Colleges. Practising Lawyer.

President, Baguio Press Club; Member, National Press Club of the Philippines; Member, Provincial Press Association of the Philippines; Chairman, Baguio Tour­ist Publicity Board; P a s t President, Toastmaster Club of Baguio; Vice Pres­ident, Y ’s Men's Club of Baguio; Execu­tive Vice President, Eaguio JayCees; Ex­ecutive Secretary, Baguio Hotels and Restaurants Association; Member, Lions Club of Baguio; Secretary, Northern Lu­zon Association for the Blind; Member, Philippine Mental Health Association; Member, Baguio General Hospital Advi­sory Board; Member, Baguio-Benguet Council, Boy Scouts of the Philippines; Member, Apaches; Member, Baguio Law­yers League; PRO, Aurora Hill Parent- Teachers Association.

[ 182 1

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The City of Baguio has a population of 50,321 as per census of 1960, as against35,177 in 1948. This popula­tion comes from a total number of 9,555 families re­siding in the city. There are5,614 buildings in Baguio, including 422 barong-ba- rongs or squatters homes, which pose a problem to city beautification.

The new city officials, who took over the reins of the government in January, 1960, are by and large tou­rism-minded. For one thing, three of the members of the city council are active news­papermen, who are sold to the tourist industry.

These city councilors are: Jose S. Florendo, correspon­dent of the Manila Daily Bulletin; Atty. Gaudencio N. Floresca, correspondent; Manila Chronicle and news editor of the Baguio Midland Courier; and Atty. Benjam­in C. Rillera, columnist of a local weekly and former correspondent of the Manila Chronicle.' With such composition of membership, the city coun­cil, headed by Vice Mayor Norborto F. de Guzman, who is himself a rabid enthusiast on tourism, has taken a fresh approach on the industry, which, properly developed, would mean a lot of econo­mic lift to the poor finances of the city.

Already, the city council is seriously considering the creation of a department of tourism, which will absorb the department of parks and gardens so as to coordinate the work of the two agen­cies.

In the executive level, the

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (192)


The City of Baguio has a population of 50,321 as per census of 1960, as against35,177 in 1948. This popula­tion comes from a total number of 9,555 families re­siding in the city. There are5,614 buildings in Baguio, including 422 barong-ba- rongs or squatters homes, which pose a problem to city beautification.

The new city officials, who took over the reins of the government in January, 1960, are by and large tou­rism-minded. For one thing, three of the members of the city council are active news­papermen, who are sold to the tourist industry.

These city councilors are: Jose S. Florendo, correspon­dent of the Manila Daily Bulletin ; Atty. Gaudencio N. Floresca, correspondent; Manila Chronicle and news editor of the Baguio Midland Courier; and Atty. Benjam­in C. Rillera, columnist of a local weekly and former correspondent of the Manila Chronicle.

With such composition of membership, the city coun­cil, headed by Vice Mayor Norberto F. de Guzman, who is himself a rabid enthusiast on tourism, has taken a fresh approach on the industry, which, properly developed, would mean a lot of econo­mic lift to the poor finances of the city.

Already, the city council is seriously considering the creation of a department of tourism, which will absorb the department of parks and gardens so as to coordinate the work of the two agen­cies.

In the executive level, the

[ 183 J

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Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (194)

future of tourism is also bright. Mayor Luis L. Lar- dizabal has taken positive steps to develop tourism in real earnest by including an item in the proposed city budget for the fiscal year, 1960-51, carrying an outlay of P6,- 000 for the purpose.

Under Mayor Lardizabal’s

Bridal Vetl Falls

Bridge at Camp OneHouse is the pool of Wright the west side of the cityPark. Mansion House was houses the Grotto of Lour-built for the American Gov- des. One has to ascend 225ernors-General and was turn- concrete steps to the Grot-ed over to the Philippine to. Mirador has a windinggovernment upon inaugura- road to the top where thetion of the Commonwealth. Jesuit Observatory and St.The President occupies the Bellarmine College are lo-Guest House when he or cated.members of his family are Baguio Country Club — Ain Baguio. One can enter prjvate club open only tothe grounds of Mansion members and guests, thisHouse by securing permis- estate within the city has asion from the Presidential beautiful 18-hole golf course,Guards on duty. tennis courts, a comfortable

The Baguio Zoological anti club house, guest rooms cot-Botanical Gardens— the latest tages and flower gardens. Itof tourist attractions in this boasts of a recreational hallCity is the Baguio Zoological with bowling alleys, pool ta-and Botanical Gardens. It is bles, library and readinglocated at Forbes Park and is room.accessible via the Leonard Mansion House — This isWood Road. It is adjoining the official home of the PreTeachers’ Camp. sident of the Philippines in

It was originally conceived Baguio. In front of MansionZig-zag Road

program, which he called at its “ initial stage” , the po tentialities of Baguio as a tourist spot will be given national and international publicity build-up through recognized news and advert­ising agencies.

The local press has also been invited by the city mayor to contribute its share in giving appropriate publicity of Baguio in the national scale.

The second edition of the “Baguio Guide” listed the following places of interest:

Mt. Mirador—This hill on

m m m

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City HallHouse by securing permis­sion from the Presidential Guards on duty.

The Baguio Zoological and Botanical Gardens—the latest of tourist attractions in this City is the Baguio Zoological and Botanical Gardens. It is located at Forbes Park and is accessible via the Leonard Wood Road. It is adjoining Teachers’ Camp.

It was originally conceived on March 12, 1951 but it was the City Administration un- de-.- Mayor Alfonso Tabora which brought this plan into realization. It is stocked with animals and different birds all of which are donated. The latest to be donated is the pet deer of the Late Presi­dent Magsaysay. Deers, mon­keys, eagles, different kinds of other animals, including a bear, and birds inhabit the

zoo. A delightful place foi children, it is a must for all.

Ambuklao Dam— This latest addition to the wonderland beyond Baguio can be reach- from the city down a 36-ki­lometer scenic highway. Now known as the Philippines’ largest hydroelectric project, Ambuklao Dam promises to be one of the most attractive resorts in the Orient when its tourist possibilities shall have been fully developed.

Dominican Hill— This hill commands a good view of Lingayen Gulf, the Ilocos coastline, the China Sea to the west, and the central part of the City of Baguio to the east. The Dominican Fathers use it as a rest center and se­minary. This hill is about 10 minutes ride from the Mar­ket Plaza.

Session Road

Mount Santo Tomas— Al­most the same distance as the Asin Hot Springs, eleven ki­lometers to the peak’s base by motor road, and three ki­lometers to the peak by an easily passable trail, is this mountain west of Baguio ris­ing 7,500 feet above sea le­vel. From the top may be viewed the most magnificent sunrise and sunsets. On a clear day, one can see the Central Plains of Luzon and the Chi­na Sea. It is cold at the peak. Bring your thick blankets if you want to sleep there. There is no rest house and no

Xafiy of Lourdes

place to buy food, however.Trinidad valley and Ambu-

rayan valley—A 10-minute ride to the north of the city lies the Trinidad Valley un- variably referred to as “ a ve­getable paradise” , or “ Salad Bowl of the Philippines,” where truck farming is done on a large scale. Just beyond is the bowl of the Ambura- yan Valley nothward from Camp Holmes, from where one may catch a glimpse ol

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rice terraces.At Trinidad Valley, you

can buy fresh vegetables,1 flowers and strawberries. The Mountain National Agricul­tural College is located in Trinidad.

Philippine Military Acade­my—A 15-minute ride from the city, this is the Repu­blic’s Military Academy and the leading military institu­tion in the Orient. The Mili­tary Academy occupies 373 hectares of hilly area in Dei

Mt. Mirador

Pilar Heights, Loakan, sit­uated about seven kilometers from the city. In sharp con­trasts with the nr.tive huts, and the semi-permanent buildings found in the vici­nity, the academy building offers an interesting picture against the evergreen of the hillside and the beautiful Benguet skyline. One unique spectacle offered is the weekly Sunday evening pa­rade of the cadets during alternate Sundays at Del P i­lar Heights and Burnham Park.

Camp Henry T. Allen— The seat of the old Philip pines Constabulary Academy, the camp now houses the of­ficers and men of the Phil­ippine Military Academy. It squats atop a promotory overlooking the business cen­ter of Baguio. It has nice tennis courts and an officers’ clubhouse.

Mines W ie w Park— This promontory Jutting out from eastern edge of Baguio af­fords a breath-taking view of the mining district of Itogon. This place is about four ki lometers -from the heart of the city.

The Halsema Road— For. the tourists, the City of Bax guio is but a spring board to the wonderland further north. You can take the Halsema; Road (formerly called Moun-; tain Trail) one of the most picturesque mountain high­ways in the world, which will lead you to native villages and rice terraces. Here one

Mansion Housegets the “ feel” of native life, with its unique customs and traditions.

Halsema Road is the gate­way to Lepanto, the home of the famous hand-woven Le­panto fabrics, Bontoc, the picturesque capital of Moun­tain Province and the famous rice terraces at Banaue, Ifu- gao, about 150 kilometers north of Baguio.

Teachers Camp— This camp belongs to the Department of Education. It was ori­ginally used as a vacation camp for early American teachers in need of a change from the lowland climaie.

Asin Hot Springs— Fifteen kilometers away from the ci­ty, a short 20-minute ride, are hot springs piped into a bath house and swimming pool. You can have your bath

Teachers’ Camp

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Mines View Tarts

^sin Hot Springs

Crystal Cave— A veritable Burnham Parkmecca for hikers, the first siting the cave, use rubber cave is a “ Must” . It is not soled or rubber-heeled shoes, advisable to visit the second Bring flashlights or pine cave which is often filled “ saleng” and matches. Food with wa'sr and mud. A scant mav be purchased at the

two kilometers from the city via the Santo Tomas Road, the trail to the cave itselfoffers wonderful opportune nearby Crystal Tavern res- tics for picnics, horseback tauis t ­riding- and hiking. When vi-

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Miss Baguio of 1959

Miss Bagiou of 1949

The former Miss Milagros Lacson, Miss Baguio of 1949, in a beauty poll of the 1949 Baguio Carnival and Exposition.

The former Mis* Evangeline de Cas­tro, Miss Philippines for 1947, In a nation­wide beauty poll conducted by the Philippine Air Lines, Inc.

Miss Rosalinda Biscocho MISS BAGUIO, 1959 She is the daughter of

ex-councilor and Mrs. Fi- lomeno Biscocho.

Miss Baguio of 1958I 189 ]

Miss Philippines

Miss Liberation

The former Miss Muriel Pucay, a na­tive of Benguet, Mt. Province, who was crowned Miss Libe-. ration in connection with the liberation festival of Baguio, April 25-28, 1946.

Miss Guila, Miss Baguio of 1958. Her candidacy was spon­sored by the Pacdal residents for the Ba­guio Red Cross Chap­ter. She is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Segundo Guila. Mr. Guila is the care­taker of the Mansion House.

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AURORA ARAGON QUEZONA woman whose memory will always be enshrined in

the hearts of Baguoi residents is the late Mrs. Aurora A. uezon. During her lifetime, she unselfishly gave of herself immaterial as well as material contributions to everything that will uplift progress in the city be it moral, spiritual, or social. The grotto of Lourdes at Burnham Park which is a Quezon property has become one of Baguio’s main attractions to tourists and vacationists.

Mrs. Quezon was born in Baler, Quezon (formerly Ta- yabas province); the daughter of Pedro Aragon and Zenai- da Molina. Worthy of mention is her marriage to the

late President and national hero, Manyel L.Quezon. A graduate of the Phtfipp,:nd Normal School, Manila.



Born in Mabini, Pangasinan, she is the daughter of Guillermo Valderamma and Magda>ena Braganza. After gra­duating from the Phil. General Hospital School of Nursing, she devoted two years to the practice of her profession in the same school. She later married Major Jose N. Evangelista. For four years she engaged in private nursing in Cebu where her husband was stationed. However, her husband’s promo­tion to the position of Commandai/t of Cadets of the former Phil. Constabulary, brought them to Baguio way back in 1918. in 1928, she ventured in business as managing partner c f the Zig-Zag Hotel at the same time managing several houses owned by prominent Manilenos and the summer U.P. mess.

Liberation meant to her new life and fresh hopes. After a short time, the Zig- Zag Apartment and other buildings along Kayang and Abanao Sts. were rehabilitat­ed and remodeled.

Mrs. F. B. EvangelistaShe became the president of the CWI

for two terms and represented the Mt. Province in Rome during the Lay Aposto­lic World Organization, an international affair.

Mrs. GORGONIA ROMERO VDA. DE LADINESteam which reaped honors in the eastern towns of Pangasinan. In 1918, however, she left the teaching profession and join­ed her husband in Bontoc who was then the Provincial Warden of the Bilibid Pri­sons.

Mrs. G. R. Ladines

Born on December 9, 1891 in Binalonan,Pangasinan; graduated from the Linga- yen High School in 1911. After gradua­tion she taught in the Binalonan Elemen­tary School. It was while teaching that she coached the Binalonan basket-ball

Together with her three children, 2 girls and one boy, she returned to Binalonan and started as a merchant. In 1929, she became a rice dealer in Baguio in which she is stilled engaged at present.

She was one time president of the Binalonan Woman’s Club; treasurer of the Binalonan Circle Association: member of the Board of Directors of the Baguio Catholic Women’s League, member, of Board of advisers of the B. Hospital, and the Putiokan Woman’s Club, and one of the organizers of the Mutual Welfare Asso., Aurora Hill of which she was elected president in 1945.


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TEODORA CARISO CAOILEOwner, Pines Park Sub-Division

Teodora C. Caoile of the well-known Carino family in Baguio was born in 1901, a red-letter year in the history of Baguio for it was then that the American Cavalry com­posed of Negroes arrived in the city. She is the daughter of the late Sioco Carino, first Township president of Baguio and sister of former Mayor Carino of the city. A product of the Mountain Province High School where she finished first year in 1917, she taught at Tuba Elementary School for two years until her resignation when she got married and etablished a meat store in the Baguio Market which sb» managed for three years. She then engaged in live­stock business and managed the Crystal real estate enterprise known as the Pines Cave Dairy Farm until the outbreak of Park Sub-Division composed of more the last war. The war years did not than seven hectares of land. True to dissuade her from engaging in livestock the Carino tradition, she is always on buy and sell and helping the underground the go to help effect community prog- movement. After the war she devoted ress.her time to farming in La Trinidad and She is married to Manuel Caoi.c of managing her father’s ranch in Ansa- La Trinidad with whom she has eml- gan. At present she jwns and heads a dren.



Woman Civic LeaderBaguio’s contribution to the country’s leadership is a dy­

namic bundle of feminine pulchritude endowed with unusual talents in practically all lines of activity represented by Mrs. Virginia Oteyza-de Guia. A brilliant student in her college days, a proven civic leader in her maturer years, and a sea­soned government official, Mrs. De Guia showed her mettle when she was Baguio’s First Woman Vice-Mayor way back in 1950. She was instrumental in the creation of the Parks & Recreation Commission, intended to supervise recreation among youth. She was also a tireless worker for the preser­vation of Igorot culture, towards which project she was able to put up the beginnings of the museum.

Mrs. De Guia is married to Mr. Victor de Guia, an engineer by profession, whose hobby of Scouting has brought him in contact with the youth of the world. She holds the degrees of Bachelor of Philo­sophy, Bachelor of Laws, Master of Arts (in Public Administration) from the University of the Philippines. While in college, she was adjudged the “ best dra­matic find of the year (1935)” , the U.P.Model Coed (during the observance of National Girl’s Week in 1938), as well as earning the title of Intercollegiate

Mrs. V. O. De Guia

tennis champion in 1935.Professionally, she was a Fellow o f the

United Nations in Corrynunity Organ­ization in the United States and Canada, and was at one time Professorial Lecturer at the U.P. Clark Airbase Branch, where she held her own with American officers and armed forces personnel. Together with {inother Baguio booster, Atty. Benjamin Salvosa, she barnstormed the country °n a debating project, which they took w'th honors and credit.


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (201)

Entrance to John Hay Air Base.


Col. FRANK SMITH First Commander After liberation

(Continued on page 7 1 )

1929 there in his honor.In 1914, 2 companies of Igorots

were recruited for duty at Camp John Hay to relieve the American and lowland Philippine soldiers who were assigned elsewhere. The Igorot soldiers besides their army duties, furnished entertainment at the camp in the form of native dances and caniaos.

As the years go by, the camp en­hanced the beauty and gained wider popularity as a well-equipped rest cen­ter. Succeeding commanding officers did their share to enhance the reputa­tion of the camp. In 1930, it consist­ed of approximately 82 cottages, post headquarters, installations, a hospital, and a modern dormitory.

During World War II, the Japanese invaded the camp and used it partially as a concentration camp. Much damage was inflicted during the liberation.

After Camp John Hay was securedThe Amphitheatre.

on April 28, 1945, by the 33rd Divis­ion, General Clarkson, its command- fng officer, made the Baguio Country Club his headquarters and the Camp was rapidly converted into a sump­tuous rest center for GIs from the front lines by the Golden Cross Corps, which repaired the old abandoned sawmill. The Filipino labor furnished by a Philippine Civil Affairs Unit performed the construction work, in­cluding the erection of immaculately furnished tents. Under the supervis­ion of Capt. Eugene M. Gilroy, Divi­sional Special Services Officer, shell- scarred Snyder Hall was completely renovated into a modern recreation building.

As early as August, 1945, Colonel Frank M. Smith with his men arrived in Baguio. On him fell the tremendous responsibility of rehabilitating and re­establishing the camp. Its post-war opening was on October 10, 1945. Since then todate, John Hay Air Base

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Some . of ' the previous com­manding officers were: pre-war, Capt.M. R. Hilgard, Maj. C. L. Darak, Col.J. P. Hartel Maj. Abraham Garfinkle,Col. P. G. Musgrave, Capt. J. R. Col­lins, Maj. John D. Hood, Lieut. Col. Paul Murray and Lieut. Col. John P. Horan. Post war commanding officers were: Col. Frank M. Smith, Col. John Fonville, Lieut. Col. Wallace Lovsnes, Col. Gordon Singles Maj. Archie Black,Col. Brooks, Lieut. Col. J. F. Daugherty,Col. Holt, Col. Jamison, Col. Beck, Col. Bisgard, Major L. E. Rea Jr, and Ma­jor Quigley.

--------------- o ---------------Partial panoramic view of John Hay Air Base-

Mr. R. Tucker West Supt., J. Hay Air Base

Majob WILLIAM FRANK Communder

John Hay Air Base

The Tennis Court.

The Nineteenth Tee.

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HAMBY MEMO­RIAL DISPEN­SARY of the St. Theodore’s hos­pital in Sagada, Mountain Prov­ince. The dispen.- sary was built by Mrs. Lililan Hamby in memo­ry of her hus­band, the late Col. W. R. Ham­by.

'Golfers whose members come from Ba­guio and the U.S. Services of John Hay Air Base. Not content with such a schedule, she explored the possibilities of teaching blind children to play golf. She is also a director of the Northern Luzon Association for the Blind and at the same time chairman of the finance committee.

Other pertinent personal data include the following: date of birth — January25, 1901, schools where educated—pri­vate schools in Germany and Switzenand and New England Conservatory of Mu­sic in Boston; served at one time in Co­logne Conservatory of Music in Cologne, Germany.

She is the daughter of a well-known American scientist and adviser to for­mer Pres. Taft. She came to the Phil­ippines in 1931 with her husband who was stationed at Camp Stotsenburg, Pampanga. It was at this juncture that she developed a strong attachment to the Igorots during her travels in the wild Igorot country with her husband and some American Army Officials. She became a close friend of no less than Igorot Chief Punchinlau of Banaue. She still keeps valuable souvenir presents of her Igorot friends. It was at this time, too that she engaged actively in sports and was acclaimed champion in tennis, golf, and horsemanship in Camp Stot­senburg. For three years during World War II, she served as Volunteer in the Red Cross Motor Corps.

LILLIAN HAMBYWoman Civic Leader

In Baguio’s social and civic affairs, the Hamby name is a byword for Mrs. Ham­by is actively doing her utmost to make others happy. People especially the na­tives are often recipients of aid in the form of food, clothing and other gifts. Because of this she is well known to the native children.

The death .Qf her husband, Col. W. Kobert Hamby, did not unnerve her nor did it in the least dissuade her from doing further services for the poor. A memorial in honor of her husband was erected in Sagada, Bontoc in the form of a public dispensary for the Mountain people.

Mrs. Hamby is a life member of the Monday Club in which organization she was one time vice-president. A golf in­structor at John Hay Air Base and a member of the golf committee at the Baguio Country Club, she is the found­er and adviser of the Mountaineers Lady

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MRS. TEODORA M. FLORESAdministrator, Baguio-Benguet-Mt. Province Chapter

of the P.N.R.C.

Mrs. T. M. Flores

the Centro Escolar of the local, PNRC

Front view of the Philippine National Red Cross Building along H a r r i s o n Road, facing Burn­ham Park.

MRS. DATIVA C. ROQUEProfessorial lecturer in Sociology

and Education.

U.P. Branch Clark Air Force BaseMrs. Dativa C. Roque well-known edu

cator, lecturer, painter, and social worke: was born in Calumpit, Bulacan, the daugh ter of Miguel Cristobal and Miguela Tor res.

She is a graduate of the State Univer sit.v with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Education majoring in Mathematics and English. She first taught in the then Phil Normal School. After World War n, she became Dean of Instruction in Baguio Colleges and later Head of the Graduate School of St. Louis College At present she is a professorial lecturer in Sociology and Education at the U.P. Branch, in Clark Air Force Base. She specialized in Education for sometime at the Columbia University in New York, U.S.A.

The first press, of the Philippine Asso ciation of University Women, she is an outstanding member of the Catholic Worn en’s League, the Pan Pacific Association and the Philippine Association of Univer

fc sity Women. She was recipient of a gold B medal in sculpture and painting of the M School of Fine Arts, U.P.

One of the most active woman civic worker in Baguio is Mrs. Teodora M. Flores. Besides being the Administrator of the Baguio-Benguet-Mt. Chapter of the Philippine National Red Cross she finds time to join several civic organizations in which she held the following positions:

Girl Scout Baguio-Benguet-Mt. Council, member board of director; Philippine Mental Health Association, secretary; Ba­guio General Hospital Advisory Board, treasurer; Northern Luzon Association for the Blind, treasurer; Baguio Pharma- cieutical Association, treasurer.

Mrs. Flores was born in Baler, Quezon, daighter of Teo- dorico Molina and Petra Querijero. She is married to Judge Jose P. Flores.

She obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in Pharmacy at University in 1933 and assumed the position o f Administrator Chapter since 1947.

Mrs. Dativa C. Roque

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Mrs. Ethel T. Herold, voted by the bJP. Club as ‘"Woman of the Year” , 1958, is shown being congratulated by Press Sec. Jose Nable during the B.P.C. Aawrds Night, Looking on is Bert Floresca who was then the President of the Club.

They were designated as Honorary Citizens and adopted son and daughter respectively of Baguio City in recognition of their services, accomplish­ments, and contributions to the City of Baguio■ By their exemplary conduct, their devotion to civic duty and community un­dertakings, and their wist and progressive policies regarding Brent School, they have endeared them­selves to the Baguio re­sidents nad have helped bring about in the city of Baguio, the best kind o] Philippine-American rela­tions.

ETHEL THOMAS HEROLDMrs. Ethel Thomas Herold will be fond­

ly remembered as an American teacher— social worker—civic leader who has done much to cement Filipino-American re la* tionship. In recognition of her meritoriouE and exemplary services to the city of Ba­guio during her long years of stay in the city, she and her husband, Mr. Elmer He­rold were designated as Honorary Citizens of the City through a resolution of the City council Then, too ,she was voted at “ Woman of the Year” for 1958 by the Ba guio Press Club.

Mrs. Herold is one of the few Americar women who before leaving for the United States to retire from active service haf always consideed the Philippines her sec­ond home. Before coming to the Philip­pines, she taught history at the Lancaster High School from 1917 to 1920. She joined the then Bureau of Education in the Phil­ippines in 1922 and retired from public service in 1927 to devote her time wholly to social work.

Rev. and Mrs. Alfred Griffiths

Mrs. Carrie Rea holds the distinction of being Baguio’s first honorary lady citizen. This honor is well deserved when one con­siders Mrs. Rea’s efforts in promoting cor­dial relations between Baguio and John Hay Air Base and her interest in the indi gency program of the city. As wife of Major Laurence E. Rea, Jr., former commander of the Base, she exerted her utmost in cement­ing friendship between Filipinos and Amer­icans.

The citation given by the city to Mrs. Rea was given during a parade and prog­ram held in her honor at the Burnham Football grounds.

L 196 1

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MRS. B. LAVERNE FERTIGOne of the most active American ladies

in the field of civic wofk in Baguio and Mt. Province, is Mrs. B. Laverne Fertig, wife of Mr. Claude E. Fartig, General Superintendent of Itogon-Suyoc Mines, Inc.

Like her husband, she is very active in civic movements, including youth welfare. Mrs. Fertig is president of the Monday Club, an association for American ladies, for the year 1959-80, and member of the board of directors of the Northern Luzon Association for the Blind, with headquar­ters in Baguio City, and the Inner Wheel, the lady counterpart of the Rotary Club. She is also chairman of the Troop Com­mittee of the Itogon “ Lily” troop Girl Spouts, YWCA: Mrs. Fertig is bv pro­

fession a teacher, having obtained a Teachers Life certificate at the Colorado State College, Greeley, Colorado, USA, majoring in English and dramatics in1937.

Before coming to the Philippines, she tr.ught for five years in Colorado schools. She came to the Philippines with her hus­band and when the Pacific war broke out in 1941 she joined her husband who was a colonel in the guerrilla movement, spending the war years in the mountains o f Panay.

After the war she resumed her teach­ing profession at the Brent School, Ba­guio, as teacher in dramatics since 1949.

Mrs. Fertig was born on August 9, 1908, in Missouri, USA, daughter of Jo­seph Shockley and Nora Johnson Shock­ley.

Mr. Claude Fertig, Manager of Itogon-Suyoc Mines with the ever-helping hand of Mrs. Fertig has contributed greatly to the upliftment of the Filipino mine workers thus indirectly boosting the economy of the city and has actively promoted the wel­fare of the Filipinos around them as evidence by their untiring work and participa­tion in many civic, charitable, and social organizations-

Mr. and Mrs. Claude E. Fertig of Itoeon-Suyoc Mines, Inc. are shown re­ceiving a similar resolu­tion from the city mayor.

r 1971

HONORARY CITIZENS — Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Crosby of Benguet Con­solidated. Inc. receiving from Mayor Luis Lardi­zabal a city council reso­lution making them ho­norary citizens.

Mr. and Mrs. Cnarles Foster of Lenanto Conso­lidated Mining Company, who were also among the recipients of honorary ci­tizenship, were unable to attend the ceremony. Pre-

citizenship°?to ^the °Amerr- Mr- Crosby in his capacity organization and promotion of co.can residents in recogni- 03 executive Vice-President and operation intended to tap the coun-tion of their valuable assistant general manager of the try’s natural resources benefitingcontributions to the com Benguet Consolidated, Inc., has some 20,000 people, most of whorfmunity. promoted the industrial develop- are Baguio residents.

ment of the country through the

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H. C. HEALDFounder, Heald Lumber Company

H. C. Heald, among the pioneer-build- ers of Baguio came to the city in 1906 when it was still a wilderness. With Oscar F. Campbell as a partner, he saw

the vast possibilities of the lumber bus­iness in Benguet, especially in Baguio. He took over Whitmarsh’s sawmill and in 1808 founded the Heald Sawmills.

Starting with a small timber conces­sion, he initiated the first aerial tram­way at a 4,000 feet span and succeeded in spite of skepticism on the part of ob­servers. From a small beginning and after the Company was formally incor­porated on April 20, 1934, Heald Lum­ber Company continued to grow side by side with Baguio City.

Today the Company ranks as the fore­most commercial lumber operation in Baguio City and the Mojntain Province which position, can maifily be credited to the growth and progress of Baguio City itself.

The spacious office of the Heald Company at Wagner Road.

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Vice-President and General Superintendent Heald Lumber Company

Mr. Jorgensen first arrived in the Philippines at the age of fourteen, thir­ty-three years ago, with his parents. He finished his high schooling at Brent School, Baguio City in 1931.

In 1937 he returned to Baguio as Log­ging and Sawmill Superintendent for Heald Lumber Company. In 1939 he transferred to Benguet Consolidated as Superintendent of their Bobok Timber Proiect, which position he is still cur­rently occupying. On July 1, 1959, he was re-sngaged to take over management of Heald Lumber Corrmany, thus complet­ing the circle started 22 years previously.

Mr. Jorgensen married Roxy Bonne- mort in Baguio in 1939 and has two sons, both Baguio born and now attend­ing Brent School in Baguio City. A mem-

Mr. Kenneth F. Jorgensenber of the Baguio Lions Club, of which he is second vice-president and also a member of the Northern Luzon Asso­ciation for the Blind, Mr. Jorgensen may justifiably be considered as “ one of Baguio” .

Partial panoramic view of the Heald Lumber yard at the same site.

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ITOGON ■ SUYOC MINES, INC.The Itogon-Suyoc Mines, Inc. is the re­

sult of the merger in June, 1956 of three associate companies— Itogon Mining Com­pany, Suyoc Consolidated Mining Com­pany, and Palidan-Suyoc Deep Level Tun­nel Co.

With the consolidation of these three companies, ample resources were pooled together for the expansion of the Itogon mill and the construction of the Suyoc underground workings. Itogon equipment and technical staff were made available for the Suyoc operations. The merger considerably reduced inventories required at each mine, and administration and overhead expenses were materially re­duced as well.

Marsman & Company, Inc., mines man­agers and consultants, continue to direct the operations of the Itogon and Suyoc mines. The efficient operations of these two mines, it will be recalled, had been handled by Marsman & Company, Inc.

A visit of the late J. H. Marsman to the Itogon Mines with Mr. Weekly and Mr. C. Fertig, Gen. Supt., of the said mine who welcomed them at the Air Port.

since 1933 for Itogon and since its incep­tion for Suyoc.

Itogon was the third largest gold pro­ducer in prewar times. The war wrought tremendous damages upon its mine and mill installations, and bringing it back to production in 1951 was a difficult, slow struggle that drew heavily from corpo­rate resources. Needless to say, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Marsman labored incessantly to bring back Itogon into the circle of postwar producing mines.

The Itogon mine has the same vein sys­tem that is being mined by Balatoc Mining Company. The Itogon mine has up to the close of its fiscal year in 1958, produced a total of P61,985,095.96 worth of gold and silver, of which more than P27,200,000 was produced since resumption of operations in September, 1951.

The Itogon property, consisting of 65 full and 23 fractional lode claims with an aggregate area of 703.9 hectares, is located at Sangilo, Itogon, Mt. Province, some 24 kilometers southeast of Baguio. It history dates back to the early days of American occupation. Credit for its lo­cation went to the late Mr. Nels Peter­sen, who was Mrs. Marsman’s first hus­band. It was after Mr. Petersen’s death that Mrs. Petersen returned to the Phil­ippines on January 3, 1919 to do the as­sessment work and bring into production the Itogon mine. She met and married Mr. J. H. Marsman in 1920, with whom she formally organized the Itogon Mining Company in 1925.

The Suyoc mining property is situated approximately 60 miles north of Baguio in Suyoc, Mankayan. It consists of 70 full and fractional unpatented lode claims, with a total area of 478.5 hectares. Su­yoc Consolidated was organized in 1933. After favorable development work, a 100- ton mill w aj started" in March, 1934. The plant capacity was increased to 250 tons daily in 1936 and 300 tons in 1940.

Like the Itogon mine, Suyoc was dam­aged extensively during the Japanese war. After taking into full consideration the considerable amount of work and mo­ney involved, rehabilitation work was

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Mrs. Mary A. Mars­man, president of Itogon-Suyoc Mines, Inc., presiding over an annual meeting 01 stockholders w i t h company Director- Secretary A. L. Ve- Iilla.

started in August, 1956. It was not un­til April 15. 1959 that Suyoc was hack in productive operations, rehabilitation work costing approximately P4,500,000. Suyoc is essentially a gold mine, but its gold ore carries some copper which may substantially increase the mine’s expected income.

The Palidan tunnel forms the third principal integral unit of Itogon-Suyoc Mines, Inc., and u 9,400 feat long and 823 feet below the collar of the Suyoc

shaft. It has an over-all width of 13 feet and a height of 10 feet. The tunnel serves as the outlet of the ore from the mine workings. Water from the mine is drain­ed through the tunnel, thus eliminating the use of expensive pumping operations. The tunnel was reopened after more than two years of hai'd work thru soft ground and cave-ins that exploited the company’s technical know-how to the utmost.

The Suyoc mill, which took more than two years to construct, has a capa­city of 300 tons a day. To date, it is sitill

Itogon-Suyoc Mines, Inc. at Itogon, Benguet

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Mrs. Marsman with Gen. Supt. & Mrs. Claude Fertig and some guest during the inauguration of the opening of the Itogon- Suyoc Minse, at Suyoc, Mankayan.

Some buildings ot the Itogon - S u y o c Mines at Suyoc, Ben* (uet.

undergoing operational adjustments to re­cover gold and silver from the complex ore. Gold production has still to reach its maximum. After several more months, it will produce gold and copper concen­trates which offered one of the chief in­ducements for re-opening mining and mil­ling operations.

------------O ------------

■An outstanding feature of Itogon Mining Company life is its recreation program for which credit is due to the management. The Itogon management has mustered all the means at its command to provide a close knit recreation program,

In the camp several useful welfare and social clubs each having a voice in the central recreation committee, finance various celebrations, give free shows and musical programs, promote various athlet­ic tournaments and installed a library. Among these clubs are:

Social club— consisting mainly of mem­bers of the accounting and bodega per­sonnel. Sponsor or manage Valentine, 4th of July, Sangilo Fiesta and Rizal Day celebrations.

P.T.A.—Sponsors programs for benefit of the school children.WOMEN’S CLUB — Sponsors and manage the feeding of under weight children, provides clothes, medicine for needy women

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First gold pouring at I to g o n-Suyoc M i n e s at S u y o c , Mankayan.

and children.KALINGA WELFARE A SS .— Organ­ized to help Kalingas get established in their work.

MOUNTAIN ASS. — Organized to help all mountaineers in the Camp. Sponsors an annual Canao.

MINER’S CLUB — Sponsors various

social affairs. Operates store for Igorot barrio.LUCKY “ 13” CLUB—Residents of 1,300 leyel camp, which is far from main camp. Operates stores and reading center. SANGILO JR. CIRCLE — Organized by the younger men and women in promoting local talent and folk dances.

The crew that opened the Palidan Tunnel at Suyoc, Benguet in 1959. Mr. Claude Fertiff, Gen. Superintendent is shown in the middle front row with Mr. P. X. Duryea, Mine Supt.

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Mr. Claude E. Fertig Gen. Superintendent


Undauntedly working towards a more progressive Philippines, Claude E. Fer­tig is well-known for his outstanding contributions to the development of the mining industry. He is presently the ge­neral superintendent of the Itogon-Suyoc Mines.

He hails from La Junta, Colorado, in. the United States where he was born on July 20, 1906; the son of Welby and Olive Fertig, pioneer ranchers and railroaders. A product of the Colorado School of Mines, he came to the Philippines in 1937 and brought with him his invaluable ten years of mining and construction expe­riences in southwestern U.S. and Mex­ico. In the Philippines, he saw service as mining engineer and mine superinten­dent in various mines in Batangas, Zam- bales, gold prospecting and mining in Masbate, and the Mountain Province.

During the war years, he proved to himself and to the world that an indi­vidual’s usefulness is limited only by will power. With the same enthusiasm an̂ i spirit of service that he displayed in peacetime, he did his bit first as an Airfield Engineer Officer of the 61th Division, then as a Guerilla Engineer of the 6th Military District, Panay Island, and as Commanding Officer of the Al­lied Geographical Section, G-2 SWPA, and AFP. He joined hin brother General


Fertig’s hard-hitting guerilla outfit in the Philippines from 1942 to 1944 until he was brought to Australia with his wife and an infant child.

For two years after the war, he en­gaged in copper mining in Arizona, U.S.A. When he returned to the Philip­pines in 1947, it was to help reconstruct and reopen the Lepanto Mines. Later he served as Assistant Mine Superintendent of Balatoc Mining Company. In 1950 he joined the staff of the Itogon Mining Company where he rose to the position of General Superintendent. When the Itogon Mining Comoany was merged with Suyoc Consolidated to become the Itc- gon-Suyoc Mines, Incorporated, his res­ponsibilities as general superintendent were multiplied in spite of which he was able to make some difficult adjustments to meet adverse conditions. He -believes that the only way to overcome increased cost of labor and supplies is to increase capacity thereby giving better efficiency. It may be recalled at this juncture that he was greatly responsible for the re­habilitation of Itogon Mines.

A widely traveled man, Mr. Fertig is happily married to Laverne Fertig, pre­sident of the Monday Club by whom he has two children, Susan and Katherine. His name is linked not only to the min­ing industry but also to several civic and social organizations— the Mason, Elk, Reserve Officers Association, Military Engineer Association, A.T.O. Fraternity, the Association of Mining and Metal­lurgical Engineers Rotary Club of Baguio, Director Philippine Mental Health Association Baguio Chapter, Vice-Pres. Baguic-Benguet Boy ,Scout Council. Chairman, 10th World Jamboree, Baguio- Benguet Boy Scout Chapter.

Socially competent and gifted with a pleasing personality, he aspires to help stabilize Philippine economy.

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The Baguio Gold Mining Company which had its beginnings in 1907 now stands as a monument to the men who in countless ways made it possible — each by his own contribution.

The early prospectors who played an important role in its discovery and de­velopment were J. D. Highsmith, Billy Ebert, George M. Icard, I. R. Prentiss, and Archie Reynolds.

A. Mayer, Capt. S. Dairs Winship, S. F. Gaches, J. B. Hoover, and E. A. Per­kins. Engineer V.C. Lednicky and “ Cap” Leonard contributed greatly to the dis­covery and development of a prolific vein . “ Pat” Hoover after whom the main crosscut fc i drainage and trans-

Other men featured significantly with its further development. Names linked with its organization were those of P.

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This is how gold ^pouring is being done at the Baguio Gold Mines.

portation was named, paved the way for a successful mine operation. Engi­neer G. T. Gelinger who succeeded Mr. Lednicky was accredited with having paid the company’s first dividends. Un­der Engineer W. T. Graham’s adminis­tration, the company’s output reached the thirteen million peso mark. Dividends were paid steadily and consistently from 1936 until the outbreak of World Warn.

Baguio Gold Mining Company was in­corporated in 1930, acquiring 13 claims in 1932 and 12 more in 1933 and 1935. In 1937, the company was milling 200 tons daily. This capacity was increased to 400 tons daily in 1939.

The company suffered staggering da­mages during the war. Insurmountable

as the obstacles may be, rehabilita­tion got underway as early as Novem­ber, 1945 with an expenditure of P2,- 195,000 in restoring the mine and mill to their present date.

The Baguio Gold Mining Company re­sumed operations on January 1945 un­der the charge of Mr. Frank Delahunty, prewar Assistant General Superintendent. Mr. Delahunty resigned his position as General Superintendent on March 1953 and he was replaced by Mr. Robert Ma­han until February 28, 1956 when he resigned. He was succeeded by Mr. Alan A. Bakewell, Jr., who was Assistant Gen­era! Superintendent at the time. When Mr. A.A. Bakewell, Jr. resigned he was replaced by . Mr. Ralp J. Serdeman (to Dec. 31, 1959). \t present Mr. John C.

A sample of finish­ed gold bars of the Baguio Gold Mining Co. looking on are Mill Supt. F ■ Joa­quin, former Gen. Supt. R. Seideman and Asst. Mill Supt. Arsenio Y a n d o c with two employees and an unidentified lady.

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HENRY A. PRIMOPresident, Baguio Gold Mining Company

and Philex Mining Company

Henry a Brlmo, cited as “Mining Man of the Year” 1959 by the Business Writers Association of the Philippines is one of the leading personalities in the Philippine Mi­ning Industry toddy. As president of the Baguio Gold Mining Company and of the Philippine Mining Corporation it is gla­ringly apparent that he has helped greatly in the making of the Philippine Mining Industry.

When the post-war period found the mi­ning industry at its most critical situation, Mr. Brimo was among the first to respond to the call of duty by cooperating splen­didly in the rehabilitation and reorganiza­tion of the Philippine Mining Corporation. Inspite of untold difficulties, with Mr. Brimo as president, the company resumed operations and has since maintained its operations with maximum efficiency. In1952, he was among the men greatly res­ponsible for the organization of the Phi­lippine Gold Producers Association in which he had the distinction of having been its first president and its president for the past five years. At one time was Director of Surigao consolidated, Mother Lodge and Itogon Mining Co. Director of the Base Metals Ass. and also of the Phi­lippine Petroleum Ass, and Pres, of Phi­lex Oil Dev. Inc. Subsequently, with a de­sire to help boost mining whereever pos­sible, he helped organized a new mining entity, the Philex Mining Corporation toge­ther with two ranking engineers, Mr. Paul

Curtis is the General Superintendent.The company’s mine and mill are lo­

cated in Tuding, Itgoon, Mountain Prov­ince.

Its property now consists of 126 claims and fractions (including Gold River) of which 15 are patented and patent pro­ceedings are in progress. Process for 16 claims, including full lodge the proper­ty comprises 808.07 hectares.


Mr. Henry A. Brimo

A. Schafer and Mr. George T. Scholey. He became the first president of the young corporation which he helped build and which promises to become one of the lead­ing base metal producers in the country in the years to come.

Some pertinent personal data of Mr. Bri­mo reveal the following: date of birth — February 21, 1913; parents — Antonio A. Brimo of Turkish-French descent and Jo­sephine Chami de Maillard, a French; started schooling at the De La Salle Col­lege and fiuished his education in the United States; other experiences aside from mining-textile business for six years, stock brokerage, importing business, and manager of the foreign department of En­rique Sta. Maria and Company from 1937 to 1941, married to the former Miss Maria Paz Sotelo with whom he has three sons-

Issued and fully paid shares of stock, as of December 31, 1959, amounted to P2,515,217.30 composed of 25,152,173 shares (par value of ten centavos). This compares with the total outstanding of December 31, 1958 of P2,512,681.80. The increase is due solely to additional tran­sfers of Gold River stock to Baguio Gold shares in accordance with the terms of the merger agreement. The authorized capital continues at P5,000,000.00 (50,000,-000 shares).

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From a desolate, practically inaccessible mountain fastness to a major producing mine in three years, this, in a nutshell, is the story of Philex.

The mine and mill are not reached over a boulevardier’s dream. One cannot drive there in a Cadillac. Situated as they are on the crest of the southermost ridge of the Central Cordillera range, about a mile above sea level, the area can be reached from Baguio City only via 32 kilome­ters of most scenic, though partly rough road, much of it cut into steep mountain sides. Philex completely built over 10 ki­lometers of this road and reconstructed another major portion. The only smooth riding is over the section nearest Baguio. Naturally, the newer parts of the road are rather vulnerable to the ravages of the elements.

Last June 21st, 1958, the mill was inau­

gurated with due ceremonies and about one hundred guests braved rain and mud and attended. “ Braved” is the word. One participant said he thought the trip was like being in a four-engined plane in mid­ocean — with three engines out. It was an hazardous trip, as all those unaccus­tomed to newly built, narrow and rough mountain roads, freely proclaimed. How­ever, it was hazardous only because, for several weeks, there had been almost con­tinuous, exceptionally heavy rains.

Actually, me torrential rams oi June and July, 1958 which delayed production for over a month, more than made atone­ment by knocking down thousands upon thousands of tons of earth and rock that needed knocking down. Bulldozers during this period, had to be stationed along parts of the road and clearing the numerous slides which covered the vulnerable sec-

Partial panoramic viev) of Philex Mining Company at Sto. Tomas, Benguet.

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GEORGE S. SCHOLEY General Mnanaer

RALPH J. SEIDEMAN Resident Manager

tions- The net result, however, is a one hundred percent improvement in a little less than two months, and expect muth less trouble is expected in the future. Some day, in the not too distant future, you will really be able to go to Philex by Cadillac. Meantime, Philex is rather proud of our small scale replica of the legendary Burma Road of World War E

The early days of Santo Toma.- II (the mine) were quite difficult. Drums of ga­soline and diesel fuel, as well as boxes of dynamite, had to be hand-carried over back-breaking mountain trails. Much toil and sweat followed, even after the roads were in — when they were passable, that is.

Getting the neavy equipment to the mill site without mishap, was little short of miraculous. The largest available trucks and trailers were used but often bulldo­zers were needed for extra motive power. With the heaviest and bulkiest loads, bull­dozers in front and behind, to pull'and to push, just in case. No equipment.

Speaking of bulldozers, and they are eight of them on the job, these mechanical giants not only made the roads possible and the hauling safe, but also accomplish­ed the work that hundreds of men could not have done so speedily. They greatly facilitated such chores as excavation for buildings and mine preparation. Now they are at work delivering hundreds of tons of ore to the washing plant each day.

The disseminated ore body contains cop­per with gold by-product. Part of the mine is located as much as 500 feet high­er than the milling plant. The ore, there­fore, for many years, will not have to be hoisted. It is simply being dropped down an ore pass (after washing) and hauled to the mill. The haulage tunnel, at the same time, serves as drainage for the mine, hence no pumping will be required. The entire operation is simple, stream­lined, and as a result, economical.

Four years ago, the present camp was a veritable no-man’s land. Today, it is home to a growing community, complete with housing, utilities, stores, police force

(Continued, on page 21It

GEORGE A. SCHOLEY Mining Sonsultant

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PHILEX COP­PER MILL. This is the general view o f the mill site at the Santo Tomas II copper mine of Philex M i n i n g C o r p oration in Mountain Province. The mill of 1600/ 2000-ton daily ca­pacity started ope­rations on June 22.

This photograph was taken from a point above the Primary Crushing Plant, shown on right. The copper ore is loaded in 4-ton steel ore-cars, which are pulled by Diesel loco­motives from the mine to the crushing plant. The ore is dumped by means o f a rotary tipple, and as the car tilts on one side, the ore is fed to a 30” x 42” Kue-Ken jaw crusher by means of an apron feeder. The ore is crushed into minus-three-inch size, then trans­ported to the open stockpile by the inclined belt conveyor, shown in center of the picture. The stockpile has a capacity of about 10,000 tons of crushed ore and was incorporated in the circuit to assure a five-day mill run in case typhoons and other shutdowns inter­fere with mining operation. Crushed ore is drawn from the stockpile by a belt conveyor and feeder system running directly under the center of the stockpile and is fed to the washing and secondary crushing units. The mine administration office may be seen partly covered by the pine trees on left side of picture. The Junior and Senior staff houses are in far background on the pine-covered ridge in center. The mill site is about 4,500 feet above sea level. The open-pit at the mine, where the ore is currently being drawn from , is located in the Central Cordillera, 5,000 feet above sea level, and 20 kilometers due south from the center of Baguio City, mountain-summer resort o f the Philippines.

MILL INSTALLATIONS at the Santo Tomas II copper mine of Philex, in the Moun­tain Province. The building on left side houses the secondary crushing unit and the washing plant. The crushing unit consists of one four-ft. Symons standard cone crusher and two Allis-Chalmers 636 Hydrocrone crushers. The ore from the secondary crushing plant, all m inus-l/2-inch size, is transported to the fine ore-bins by belt conveyor, which may be seen just behind and above the main building in foreground. The ore-bins, mea­suring 24 feet in diameter and 30 feet in height, are constructed o f corrugated armor plate. They are in tandem and each holds 750 ton of crushed ore. The ore is drawn from the bottom o? the bins by means of a Hardinge constant-weight feeder. The big building in foreground houses the power plant and the fine-grinding and flotation sections. These sections turn the crushed copper ore into concentrates. The concentrates, contain­ing copper and gold, are transported through a two-kilometer pipe line to the filter plant located 900 feet lower than the mill building.

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and other necessities of life. -Eventually, the camp population is exepected to grow to between 3,000 to 4,000 people, all de­pendent on the mine’s production.

Actually, Philex’s history has just be­gun. Philex is looking forward to a long productive life. It knows we shall meet many problems on the way but it has over­come some difficult ones already and it is inured to hardship- Philex is fortunate in having among its assets, a very parti­cularly valuable one: a small but dedi­cated group of engineers with vision, abi­lity and courage. Our hats are off to them.

PHILEX MINING CORPORATION, was organized in July, 1955 by Paul Schafer and George Scholey with Henry Brimo as president.

The project consists of three different groups of mineral claims, designated as Santo Tomas I, Santo II and Santo To­mas HI, Santo Tomas II of four claims contains a tremendous 20,000,000-ton dis­seminated copper ore body averaging around 1.00 per cent copper. Santo To­mas I, and Santo Tomas III having smal­ler ore bodies but richer in both cop­per and gold, from which some ore will be drawn.

The Santo Tomas project with author­ized capital Of P6,000,000 and P5,113,166 paid-up capital, is located approximately 16 airline kilometers due south of Ba­guio City. The No. H mine, on which present operations are concentrated, rest at an elevation of around 5,000 feet above sea level, almost at the top of the southern tip of the Central Cordillera. It was originally planned to work the No. 1 mine, but No. II was given priority by vir­tue of its large disseminated ore body un*

PHILEX OUTPUT. Executives of Phi­lex Mining Corp. pose before a l«ad of coppergold ore constituting the millionth- ton milled at the comnany’s Santo Tomas plant. They are, left to right (front row) mine consultant George A. Scholev. mine superintendent George Henry, general su­perintendent Ralph Seideman, (back row) company general manager George T. Scho­ley, metallurgical consultant Albert Pessin and geologist Juan Agana.

--------------- 0----------------covered by diamond drilling and tunell- ing. Entering the production stage in mid-1958, Philex Mining Corporation, ex­perienced a lot of inevitable starting-up difficulties plus some extra problems with dollar financing of necessary imports. Despite all this, Philex managed to show a modest profit from its copper opera­tions. Although it had to abandon chrome operation’s for the time being.

The growing com­munity of Philex w h e r e some cot­tages have b e e n constructed for the Mine’s p e r s o n n e l an d o t h e r em ­ployees.


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Col. W. E. Hamby

The late CoJ. William Robert Hamby a very distinguished military man who has rendered years of meritorious ser­vice to the American army saw action in two W orld “Wars. He was with the U.S. Expeditionary Forces in Neurse Argonne and St. Mihiel, France during World WarI in 1917-1918 and then with Pershing in Mexico in 1919. During World War II he joined the invasion forces in Leyte and

ne served as Umef of the War Commission in Manila to try the Japanese criminals. For his invaluable services as chief advi­ser to former President Svngman Rhee of Korea, he was awarded 7 battle stars on Korean Ribbon, the Silver Star and the Legion of Merit.

The Filipinos will remember him best for his various services at Fort Stotsen- burg, Pampanra in 1931. up to the out­break of the war. It was here that a parade was given in his honor by his old troop guidon F Troop 26 Cavalry when he re­tired in 1953. During his retirement he with his wife settled in Baguio and la­ter became the Public and Labor Rela­tions Chief of the Benguet-Balatoc Mines for three years.

Col. Hamby was born on March 24, 1896 in Austin, Texas. He graduated from the University of Texas and the First Officers Training Camp for Regu­lar Officers of the U.S. Forces.

He was an active member of the Ba­guio Rotary Club and the Elks Club.

JOSE JUAN CASANO VASGeneral Superintendent, Benguet Exploration Inc.

An industrial chemist by profession, Mr. Casanovas is 8 Baguio builder through the Benguet Expo-ration Incorpo­rated of which he is the General Superintendent. His share in boosting Baguio’s progress started when he became Mill Foreman of the Itogon Mining Company. Later he served as Mill Superintendent of the Paracale Gumaus Co. thus enhancing his experiences in the mining industry. Previous­ly he at one time worked as Mill Shifter in the IXL Mining Company.

Mr. Casanovas was born in Manila on August 6, 1914, the son of a Spanish couple, Juan Cmnovas and Julia de

Ycaza: He obtained his elementary edu- chemistry.

Jose Juan Casanovas

cation from La Salle College and his secondary education from San Juan de Letran College. In the Adamson Univer­sity, he pursued and finished industrial

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Ks is married to the former Carmen Barretto of Manila with whom he has a son.

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DR. LEON de OLMO MANZANILLOProp., Manzanillo Building

Dr. Leon Manzanillo owner of the building that bean his name and a host of real properties in Baguio was born on Feb. ■20, 1892 in Hagan, Isabela as the son of Rogelio Manzanillo and Francisca de Olmo. Orphaned at the age of 2, he learned early in life to fare out for himself. He finished his secondary edu­cation at San Jacinto College in Tuguegarao and through self- support he obtained a medical degree from the U.S.T. College of Medicine. After completing a post-graduate course at the Philippine General Hospital, he practiced his profession for ten years in Echague, Isabela. Then, too, he engaged in bu­siness in which he was indeed successful — in tobacco — rai­sing in Cagayan and in cattle-raising in Burias Island, Mas- bate. From 1925 to 1940, he was supplying big Manila con­cerns like the La Yebana igar Co. with tobacco.

He came to Baguio as early as 1911 but it was in 1937 that he permanently resi­ded here. He gave staunch support to the guerilla movement and to American in­ternees in concentration camps during the war. He was himself a guerilla under Co-

Dr. Leon Manzanillo

lonel Nakar in Northern Luzon for which he was commended by the late Pres. Man­uel Quezon and Col. Warner, C.S. o f the 88th AF, USAFFE. Most of his properties were not spared by the war but after li­beration in spite of his staggering losses, he steadily rehabilitated these.


BORN in Nangalisan, Benguet, Mt. Pro- of Aringay, La Union. Brought up to vince. Son of Juan B. Zarate of Bin- Baguio in 1903 when his Father was maley, Pangasinan and Segunda Flores appointed Secretary-Treasurer of the

Township of Baguio.MARRIED to Isabel Rimando of Naguilian, La Union, a

former Nurse in the Baguio General Hospital for se­veral years. Mrs. Zarate is now an active civic and social worker in the city. She was selected Mother of the Year by the Baguio Colleges. They have seven children — all professionals.

EDUCATION: Studied in the Baguio Industrial School, the first Elementary School in Baguio. Finished Interme­diate School and graduated from the Philippine Normal School, Manila in 1917.

WAS principal teacher of Government Center School, Ba­guio in 1917-1919. Served as Supervising Teacher in Baguio, Kapangan, Balbalan, Bontoc, Lubuagan and Ki- angan Districts, Mt. Province from 1919 until retire­ment in 1937.

REAL ESTATE Broker and Businessman. Voted Real Es­tate Man of the Year in 1949.

SERVED in the Baguio City Council in 1945-1946 during the Osmena Administration.

WAS a member of the Baguio Coordinating Committee and National Urban Planning Board.

PRESIDENT of Baguio Realty Board, Inc. 1953-1959. Past President, Baguio Chamber of Commerce.

MEMBER: Rotary Club of Baguio and Knights of Rizal.

Mr. Juan Zarate

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CLAUDE L. STEWARTattached to the Pines Hotel, in 1927, they established their own garage known as Royal Garage. At that time, young Ste­wart was also representing some big busi­ness concerns like Ford Motor Co., U. S. Royal Tires Co., Mobile Gas, General Fire­stone & Good year Tires, Shell Gasoline, Pennsylvania Oil Co., etc. When the Ro-

CLAUDE L. STEWARTProp., Royal Apartments

Claude L. Stewart, son of George Stewart, one of the pioneers in transportation of the mountain city, who is a na­turalized Filipino, was born in far Jamaica, British West In­dies on May 9, 1900. He is the holder of a B.S. in Agricul­ture. Before coming to the Philippines, he served in Jamaica as bookkeeper and deputy overseer for the P. G. Riverstate Golden Grove post office and in 1920 as clerk and assistant bookkeeper of the United Fruit Company in Preston Cuba. He arrived in the Philippines in 1923 and joined his father, in a transportation business in Bauang, La Union which was expanded to include a Baguio branch known as Pines Garage

yal Garage was sold in 1932, Stewart started on his own by investing in several mining groups at the same time real es­tate broker. Among his business assets is the Stewart Building which was badly de­vastated by the grusome war. The post­war period found the Stewart Building be­ing rehabilitated slowly.

Dr. JOSE DELA ROSAProperty Owner & Gen. Manager. Plaza Theatre

He was born on September 30, 1900 in Taal, Batangas, as the son of Martin dela Rosa' and Marcela Ilagan. Dr. dela Rosa took up and finished the study of Medicine in 1929 at the U S.T. His service record speaks of experience as resident physician of the Itogon Mining Company, visit­ing physician of the Hoover Saw Mill and Dangwa Tranco, then as Camp Surgeon Camp Henry T. Allen until the outbreak of the war. During the occupation, he was Com­pany Surgeon of the 11th Division Company Isolation Camp in the Bataan campaign with a rank of majoF.

Upon the cessation of the hostilities he spent most of his time in business and social affairs. He has been pre­sident of the Baguio Medical Society and a member of the Knight of Columbus, Baguio Country Club and was a mem­ber of the Rotary International.

Of. .1. dc!a Rosa He is married to the former Caridad Jalon with whomhe has ten children.


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'Vicar Apostolic of Baguio & Mt. Province

His Excellency Most Rev. William Brasseur is the Vicar Apostolic of Baguio and Mountain Province. As such he is the head of the Catholic Church in the province who for more than ten years has made outstanding accomplishments in line with true Christian faith. Accredited to His Excellency is the rehabilitation of the war-damaged Catholic missions at Kiangan, Banaue, Lagawe, and Mayoyao, Ifugao; Lubuagan,Tinglayan, and Tabuk Kalinga; Bauko, Sabangan, and Natonin,Bontoc; Lucban, Baguio; Atok, La Trinidad, Itogon, Dalupi- rip, Bokod, Kabayan and Lepanto, Benguet, Tutul, Apayao.Then, too, the isolated places in the province were given spe­cial attention through the establishment of new chapels for free schools and the opening of new missions with perma­nent priests incharge in Allaguia, Tabuk, Tutul, Natonin, Ma- yayao, Tinglayan, Lucban, and Atok. All Excellency has left no stone unturned in efforts were directed towards the “plant- the realization of the ideals of Chris- ing of the Cross in the Mountains” . His tianity.


Vicar Apostolic of Baguio aiid Mt. Prov.

Hon. BADO DANGWAGovernor, Mt. Province

This is the thumbnail sketch of a man who is idolized by his pepole because of what he made of himself through hardwork, foresigt and determination. He built a sprawling transportation busi­ness which now serves Baguio, Manila and the Mt. Province. He rose from the ranks to become Governor of the Mt. Pro­vince, twice appointed by two presidents of different political affiliations, namely, the late Presidents Quirino and Magsay- say. Then, too, when the position be­came elective, he was overwhelmingly elected. As the incumbent Governor of the Mt. Province, he is determined to give his people a clean and efficient govern­ment that deserves the respect and con­fidence of the masses. To name his achievements as a public official would be like reciting a litany.

The name Dangwa has become a by­word especially in Baguio and in the M t Province. How he built the Dangwa Tran­sportation company is an inspiring tale for the present generation and genera­tions to come. While studying at the Tri­nidad Agricultural School, now the Mt.

Gov. Hado uangwa

National Agricultural College be attract­ed the attention of Mr. Jamqs Wright, an American teacher of the institution who foresaw a bright future for him in the transportation business instead of in the teaching profession. Through the help of Mr. Wright and some friends, he acquired five dilapidated Chevrolet cars from Emi­lio Milia, owner of the then North Ga­rage in La Trinidad.

During the war, he joined the resist­ance movement and won fame as a ma­jor.

After the war, the Dangwa Transpor­tation Company was back on its feet to resume its mission of service to the people.

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Dr. FERNANDO D. MANALOf . p. c. s.

Born in Pateros, Rizal, May 30, 1907 of parents of moderate means. Showed inclination to music at an early age so that parents allowed him to take piano lessons at early teens. Leadership was inborn in him. While in high school, he had been a pianist for the high school orchestra and glee clubs, student lead­er and was President of their Youth or­ganization in his home town for three consecutive terms.

Got married while a student in the College of Liberal Arts, University of the Philippines, and his parents would not spend a cent for him, so he had to work in order to continue his studies. He joined the U.P. Band to be free from tuition fees, played in several cinema houses and later when the talkies came he got a job at the European-American Y.M.C.A. during evenings, playing the piano for their calesthenics. While an intern in the Hospital he worked during Sundays as organist in his home town and also organist for the Sunday Ser­vices in McKinley Y.M.C.A.

Graduated in the College of Medicine, University of the Philippines in 1931, passed the Board of Medical Examiners the same year, obtaining 9th place. Open­ed a small clinic in Pasay City and took up special studies in Surgery as Assist-

, ant to Dr. Januario Estrada, then one of

the leading Surgeons in the Philippine General Hospital, and then, Chief of the Department of Surgery, College of Me­dicine, U.P., until December, 1934 when he was offered a position as Resident Physician at Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital in Baguio and Benguet Conso­lidated and Balatoc Mining Co. Before he accepted this residentship at Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital he took train­ing in Radiology at the Philippine Gen­eral Hospital, Department of X-rays. One year later, he became Assistant Physician and Radiologist and again in 1937, he was made Assistant Clinical Director of the same institution.

In 1940, he became Acting Clinical Director of the Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital and Acting Head of the Medi­cal Department of Benguet Consolidated and Balatoc Mining Companies until the outbreak of the war.

When the Japanese arrived on Dec­ember 27, 194,1, in Baguio, he took over as Clinical Director of the Hospital and transferred the U.S. Hospital patients and equipments at Camp John Hay to Notre Dame Hospital. Then he started playing a smart game with the Japanese, out­witting them for three years while No­tre Dame was made a center of under­ground activities including aiding Ame­rican internees and the guerilla forces

Staff Members of the Benguet Medical Service before the war. fitting: Left to right — Dr. Jose Gutierrez-Fajardo, Resi­dent Physician, Benguet Cons. Minnjg Co., Anta- mok; Dr. F. D. Manalo, Asst, to the Clinical Di­rector- Dr. J .E. Reed, Clinic Director; Dr. T. C. Arvisu, Visiting Phy­sician; Dr. A. P. Vidal, Resident Physician, Bala­toc Mining Co.; Standing: Left to right — Dr. B. V. Tamesis, Reisdent Phy­sician, Lusod Sawmill; Dr. Rogelio N. Relova, Bacteriologist and Patho­logist; Dr. Pablo Merca­do, Intern, Notre Dame Hospital.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (226)

1around Baguio regions. For this, he was awarded by the United States Govern­ment the highest civilian Award “ The U.S. Medal of Freedom.”

In 1945, he was appointed the first Filipino Head of the Medical Department of Benguet Consolidated and Balatoc Mining Companies and Clinical Director of the Notre Dame Dame de Lourdes Hospital which position he still holds presently.

In 1937, he was one of the found­ers of the Baguio Medical Society and became its first Vice-President and in1938, he was elected President of the same. He was again elected President of the Baguio Medical Society for 1949- 1950 and again in 1951- 1952 and ,1952-1953. He also served for about twelve times as member of the Board of Direc­tors of the Baguio Medical Society from 1939 to 1959.

In 1939, he was chairman of the Com­mittee on Arrangement for the first P.M.A. Convention held in the City of Baguio, adjudged one of the most suc­cessful one outside Manila. He was elecf- ed then as First Vice President of the Philippine Medical Association. In 1952 he was also the Chairman of the Com­mittee on Arrangement for the Second PMA Annual Convention held in the City of Baguio when he first introduced the amendments to the Constitution which brought about the creation of Districts and visitations of Component Societies by the officers of the P.M.A. He was again elected Vice President for Luzon during the PMA Annual Meeting in 1953 for the year 1953-1954 and then President for the year - 1956-1957 in the Annual Meeting of 1955. He was again elected Councilor-at-Large for 1958-1961 after' he has faithfully served his term as member of the Council for 1957-1958 in his capacity as Immediate Past Pres­ident.

In January, 1946, he was appointed by the then Sec~etary of Health as a member of the board of Medical Exam­iners and served for the whole year. During the same year he was appointed general consultant in the Baguio Gen­eral Hospital.

On December 1948 he became a fel­low of the Philippine College of Sur­geons. He served as Regent of the Col­lege from 1956 to 1959. He is at pre-

Dr. Jose Manalo

sent chairman of the Northern Luzon Regional Chapter of the Philippine Col­lege of Surgeons.

He is a member of the Philippine Fe­deration of Private Medical Practitioners since Nov. 1954 and President of the Baguio Chapter of the Federation since its founding in 1955 to the present.

He has written several scientific and organizational papers some of them are: A Probable Case Of Pseudo-hemophelia With Rh Negative Blood (read before the Baguio Medical Society): Amoebiasis —A Probable Medical and Health Pro­blem (The Journal of the Pangasinan Medical Society); Judeth Operation In A Case Of Aseptic Necrosis of the Fermo- ral Head (Journal of Surgery , P.C.S.); What The Futrue Holds For Us As Phy­sicians (The Journal of the Pangasinan Medical Society); The present status of the Medical Profession and the Need for a Strong, Potent and Militant Organiza­tion (read before the PMA Convention of 1952); The role of the Philippine Medical Association in Public Health (Lecture at Certified Public Health Class, Institute of Hygiene Dec. 4, 1956); The Workings of the PMA (read during the Plenary Session, May 2, 1957, 50th An­nual Convention, May 2, 1958).

He became a member of the Rotary Club of Baguio in 1938, became a mem­ber of the Board of Directors in 1939 to 1941 and elected President of the Club in July 1941 until the outbreak of the war. He reorganized the Rotary Club of Baguio after liberation and became its President again until 1947 and later member of the Board of Directors unt

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19du. ne was norainatea ior District Gov­ernor of Rotary District 383 I Philippine District) during the Rotary District Con- terence in Davao, April 29, 1950 and during the International Convention of Rotary International at Detroit, June 1950 he was elected District Governor of Ro­tary International District No. 385. As such, he was the first Physician District Governor of Rotary International in th- Philippines. He made a round the worla trip to attend the Rotary Convention in Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. and made ob­servation in the different clinics in the United States with special reference to Surgery. From then on, he served Ro­tary International in different capacities up to the present.

He helped organize the Philippine Na­tional Red Cross Chapter in Baguio around 1947 for which he had been a member of the Chapter Board up to 1956. He was elected Member of the Board of Governors of the Philippine National Red Cross in 1951 up to 1953.

He was President of the U.P. Alumni Association, Baguio Chapter from 1949 to 1957 and member of the Board of Directors up to the present.

He is member of the Baguio City Planning Commission since 1951 and ap­pointed chairman of the same commis­sion on February 20, 1958 for a term

to expire uecemoer 31, lytjZ.He is one of the founders and incor­

porators of the Philippine Cancer Soc­iety which was formally incorporated on December 15, 1956. He was then elected as member of the Board of Directors for 1957, rc-ilected in 1958 and re-elect­ed again for another term to expire January, 1960.

He joined the Knights of Rizal, Baguio Chapter in 1955 as Knight of Rizal, pro­moted to degree of Knight Commander of Rizal in 1957. He became Commander of the Baguio Chapter of the Knights (President) in 1958 to the present. He was elected Regional Commander of the Knights of Rizal for Luzon in 1956, re­elected in 1957 and 1958 and again in 1959. As such he became a member of (he Supreme Council of the Knights of Rizal.

He was given by the City of Baguio during the 11th Anniversary of the In­dependence Day of the Republic of the Philippines the award as the “ Outstand­ing Civic Leader.” (July 4, 1957)

He is one of the organizers of the Philippine Mental Health Association, Ba­guio Chapter and elected its first Pres­ident.

He has the distinction of having given 25 years of devoted service to the No­tre Dame de Lourdes Hospital.

DEDICATION SPEECHYour Excellency, Rev. Fathers, Rev.

Sisters, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen:

Twenty five years ago, a man came to Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital to help shape its own institutional history. He was a doctor. He was more than a doc* tor; he was a good man. He was more than a good m an; he was a dedicated man. And today, as we look back on the rich and fruitful years under which our hos­pital grew and developed with him at the helm, we cannot help but marvel in awe and respect for upon the silver years he has left the imprint of his own dynamic life.

Many were the times when his loyalty to the hospital and his dedication to his profession were put to the test.. During the difficult war years when personal safety was ever endangered even within the confines o f one's own home, Dr. Ma* nalo stayed at his post faithfully, giving o f his time and energy that those who were wounded might continue to hope for recovery. His was an out-pouring person­ality that found its strength in the lcs.

son o f the Good Samaritan. selflessly ministering to the weak and the wounded in Notre Dame de Lourdes. And as if this were not sufficient during those times o f great dluress, Dr. Manalo assisted the Sisters immeasurably in giving aid and comfort and providing safety to mem­bers of the underground movement, at. the risk not only of personal life hut also of the lives o f those close to the hospital.

Today, he has the rare satisfaction of one who can look back on twenty-five years o f meaningful living. And we who are gathered here today, find a striking significance in the fact that this program is a joint celebration— his 25-vear dedicat­ed service to Notre Dame de Lourdes Hos­pital, and the blessing o f the renovated Hospital which he has served so faithful­ly all these years. This is a new era pat­terned after the snirit o f our namesake, the great apostle St. Paul, who lived like Christ with intense dedication. And Dr. Manalo is Notre Dame de Lourdes’ glow- jj.g eyflTV'rd° of a wh^s® yearso f service bear the stamp o f Cod’s gold harvest.

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WILLIAM T?. MURPHYBusinessman and Sportsman

One of Baguio’s illustrious sons, Mr. William B. Murphv, a businessman of rio mean calibre, was bom in the city on August 18, 1911 of Filipino-American parentage, A pro­duct of Ateneo de Manila (High School), he enrolled at Are University pf Santo 'Tomas where he took civil en­gineering in which he completed the second year in 1930. He ventured in business instead and became one o f the country’s front-line business executives.

A sportcman-pilot, he put up the first direct Baguio- Manila bus line which during the early post-liberation days enjoyed a monopoly of availing Baguio with safe and mo. William B. Mnrpnydem transportation companies in Baguio iiritil its sale to tbe Dangwa Transporta­tion Company.

When he left Baguio in 1952 to be­come Manager of the Interwood, I c. plywood manufacturer, he did not stay put in one activity. He put up his own paper mill to produce toile* p^oer n the Same compound. In 1956 he left the company and established the Easter Ply­wood Company instead which he sold two years later. Having secured a con* cession is Camarines Norte for logging

operations, He put up a sawmill. At the same time in the said concession which consists o f more than seven hectares gold ore claims were discovered in the near future will be operated by a Ja­panese firm on a partnership Hsis. Tte also established a motor seirvico shop at Isaac Peral, Manila row known as Round the Clock Motor Service. Simul­taneously, he is also supervising the ope­ration of the Baguio Bus Taxi with around 50 fleets.

Shown above are some of the fleet of the Baguio Bus Taxi.

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/ t


It was a young Benjamin Salvosa who led his fellow debaters and orator* at the University of the Philippines in 1934 in a series of cross c ountry speaking tours. That experience was only a fore­taste of things to come for Salvosa ne­ver ceased to be a leader of men and of ideas, never ceased to be sensitive to the vital issues of the time, and to be elo­quently vocal of his carefully considered thoughts if perhaps he can help create an enlightened public opinion.

His extemporaneous speeches have been heard everywhere. Whether as a na­tionalist and champion of civil liberties, as an opponent of inequalities in Philip- pine-American agreements, as a lecturer on Philippine-Asian-American relations, as chief delegate to international con­ventions or as chairman thereof, his re­sonant voice, sparkling witicism and pe­netrating analysis of current iissues are

well known.To his dismay it was clear in 1945

that despite the objectionable features of the Philippine War Damage and Trade Acts, these unjust legislation had the support of the majority of our national leaders. Undaunted by this disheartening fact— perhaps inspired by it—he set out on a nation-wide lecture tour in a val­iant attempt to help stem the tide. He lost but was glad he made his position clear and known.

In 1951 he went on a lecture tour of the United States as a visiting scholar o f the U.S. State Department under a Fulbrieht and Smith-Mundt grant and

made a critical anaylsis of lJ.S. policies in the Philippines and Asia. Wrote Wil­liam Hynes of the San Francisco Press Club to Salvosa: “ Your talk x x x was timely interesting, and excellently pres­ented. Your ability to sprinkle your ser­ious remarks with bits of humor kept the audience alert and taught us all how a keen speaker can still keep the proper perspective in this presentation.”

Salvosa’s gift of speech is equalled by his facility with the pen. He has been a publisher (Philippine - American Maga­zine), editor (Commerce), columnist (Rotarily Yours in the Manila Chronicle, B y and Large in the Manila Times, and Educationally Yours in the Baguio Mid­land Courier ), and an author (Rules of Court on Civ.'l Actions, Criminal Proce­dure, Special Proceedings, and Evidence, 1940, Witness, 1953; Trial Technique, Proof of Facts, 1957; A Forward Look on the Coconut, 1958; and Confessions, 1958). In answer to the demand of law- ers and jurists who have been urging him for a revised edition of the book on Remedial Law which he co-authored with Ambassador Mariano Ezpeleta in 1940 he has lately been busy working on a new version

Although a lawyer by profession, Sal­vosa is not a politician by inclination. Nevertheless, he holds one of the most enviable records in the public service Knowing his rich experience as a corpo­ration lawyer and executive of private corporations, national leaders drafted him inn the public service. He was Sec- reta*y-Treasurer and then Assistant to the Manager of the National Coconut Corporation from 1943 to 1946. In 1951 he was appointed to the Board of Direc­tors of the National Development Compa­ny. It was the late President Ramon Magsaysay who made him Board Chair­man and General Manager of the Phil­ippine Coconut Administration. It is the opinion of coconut experts that the Sal­vosa reforms in the coconut industry led to price stabilization and redeemed the bad reputation of the Philippines as the world's largest producer of the worst copra.

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Then »nd of the war saw many of Sal-vosa’s college friends rise in public life to become congressmen, senators, ambas­sadors, and department secretaries. He chose, on the other hand, to found from the war ravages of Baguio a top rank college, the Baguio Colleges. In pioneer­ing in higher education at the summer capital of the Philippines, he has not only brought training in the higher profes­sions within the reach of the people of Northern Luzon but also increased the annual income of Baguio during the o ff season. His obsession has always been to train leaders, to promote the community development of Baguio City and its en­virons, and hasten Baguio's growth as a

a university city. The Baguio Colleges has been successfully implementing all three objectives all along.

Now as President o f the Private Schools Athletic Association of the Phil­ippines he has scheduled a sports festival in 1961 and initiated reforms in athletic training. He has just founded “ New Phil­ippines," a cultural movement for a bet­ter Philippines. It is too earlv to predict results. But if action follows pledges there is no telliing how far these move­ments will go. And Salvosa is a man of action. He insists: “ Knowledge is not power; it is the application o f knowledge that is power.” — EDILBERTO TENE- FRANCIA

EASTER SCHOOLThe Easter School, is a school mainly

for the Igorots preferably Benguet Igo­rots. Together with other schools in Ba­guio, its curriculum and policies are strict­ly patterned after modern trends and the Philippine Constitution’s “ all schools shall aim to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, vocational ef­ficiency, and to teach the duties o f citi­zenship.”

The Easter School, in other words, is a complete Elementary School for Igorots that maintains at all times a high stand­ard as evidenced by the excellent stand­ing o f its graduates in higher schools. One o f its policies that proves beneficial is that o f maintaining only small classes for the sake of a maximum individual at­tention and supervision. Ever since the school was granted government recogni­tion in 1935, it has continuously turned out satisfactory graduates

One o f the school’s specialities is weav­ing which yield an income to partially support the school. The school’s turn-out o f woven articles serve to attract tour­ists and vacationists because o f its novel designs and originality.

The Easter School is always ready to welcome visitors who may wish to see the school at work. It is ideally situated in Easter-Ferguson road, a location most conducive to learning.

It was founded by Bishop Charles Hen­ry Brent, first Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Philippine Islands in 1905. In previous years the manage­ment o f the school was under a Head Master, and all matters o f policy or ad­ministration are decided in conference be­tween the Bishon and the Head Master. However, since the year 1956, a compe­tent & experienced principal was chosen instead to take the place o f the Head Master.

One of the Easter School’s specialties is weaving which yield an income to partially s u p p o r t the school.

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Boys’ Dormitory.Throughout the nearly

fifty years since its founda- dation Brent School has maintained a high standard of scholarship and has won a deserved reputation and pre­stige throughout the Orient.It has had students from all parts of the Archipelago, and from other parts of the East. It has been the aim of the school to produce a sys­tem of education which will form the basis of correct moral and spiritual training, sense of social responsibili­ty, and give the students high ideals, and develop true Christian character, at the same time fitting them intellectually for college and for positions of leadership in later life.

The curriculum of the school is based upon colleee

The Chapel.

entrance requirements, since most of its graduates go on to college and universities in the United States and the Philippines. For a ni*mber of years Brent School was the only center of the College Examination Board.

There are 12 buildings in all, including dormitories for the boys and girls, class rooms, administration build­ing, chapel, gymnasium, li­brary, infirmary and a din- ine hall. Nearly all the

Girls’ Dormitory. teaching staff live on the campus. Small classes and a large and well-trained fa­culty make possible a good deal of individual attention.

In addition to their stu­dies the students are pro­vided with a well balanced program of extra-curricular activities including athletics, a dramatic club, a Boy Scout Troop, school paper, and nu­merous other organizations.

The religious life of the school is an important fea­ture of their training. Daily chapel services are held, at which attendance is compul­sory, and extra-services on Sundays. Since the school is under the auspices of the

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Brent School has now broad- accept properly qualified stu- ened its basis of admission to dents of any nationality and

religious belief.

Episcopal Church, the cha­pel services follow the uf- uage of that church; though students of all denomina­tions arc represented in the school. Courses in the stu­dy of the Bible are also a

feature of the curriculum.The Brent School was

founded by the Right Rev. Charles H. Brent - D. D. in 1909 at that time Bishop of the Philippines. At first it was known as the Baguio

Brent participates m ath­letics.

Rev. Father A. GRIFFITHSHeadmaster

Brent School and European residents in the Philippines, a place where they might have the advantage of a first - class Christian education in a cool and healthful climate, thus eliminating the necessity of sending children home to the United States at an ear­ly age; and through the in­tervening years Brent School has performed a real ser­vice to the American gov­ernment officials, business­men, officers of the Army and Navy, missionaries, pro­fessional men and other re­sidents temporarily or per­manently residing in the Philippines.


School, later in 1923, with Bishop Brent’s consent, it was renamed in honor of its

Boy scout troops of the Brent School.

founder. Bishop Brent’s idea was to provide a school for the children of American

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(A Thumb-nail Sketch) BAGUIO

FERNANDO BAUTIS­TA — Born in Tondo, Manila. An honor gra­duate from the Phil. Normal School, in E.T.- C.; B. S. E. and M. A. from the U.P. (in Edu­cation)

Ranked 2nd in the Senior Teacher Exam­ination in Manila in 1934.

President o f B.T.

Mr. Fernando B&uMsta1

Mr«. Xosa C. Bautista

Its humble beginning

World War II brought about great des­truction the world over. The war left Ba­guio a much ravaged city, so that when it was liberated in 1945 only a few peo­ple were found hanging on to whatever life in the city had to offer. But not long after the old residents came back to re­establish their war-torn city and as the years went by buildings big and small stood side by side once more.

The war was also responsible for de­priving many young people from pursuing their thirst for education. The few schools that opened after liberation were not enough to accommodate those who sought admission. Many boys and girls were left idle, fr o m this idleness juve­nile delinquency came to the fore. But happily, in such situation of confusion and disorder there are always people who are ready and willing to sacrifice— for a good was out of this desire to serve and to help mould young minds that Baguio Tech came into existence.

During its first year of operation in 1948, Baguio Tech opened courses only in stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping and the four-year secondary course. Clas­ses for these courses were conducted in a four-room two-story builling located along a narrow alley in Session Road. There were only a handful o f students and four full-time instructors and admi­nistrators. They had stout hearts and strong faith that carried them on through

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R O S A CASTILLO BAUTISTA — Born in Manila. Honor graduate in E. T. C. from Phil. Normal School B.S.E. and M. A. in Educa­tion from the U.P.

Topnotcher for Ma­nila in the 1934 Senior Teacher examination.

» Principal, B a g u i oTech High Schooi Su­pervisor, Baguio Tech Training Department.

Treasurer, B a g u i o Tech.

right wing, then to the le ft wing until finally the lot area o f one thousand square mei^j-s was filled, leaving, how­ever, a portion for the quadrangle. Here, classes from the Session Road building were transferred. The atmosphere in this building was more conducive to study, the classrooms being of standard size with spacious laboratory and other facilities.

Further growth.

G *


to the end o f the first year.In the succeeding years more courses

were offered and the enrollment doubled, trebled; more and more sought admission to the Institute. With the good foresight o f the founders, a lot along General Luna Road was acquired and shortly after a school building stood up. From time to time the building expanded, first to the

H l L kThen sudden growth.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (235)


A n d still growing.

To cope with the ever-increasing stu­dent population, an annex was built in another lot in Bonifacio Street where the elementary, training and automotive-diesel departments are presently housed. A t the time o f writing, a third building is being constructed at Anacleto Diaz Street, above the Dangwa terminal. With the comple­tion o f this building, we hope to accommo­date more students seeking^ftlmission, in the years to come.

Twelve years in the field of education is not a long time. But in that short span o f existence, it can be said that Baguio Tech has arrived in the field 6f educa­tion. Baguio Tech has contributed her share in the education of the youth and has likewise earned laurels and kudos for her high academic records as shown ;n the yearly competitive examinations for teachers, and radio graduates.

Baguio Tech believes in the positive va­lue o f education— of enriching the indivi­dual’s personality through a diversified program of activties, both social and cul­tural, which provides opportunities for discovering potential talents and capaci­ties, without neglecting the academics. The student is encouraged to help 'and to

"serve in community projects to awaken in him civic consciousness and to make o f him a responsible citizen in a democratic society. The school also provides for the student a time for physical development through athletics. Baguio Tech also em­

bodies in its program religious education despite its being a non-sectarian school, because an individual needs spiritual nourishment so that he can better cope with the ills and the temptations that are ever present in his environment.

“Through the years Baguio Tech has ac­quired a distinctive pattern of living. When a student is about to graduate he discerns this pattern clearly and realizes what it has meant and will mean to him.

Students come and go. Baguio Tech stands ready to serve them.

( hart of Progress Comparative Enrollment Figures

1918 - I960School Year No. of Students1948 * 49 .............................................. 881949 - 50 .............................................. 5401950 51 .............................................. 8511951 - 52 .............................................. 1,0561952 53 ......................... ..................... 1,4001953 - 54 .............................................. 1,5201954 - 55 .............................................. 2,0241955 - 56 .............................................. 2,1311956 - 57 ............................................... 2,2611957 - 58 .............................................. 2,6141958 59 .............................................. 2 ,8 «1959 - 60 ..................................*.......... 3,0091960 - G1 ............................................... 3,060


[ 226 ]

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Saint Louis College erected its first school huil with 10 pupils enrolled destined to make educatit na! history.

. TODAY . . .

53 years later, with m o.e than 8.000 pupils enrolled finds a more advanced and progressive educational program reaching all time which have helped give the nation men of unstinted integrity and leadership.

courses were included in the first missionary little school school’s curriculum. In 1930, thus giving Baguio two big a concrete building was con- Catholic institutions of learn- structed on the Cathedral ing, one in Campo Filipino Hill a few yards above the and another in the eastern


R ector Saint L ou istC ollege

Saint Louis Elem entary School.

part of the city.W orld War II did not

spare the school from being which fact did not

dissuade the Belgian Sisters from making anoth e r try and putting the school back on its feet. The concrete building was rehabilitated in no time and this marked the beginning o f a steadily growing school population.

In 1953, the College De­partment was opened to sa­tisfy public demands. Like

One of the convocationsin the C ollege■ d - ¥ \

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The Baguio Military Institute ranks among the best and most exclusive private schools in the Philippines. The campus oc­cupies an area of almost five . hectares, away from disturbances and noise o f the city. The atmosphere is fresh, healthful, and quiet throughout the year.

As a military school for boys, it aims to draw out the finest personality traits which distinguish the man of character and culture. To carry out this aim, the administration has spared nothing — an ideal environment conducive for study.;_ a modern and fully equipped laboratory; a library stocked with carefully selected books and reading materials; a medical and dental clinic; a modern gymnasium equipped with the latest facilities for physical development; a staff of carefully screened instructors possessing skill, pa­tience and years o f teaching experience— among whom are highly qualifed profes­sors of the near-by Philippine Military Academy. The services of a dietician is availed of to assure the healthfulness and nutritiveness of the daily meals of cadets. To handle the miscellaneous needs of the cadets, a store that sells goods at cost is operated.

Character training and moral discipline are the main objectives of the BMI. The honor system instituted by the cadets fpund guilty of willful violation of the Honor Code may be expelled from the In­stitute. No cadet may participate in so­cial and extra-curricular activities while on probation.

LT. Cot. A, J. HENSON,INF. (P A )

A cting Superintendent and Commandant, ROTC

B y emOrcmg all tne ruies and op­tions under the honor system, the lg® M ilitary Institute expects to- deve lot fe highest qualities of man in terms ilr nor, loyalty, devotion to duty, selff-feif line and responsibility.

Character training at its best "wlii implemented throughout the cadets’ ^ at the Baguio Military Institute. B a p non-sectarian school, the BMI o f fe ir i gious services to its cadets on Si*is and other Catholic holidays, a mas is

said at the BMI social hall. C adets»1 other religious inclinations are affiuti opportunity to hear services in ten city. Religious instruction and m i

training are offered as part of th«a- demic curriculum.

These are among the many thia.gls Baguio Military Institute offers 'tifc ‘Character building” o f the boy.

A passing review of the B.M.I. Cadets with L t■ Col. A . H enson, superintenddid Brig. Gen. Manuel Flores, Supt. of the PM A.

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lint Louis College rose i its humble beginning vhat it is today, a m o- ental landmark o f Ca- ic education in this part he country, as envision- ay its founders, the Bel-

Fathers.1908, conditions then

ining in Baguio were igh to discourage even

most stout-hearted of . By dint of hard work. :r determination, aiiu ance from the Almighty, Belgian Missionary Fa­

'S founded a school at northwestern base of the on top of which now

ds the Baguio Cathedral, o f Baguio’s main at-

tions. The school was ; a little house where a ;n children were the t enrollees in 1910. This ■ked the beginning o f a

Its pre-war building.

school that was to become’ the largest and foremost ci­tadel of Catholic learning in northern Luzon. Then follow­ed stages of rapid and stea­dy growth. In 1913 a chapel made of rough pine lumber and sawale and located at Campo Filipino became the :hool’s site of activities. In lis chapel, too was born

the beginning of the Saint Louis Silver and Gold Shop that now turns out intrie-

m !J*fi p f i F p ;

iiJliijJiiiUii i p p l g p i *

i i

Saint Louis College.

Saint Louis Gymnasium.

ly— made, exquisitely de­n n e d and in demand sil­ver and gold pieces of je­welry. The year 1914 saw the erection of another

jilding that partly serv- i as quarters for the

Belgian Missionary Sisters who were ^managing and maintaining the school and as complete e 1 e m entary school rooms. Vocational courses like lace-making, embroidery, hand - weaving, silversmithing, t a i 1 o ring, shoe-making tanning, car­pentry, cane-carving and gardening were offered side by side with the academic


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (239)


the elementary and seconda­ry departments, it is fast gaining recognition and ac­claim so much so that the College may soon be elevat­ed to a university level.

It is obvious that the Saint Louis College is on its way up molding the youth when­ever and wherever possible to be intellectually, profes­sionally. socially, and reli­giously strong.

Passing review of the Saint Louis College R.O.T.C. with Father Alberto O verbeke.

Saint Louis grounds.

Saint Louis Hall D epart­m ent.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (240)



—One of Baguio’ s land­marks in educational progress is Saint There­sa’s College, located on a quiet place along the Navy Road.

No. 4 Navy Road, Baguio City

Telephone 61 - 45

This humble institution of learning offers a complete education, which aims at the physical, intellectual, moral, and religious development of its students.

The limited number of students allows an unusual degree of individual atten­tion, which insures a more thorough development and results in higher standards of scholarship.

From Kindergarten up to Fourth-Year High School, emphasis is laid on the development of character, personality, and leadership, as well as on scholarship.

The cool, invigorating climate of Baguio makes it an ideal place for growing children who may be accepted boarders.

- o -


Front view of the CatholicSchool Press.

Baguio used to boast of a wel'- organized Catholic School Press before the war. This press was in­deed invaluable to the public, in general, for the service that it was at that time rendering Under the Catholic Missionaries, the press was instrumental in the propaga­tion o f the Faith. It was not only doing jobs of printing religious in­structions. hut if w«e nl«n doing

business printing in general to the public.

Unfortunately, this service-go­ing agency was cut short by the war. Most o f its buildings were badly damaged. Due to the huge damage wrought by the war, re­habilitation o f this buildings did not, however, in the least alter the grim determination o f the Belgian Missionaries to restore the Catholic School Press back on its feet.

Catholic School Modern Press.

'b ]

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NOTRE DAME de Lourdes Hospital

Charity and zeal urged the Sisters o f St. Paul de Chartres to establish this hospital to answer the needs of the Mining Companies ana tne City o f Baguio in 1931. With the encouragement Of tfte late Rev. Father Carlu and back­ed up by the Benguet Consolidated,Inc. the hospital made rapid strides to progress.

Starting humblyas a three story <

Summer house, it gra­dually expanded to meet

the demands of Society. In1945 it suffered the ravages of

War and was razed to the ground. After liberation, the hospital was tem­

porarily housed at La Salle Villa. Due to the indefatigable efforts of the Adminis­

tration, construction was soon started at the old site and was completed in 1947. Other addi­

tions were made in 1949-1953 and 1956. And again this year reconstruction was made with additions of

spacious wards and comfortable rooms. The hospital is owned and administered by the Sisters of St. Paul de Char­

tres which supplies the Nursing Service. The Medical Staff headed by Dr. F. D. Manalo are of the Benguet Consolidated, Inc.

from which the majority of patients are employed. The Benguet Lab­oratories with its modern and vast facilities boost the hospital progress

and with the good team work o f the two parties, Notre Dame Hospital stands today in its magnificence serving soSiety in season and out of season, regard­

less o f age, color or creed.The m odern N otre Dame de Lourdes Hos­

pital a fter it was rehabilitated.A grotto of Lourdes at the Notre Dame

de Lourdes Hospital garden•

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (242)

EUGENE P. PUCAYMember of the City Council

Mr. Pucay, educator, sportsman, farm­er, and realtor, was born in Baguio on July 4, 1901; the son of Daroan Pucay, now deceased, who like father like son, was once among the recognized leaders looked up to by the natives. He started early in life to do his bit for his com­munity. After his graduation from the Mountain Province High School in 1926, he taught at Easter School being man­aged by American Missionaries. He gave fifteen years of himself to the teaching profession and when world war II broke out, he found that his services were need­ed elsewhere. He, thus, joined the 66th Infantry as a second lieutenant to help, in his own humble way, the guerilla movement. After the war, he engaged in large scale farming and poulty-raising in Guisad Valley. His aim in so doing is ap­parent and, that is, to bolster economic stability even only in a small way. Added to his chain of responsibilities are his du­ties as a good Christian specifically as a warden of the Church of the Resurrection. In recognition o f his worth as a leader socially and politically, the administration under the late President Magsaysay ap­pointed him to the post of city councilor. Prior to this, he once occupied the chair­manship of the Advisory Council o f Igo­rots during the administration o f the late President. Roxas.

As an appointive councilor, he has al­ways identified himself with the cause of


the common man. To prove his sincerety, he sponsored several resolutions during his incumbency some o f which were the fo l­lowing:

1. Approval o f applications o f lots at the Baguio Workingmen’s Village and Squatter’s Site.

2. Approval o f Supplemental Budget No. 36 covering as apnropriation o f P50,-000.00 for the completion o f the Baguio City High School.

3. Sponsored resolution demolishing un- sightlv Kioskos at the Burnham Park.

4. Resolution No. 327. 1954, approval o f application fo r lots at the Baguio W ork­ingmen’s Village.

5. Approval o f adjustments o f salaries o f high echool teachers. Resolution 212, r 1954 authorizing- th» Mayor to negotiate RFC Loan o f PI .000.000.

6 . Resolution No. 42, c.s.

Mr. Eugene Pucay is seen at the right back row with Rev. Father G. Bartter fitting in the middle and other members t)f the t e a c h i n g force of the Easter School during the pre-war days.

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VICENTE N. BARENCx SR.Proprietor ana Manager,

Standard Hollow B Iock s factory

..Mr. Bareng is the man behind the dol­lar-saving enterprise known in Baguio as the Standard Hollow Blocks Factory which in countless ways is helping pave the way for a more stable Baguio.


Born in Laoag, Ilocos Norte on October 30, 1889 as the son of Apolonio Bareng and Natalia Navarro, he is a product of the Philippine School of Commerce where he took bookkeeping and the University of the Philippines where he took account­ing for 2 years. He served as Battalion a Sergeant-Major in the Philippine. Other pertinent data of his experiences while in the government service include: clerk in the Bureau of Customs having passed the second grade civil service examination; elerk in the then Bureau o f Education from whence he served later as property clerk and then as cashier from 1912 to 1918; ineome tax examiner o f the Bureau I of Internal Revenue and then as super* vising agent in the same bureau.

Makers of VIBRATED & COMPRESSED Concrete Hollow Blocks — Stretchers, half blocks, corner blocks, beam blocks, sash blocks: load bearing or ordinary, Cul­verts, Cement pipes, Survey monuments, Fence Posts, Concrete Water Tanks, Paving Blocks. Cement Bricks and other cement products.

Partial front view of the Quality Hollow Blocks’ office and Factory.

L 234 1

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (244)


We only em- P l o y Skilled Technicians and Craftsmen. We also use locally built and per­fected VIBRAT­ING & COM­PRESSING MA­CHINES by local Filipino Talents.

We always use chosen qual i t y Baguio lime sand, Graded R i v e r sand, and Gravel so that our pro­ducts are, by all stan d a r d s o f comparison, the best in the MAR­KET.

M A C H I N E M A D E VIBRATED.hdCOM PRE?I I D U O * B C O T K S w< 1 <11 IJ I PUT! h*, ,!■ • MOUllMtm s *ATE|;:tank' * _

V. W


Local made machines for holow blocks invented by M r. Bareng chat can produce many hollow blocks a day.

In 1936 he became a permanent resi­dent of Baguio and joined the business­men of the city. Before the war, he had several apartment buildings to his name which were destroyed during the bombing o f the city. At present he is at the helm o f a progresive hallow block business that

branshed out into the manufacture o f d if­ferent kinds of cement prdoucts such flower pots, fence post culverts and many others.

Twice married, he had 5 chlidren by his first wife who are all professionals now and 2 children by. his second wife.

Pros p e c t i v e Home - Builders are cordially in­vited to inspect our premises and stocks, and watch how our mach­ines “VIBRATE” and “ COMPRESS” the blocks, before ordering t h e i r needs.

The HI-STAN­D A R D LAUN­DRY presently service the fol- 1 o wing institu­tions:

Baguio Country Club, Pines Ho­tel , Philippine Military Acade­my, and Baguio M i 1 itary Insti­tute.

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Some of the em ployees o f the Standard Hollow Blocks Factory

[ 235

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (245)

LEON A. ALABANZABusinessman and Baguio Booster

An oustanding parent and Baguio old . timer, Mr. Leon Alabanza was born on April 11, 1902 in Vigan, Ilocos Sur; the son of Santiago Alabanza and Justa As- pacio. He obtained his early education in his hometown but he finished the second-

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ary normal course at the Mountain Pro­vince High School in 1923. Upon gradua­tion he joined the teaching force of Saint Louis School to which he was attached un­til the outbreak of World War II. Aside from teaching he was managing a eurio store in the market compound, which he established in 1930. During the war he engaged in the curio business in earnest. A t present he has successfully put up se­veral curio stores in the Stone Market Building and is thereby considerably boos­ting Baguio as a tourist center.

Mr. Albanza is an oldtimer because he came to Baguio as early as 1911. He is an outstanding parent because, together with his wife, the former Emerenciana Mendoza, he heads a family o f 11 child­ren, the eldest of whom is the incumbent Supt. o f Parks and Playgrounds o f Baguio, some are now professionals and the rest are busy pursuing an education. He was given a citation by the Baguio Women’s Club as an expression of appreciation of their valuable contribution. He is a mem­ber of the Knights of Columbus, Adoracion Nocturna.


facsimile o i the citation given to Mr. Mrs. Leon A . Alabanza.

P *p tn t* m iv \&h. -p t a.



Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (246)

The “Las Alabanzas” Store at the curio section o f the Stone Market.

"L a s A l a b a n z a s ’ 'Booth 14 * City Market * Baguio

All sorts o f Philippine Hand-woven Textiles Luncheon sets, our Specialty Igorot wood carvings of various designs * Depict Centurie'5 of Igorot Arts * Attractive Silver Wares * Finest o f Filipino Workmanship * Qualitative Prices * Accepts Orders, Local and Foreign

^ H IS comes from the Mountain Province, in northern Luzon

home of the Igorots ivhere centuries of isolation nurtured an ancient skill in handicraft peculiarly their own which flourishes to the present day. Their artistry in weaving, wood-carving and metal work finds expression in bold color schemes, massive designs and an eye for ca­ricature.

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TIBURCIO BALADAD RILLERAPioneer in Government Service

A native of Naguilian, La Union, he came to Baguio In 1911 to work as clerk in the Bureau of Public Works under Mr. Price. He merited a promotion to the position of Pro­perty Clerk in the Treasurer’s Ofiee in 1913 and served in this capacity until 1916. From 1916 to 1922 he served as clerk in the City Engineer’s Office. Again ha was promoted to the position of Chief of the Accounting Section in the City Engineer’s Office in which position he served from 1923 to 1936, until he retired under the Osmena Act.

Mr. Isaac E. Dizott

ISAAC E. DIZONPioneer in Government Service

Isaac E. Dizon served the City Government of Baguio faithfully for a quarter of a century, and he practically became a “ legend” in the City Hall up to the time of his retirement in 1960.

He holds the record of having served under 14 city mayors before the city mayorship became elective, and during his incumbency, he invariably held the positions of city secretary, chief clerk, and administrative officer in the Office of the Mayor, retiring on the latter position.

He rates himself as a self-made man.His first job in the government was that of a barrio

school teacher at P12 per month. He is when he was appointed City Secretary, an ex-newspaperman and a short story He and his family intend to spend writer in the vernacular. the rest of their lives in Baguio, where

Mr. Dizon was born in Pulilan, Bulacan,i he has sent the best part of his life in 1895, and came up to Baguio in 1935, in service to the residents of the City.

JUAN BALAGOTP ion eer in Governm ent Service

Adjudged “ Man of the Year in Education for 1957” by the Baguio Press Club,Mr. Juan Balagot who has dedicated 42 years of his life to the teaching profession deserves the award from all counts. A native of Bauang, La Union, he started teaching in his hometown upon graduation from La Union Trade School in 1915. In 1919, he transferred to Lubuagan, Kalinga, Mt. Province where he stayed until 1920 when he was assigned in Baguio. From 1920 until his re­tirement at the age of 61, he was a teacher in the city. A fter his retirement, he joined the faculty of the Baguio Tech High School to which he is at present attached.

Mr. Balagot’s name is popular in the field of sports as o f the city in the Agno Valley Private Schools track and field meet.

For his devoted and unstained record as a teacher, Mr. Balagot no doubt is counted among the molders of Baguio’s leader of tomorrow.

Juan Balagota successful coach ot teams in various athletics. For several t'mes, he has at­tended Bureau of Public Schools Inters- cholastic Athletic Meets in various places in the Philippines. Then, too he served as Head Coach of selected male athletes

[ 238 ]

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GO CHUProprietor, Go Chu Hardware

The Chinese in Baguio is playing an important role in the growth of this city. Working closely with the residents in business and civic affairs is Mr. Co Chu who have the dis­tinction of having stayed in this country for almost 50 years. As a veteran in the field of business he was able to maintain several establishments in Northern Luzon during the outbreak o f the war. Mr. Go Chu, who is among the respected citizens in Baguio has finally established his main store here. He served ten times as president of the Laoag Chinese Chamber Ass.; several times as pres, o f the Baguio Chinese Patriotic School and one time chairman o f the Board o f Directors of the same institution.

During me Japanese occupation he con­tributed money, foodstuff and clothing to the guerrillas under the late Governor Ablan in Ilocos Norte. When the ene­mies invaded Northern Luzon, all o f his establishments were looted and burned.

Mr. Go ChuHe was bom in Amoy, China on Nov­

ember 6, 1860; he first started his busi­ness career way back in 1915 in Laoag, Ilocos Norte. He has twelve children who are also active like him.

Mr. Chan Tay

CHAN TAYProminent Chinese Businessman

For having given the best years of his life to Baguio, Chan Tay was among the recipients of a certificate of award given by the Baguio City government only to de­serving individuals.

Born on May 28, 1904 in Canton, China, Chan Tay was a product of the school of experience. When he came to Baguio in 1919, he was first employed in the Baguio Bakery as his stepping stone and he later worked in the Army and Navy Club for several years in Camp John Hay. To earn more he joined the Isuan Inc, as representative in Northern Luzon until the outbreak of the war. A few years after liberation, he reorganized the Baguio Nation­alist Party with an initial membership o f 76 loyal members and became its chairman. He became chairman for several terms of the said party; several terms as president & board

of director of the B.C. Chamber o f Com- taineer's Store now located near the Dang- merce. He was the Vice Pres, o f the Ba- wa Station.guio Lion’s Club for 1955-1956. He is married to Yee Guat Sue with

His present business venture is the Moun- whom he has 4 children.

S I E L E EA nother Chinese Oldtimer

Another Chinese oldtimer who intends to spend the restof his life in Baguio is Mr. Sie Lee, who came to the City way back in 1919. His first venture was a dry goods store at the Stone Market which he maintained until the outbreak of World War H. At the same time he became a farmer and married a native from Mountain Trail, Benguet, with whom he had children all born in Baguio. After liberation, he switched to the sari-sari business and opened a store in Luc- ban.

Mr. Sie Lee hails from Canton, China but Baguio is his home where he has spent invaluable years in the iieia of b u ­siness.

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Mr. PEDRO E. TAWASMining Promoter

Mr. Pedro Taw»i

The mining industry, it cannot be de­nied, is one of the industries mainly responsible for putting the City of Ba­guio on the Map and as such, the role o f the men who in countless ways helped the industry should be given due im­portance. In this connection, there is one native Igorot whose name has al­ways been identified with pioneering in this particular industry. As a mining promoter, his works had been charac­terized with fairness, integrity and ho nesty so much so that he was dubbed by pre-war newspapermen as a “ Model Promoter” . This miner is Pedro E. Tr- was, Secretary-Treasurer of the Kid-ing Mining Company.

His experiences ir. the mining indus­try dates back to as early as January 1924 when as a mere laborer he started working at the Benguet Consolidated Mining Company with a monthly salary of thirty pesos (P30.00). He began from the bottom and climbed the ladder step by step through sheer hard work and determination. This is evident from the following series of invaluable exper­iences: January 1924 to March 1925, la borer, Benguet Consolidated Mining Com­pany; February 1926 to March 1927, Foreman, Narba Mining Company; April1927 to January 1928, Foreman, Gold Hill Mining Company, Inc.; February1928 to February 1930, General Foreman, Hartwell Group, property and part of the Benguet Consolidated Mining Com­pany, Inc.; January 1931 to December 1932, General Foreman, Benguet Explo­ration Mining Company, Inc.; January1933 to June 1 1933, Assistant Superin tendent Tiaea Mining Company, Inc.:

July 1933 to Decemoer 1934, mining promotions; January 1935 to January 1936, mining promotions and at the same time General Manager, Lopez, Tawas and Company; March 1936 to November 1936, Superintendent, Sta Monica Mining Com­pany, Inc.; December 17, 1941 to Nov­ember 1947, in the Resistance Movement; and from May 1953 to November 1953, a Superintendent of the Non-Christian Tribes, Mountain Province, appointed to this position by that intrepid guerilla leader, Major Bado Dangwa, now gov­ernor of the Mountain Province.

During the Occupation while perform­ing his assigned duties as Intelligence Officer, he was unluckily captured by the enemy and was made to suffer in­human tortures for several weeks after which he was sentenced to twelve and one-half (12-1/2) years imprisonment. Hei served sentence for about half a year in different jails such as Baguio, Fort Santiago, Old Bilibid in Manila, thence to Muntinglupa, Rizal, where he was li­berated along with others during the early part of February 1945. Even when he was brutally tortured for several weeks, nght and day, this miner turned guerrillero never admitted his connec­tions with the Resistance Movement, nor revealed the names and whereabouts of his comrades-in-arms. This perhaps ex­plains the reason why he survived and came back to tell the story. The Jape did not respect squealers.

After his said liberation from Mun­tinglupa, he reported for duty to Ma­jo r Bado Dangwa at Camp Spencer, La Union, but as he was still weak and suffering from beri beri, he was advised by Army doctors to recover his health for at least six months and rest at home in Baguio. Upon his arrival in Baguio, however he disregarded his vacation and voluntarily attached himself for duty at La Trinidad, Benguet, with the 66th In­fantry, USAFIP, NL PA, then under the command of that famous guerrilla lead­er, Major Dennis Molintas. Molintas was the one who appointed Tawas as Chief of the Intelligence Section and the lat­ter did not disappoint his superiors for he served with distinction in that pc-

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On the occa ­sion of the sign- in? of royalty maiagement with opti»n to pur­chase between the Benguet Con- J snlidated, Inc. & W the Kennon Road » Copper M in es ,Inc., April 23, i 1959. |

sition. l'awas iatei served as MPC Agent during which he gathered and surren dered to the PC many loose firearms.

The Recovered Personnel Division, U.S. Army, thru the Summary Court Officer, awarded him several decorations such as Philippine Defense Ribbon, Asia-Pa­cific Campaign Ribbon, World War II Medal Distinguished Unit Badge with One Oak Leaf Cluster, Philippine Libe­ration Medal, and Purple Heart.

At present, as a miner again he en­joys the confidence, respect and esteem of his associates in the mining venture.

Known as one of the best mining prospectors in the Philippines today, he learned his lessons in mining from such

tamous American miners as J. D. High­smith, Paul A. Gulick, C. P. Dugan, R. Miller, Tom Philipps. H. “ Blandy” Ho­ward, George Miles Icard, W. E. Ebbert, Ralph W. Ciocby, etc.

(Already known by mining people) Married to the termer Miss Marie

Edith Valdez of Tuba, Benguet. Child­less, they adopted more than ten child­ren, many of whom are already married.

Domalia Pilay Tawas is one of 5 child­ren of Kalama Tawas and Domalia Pi- lay (both deceased) both of Suyoc, Man- kayan, Benguet, Mt. Province.

Pedro Tawas was born 55 years ago in the well-known Mining district at Su­yoc, Mankayan.

FRUCTCSO 0. VALDEZGen. Supt., Mines View Association

A veteran of the last war, who turned to business after the restoration o f peace, is Fru:toso O. Valdez a resident of La Trinidad, Benguet, Mt. Province.

Mr. Valdez was called to active duty in the United States Armed Forces o f the Far East (U S A F F E ) as master ser­geant, 11th Infantry Division from 1941-45.

He finished high school studies in 1928 at the Saint Louis School. A fter graduation he was appointed to the po­sition of branch manager of the Asiatic Petroleum Ltd. in Baguio, holding said position up to 1932. The following year he was appointed to the position o f branch manager of the Associated Oil Company, Baguio branch.

He held this job up to the outbreak of the war in 1941. At present he is con­nected with Baguio Loakan Placer min­ing and the Mines View Mining Associa­tion in Baguio.

Mr. F. O. Valdes

Mr. Valdez was born on January 2, 1905 in La Trinidad, the son of Eugenio Valdez and Catalina Octobiano. He mar­ried the former^ Marcelina Abastilla, a Philippine Normal graduate and Olympic star player who bore him seven chil­dren, four of whom are boys

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Mr. Vairai jemmalwhicft was continuously 1941. Unfortunately, during the occupa­tion, the bazar was looted and confiscat­ed by the enemy and its owner was de­tained for six months at Camp John Hay. Upon his release from the concentration camp, he immediately proceeded to Manila

ASSANDAS JETHMALProp. & Gen. Manager, Assandas Dept. Stores, Manila

One who is known to every Baguio resident, vacationist and tourist is no other than Assandas Jehmal, prominent businessman and former proprietor of one of the biggest and most up-to-date department stores located in Baguio “ Escolta” .

Through the Assandas’ store, he was in direct contact with people from all walks o f life. It is needless to state that his business entity has helped eased the unemployment problem in Baguio and provided the opportunity for people to have the best at a minimum cost.

A. Jethmal first came to the Philippines in 1920 as a dry- goods merchant. For two years, he stayed in Manila. In 1931, he came to Baguio to establish the Bombay Bazar maintained until to revive his pre-war investments by put­

ting up a store along Sta. Cruz. In 1947, he opened a branch in Baguio, the As­sandas Department Store.

He is married to a Filipina, the for­mer Virgina Balmeo with whom he has two children, both girls.

NAVALRAI JETMALProprietor and General Manager, Assandas Dept. Store

A native of Hyderabad Sind, India, Mr. Navalrai Jethmal W Hhas joined the ranks of Baguio boooster as new owner of _ f a business landmark, the Assandas’ Department Store whcih » n w Khas earned a good reputation from the buying public for its sincere services and honesty. Thru to the claim that . Jkthe beauty of the Pines City does not respect any barrier rof color, race or creed, he has actively identified himself in A „ Jthe country, from membership in the Lions International, " jjFIndian Chamber of Commerce, Bombay Merchant’s Associa* ' tion to the Peace and Amelioration Fund Commission Mr. Assandas Jethma!—a gesture of his sincere faith in the fu- goods enterprise until the outbreak of ture of the country. the war. He is married to Drupati Jeth-

Born on Sept. 12, 1912, he was edu- mal with whom he has 4 children, three cated in India and came to the Philip- ° f whom are boys and one a girl.Dines in 1929 to join his father’s dry

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Front view of the E h e r o m o ol's De­partment Store.


Mr. T. Mooljimal

Before the outbreak he went to India where he stayed for the duration of the war. In 1947, he returned to the Philippines to mend the damages that war wrought on his bus­iness venture, The death of his brother from the hands of the Japanese dis­heartened him and made him more de­termined than ever to succeed where before thev failed. .From their business

Those who have seen or resided in Baguio before the war will not forget the undisputable part that Tolaram Mooljimal has played in the business field of endeavor. As owner and manager of the pre-war Bombay Silk Store, the biggest dry goods store in Session Road then, he was known by people of varied endeavors and nationalities.

Mooljimal came to the Philippines in 1922 after hav­ing gained experience first as sales clerk, then as chief accountant in commercial firms in Canton and Hongkong. In Baguio, he and his younger brother, Bheroomull esta­blished a dry goods Store. Their enterprieses grew to be­come the biggest dry goods store in Session Road,

of the war, lett-over, he put up the Bombay Com­mercial Company which in ten years bei- came one of the leading importers, wholesalers, and retailers o f general merchandise in the Philippines today.

He is married and has four children. Because of his good experiences in the Philippines, he has come to love the country as his own.

TUI SIRAM O. SHARMAManager, Bheroomull’s Department Store

One of the well known business figures in Baguio, Tul- siram G. Sharma, manr.ger of the above mentioned firm was born in October 1912 in Hyderabad, India, the son of Gulzarilal and Sharma who was a businessman too. He completed his high school education in Hyderabad and serv­ed as an elem. school teacher from 1932 to 1938 while helping manage his father’s store at the time.

He came to Baguio in 1938 to join the business concern, Tolaram Moojimal and company at the time managing two stores one of which, the Royal Bazaar was assigned to him for management until the the outbreak of the war. During the occupation, being a foreigner he was sent to concentration camp for one month after which he again engaged in business. This enterprise was unfortunately damaged during the liberation period. Undaunted by bus­iness failures, he went to Manila and opened a bar enter-

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OSENCIO 0 . BUCAYCAYLumber & Timber Posts Concessioner

the rank of 2nd Phil. Constabulary and later under Colonel Barsett in La Union. He was one of those imprisoned in Capas Tarlac. When he was released he went home and ventured in the lumber industry particularly in the supply of timber posts for the mines like Itogon Mining Co., Baguio Gold Min-

He was born on July 20, 1905 in Kibungan, Benguet Mountain Province. The son of Bangawen and Opinan. A product of the La Trinidad Farm School now known as MNAS, he was sent as a pensionado to the University of the Philippines, College of Forestry. Having satisfactorily com pleted the course, he was immediately designated as forest ranger under the Bureau of Forestry in Hondagua, Caraa rines Norte. From 1928, he served as forest ranger first in Manila, then in La Union and later in Baguio until the out­break of the war. He was drafted as a reserved officer with

lieutenant under Colonel Castaneda of the ing Co., and Balatoc Mining Company. He is at present a lumber concessioner and a firewood dealer.

Married to the former Isabel F. Fanpro- ni with whom he has seven children, he is a member of the Lucban Parent Teach­er Association and the Baguio Gun Club.

JOAQUIN YUFormer Proprietor, Lucban Lumber Co.

Mr. Joaquin Yu was born in Amoy, Chi­na. He came to the Philippines in 1914 to venture in business. His first attempt was a sari-sari store in San Pablo, Lagu­na which he managed for six years. Not contented with this, he went to Manila instead to work for the then Seng Bee Sawmill now known as Dee C. Chuan Lumber Sawmill. He capitalized on his experiences by working for the Zambales Sawmill in Masinloc, where he rose to the position of manager. In 1932, he came to Baguio and established the Lucban Lum­ber situated in Trinidad Road which he managed successfully until the outbreak o f the war. In Baguio, he was always identified with civic and social undertak­

ings and made a name ior him and for his children as a useful citizen. During the occupation, he was sent to concentra­tion camp in Manila for suspicion as anti-Japanese and for soliciting contri­butions from Chinese associations for the underground movement in the Mountain Province.

He had six children by his first w ife and 3 children by his sccond wife, a Fi- lipina. His older children who are in Ba­guio are engaged in business while the younger ones are still studying.

Mr. Yu is furthermore remembered as an alumnus of the Anglo Chinese School in Manila where he completed his seconda­ry education. He was one time president o f the Baguio Chinese Chamber of Com­merce.

The pre-war Lucban Lum ber at Trinidad Road, now Magsaysay Avenue.

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C. KIMProprietor and Manager, Hotel City Lunch

and Hotel Del Mar

Among Baguio’s contributors to its eco­nomic progress is Mr. C. Kim, proprietor & manager of Hotel City Lunch and Hotel del Mar in Manila. Mr. Kim who has lived in the Philippines for forty one years is now a permanent resident of the Pines City. His story portrays' the rise o f an automotive and radio electrician to higher business levels He came to the Philip­pines in 1920. With an eagerness to expe­rience what it was to be on his own he took an automotive and radio electrician course at the Motor Institute of America, R.C.A. through correspondence, and ac­quired his diploma in 1935. In 1934 he be­came the manager of the Boston Hotel in Manila and at the same time participated actively in the intricate functioning of the sound system in the Pox Theatre and de­voted his spare time to dealing Radio sup­plies. Not satisfied with this, he came to Baguio in 1935 and established the City Restaurant. In 1937, he opened another firm known a? the Pines Sales Company in Baguio, and the Star Cafe. The City Lunch which is at present a hotel-restau- rant combination was temporarily closed during the occupation but was reopened after the liberation. A few years later he opened another hotel at California St., near Taft Avenue, Manila.

In Baguio civic affairs, he is often a participant so much so that his name has gained cognizance as a moral and mate­rial contributor.

The m od em and spacious H otel City Lunch ta Abanao Street.

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Mr. C. Kim

He hails from Canton, China, where he was born on February 27, 1906. He is married to Ng See with whom he has 6 children, one of them is a graduate in Medicine, and another one has acquired a master’s degree in rommerce, U.S.T.

Such is the storv o f Mr. C. Kim who will undoubtedlv play a dominant role as a Baguio resident-burinessman in the years to come.

He is a member of the Free Mason’s Fraternity, Baguio Rotary Club of Ba­guio, Baguio Chinese Chamber o f Com­merce, and Charter member o f the Y.M.C.A.

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Mr. Victor de Guia

cions in the city. He is president and has been president since 1947 of the Ba- guio-Mountain Boy Scout Council. Sim­ultaneously he holds several other pos:- tions and these are, namely, member of the National Executive Board, Boy Scouts of the Philippines; member, Philippine Association of Civil Engineers, Knights of Columbus, and founder of the Ba­guio Chess Club; vice-president, Baguio City High School PTA; member of the Baguio Country Club.

A past president of the Baguio Rota­ry Club, he traveled 3 times around the world and once in Southeast Asia. He

Engineer VICTOR A . DE GUIABuilding Contractor and Businessman

Engineer de Guia is a native of Pangil, Laguna where l ie was born on July 1, 1908, the son of Pedro de Guia and Maria Alcantara. He obtained his elementary and se­condary education from the public schools. He is a holder of 2 degrees both obtained from the University of Santo Tomas, a B.S.C.E. degree acquired in 1933 and a B.S.E. de­gree acquired in 1936.

In Baguio, Engr. de Guia is easily regarded as among the first ten in its roster of foremost engineers. His en­terprises embrace a wide field— stocks, construction, real estate, insurance. His role in community development is further enhanced by his positions in several key organiaa-

attended the United Nations Conference in Bali, Indonesia in 1951 and he re­presented the Boy Scouts of the Phil­ippines at the International Scout Con­ference at Leichtentein in 1953 and in Canada in 1955. Furthermore, he head­ed the Delegation of Boy Scouts to the World Jamboree which was held in va­rious places, namely, Valley Forge, Penn­sylvania, U.S.A., in 1950; Irvine Ranch, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. in 1953; Kondersteg, Switzerland in 1953; Niaga­ra Falls, Canada in 1955.

He is married to the former Virginia Oteyza with whom he has 2 sons and 2., daughters.

SINAI C. HAMADAManaging Editor, Baguio Midland Courier

Barrister, journalist, civic leader — Atty. Hamada re* presents the “ vigilancia” o f Baguio’s populace. His sustained interest in Baguio and all that it stands fo r is reflected most vividly in his editorship of the Baguio Midland Courier.

A graduate o f the State University where he obtained his Bachelor o f Laws and Bachelor o f Philosophy degrees in 1937, he shone as a student leader in his college days. He was Editor o f the Philippine Collegian; President, U. P. W riters’ Club; Editor, U. P. Literary Apprentice; City Edi* tor, El Commercial; President, Baguio City High School Al­umni Association; Publisher-Manager o f the Baguio Visitors & Convention Bureau. He was also a past Secretary o f the Ba­guio Jaycees and past President of the Baguio Lions Club. He is a member of the Baguio Rotary Club and the Philippine Guide & Travel Association.

He is happily married to the form er Geralda Mnclinj?.Recently, he left for the U.S. on a State Department

grant under the educational and cultural exchange prog­ram. He represented the Philippines in a two-week se­minar arranged for 21 foreign journalists at the University o f Hawaii. A fter the seminar he took a special work-study course in journalism at the University of Indiana. This was followed by assignment to major American newspaper for the newspaper observation phase o f the tour.

Atty. Sinai Hamad*

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BONIFACIO PANGLAOFarmer and Businessman

Born September 23, 1907 in Labayug formerly munici­pal district in Pangasinan and Mt. Province now called Si son, Pangasinan.

Came to Baguio in 1921 to enroll in the Mt. Province High School (Now the Baguio City High) Normal course. Graduated in 1925. Was employed as Third-Class patrol­man in Teacher’s Camp during summer vacation months while still in School.

After graduation was appointed Principal teacher for Loo Farm School 1925-1926. Was also Principal teacher of Mankayan Elementary School in 1926 but have to re­sign due to poor health.

Opened a Sari-sari store in Labayug,Sison, Pangasinan. Worked and became the No. 2 Tobacco buyer for the Go Pay Co. in Pozorrubio, Pangasinan. Started buying and selling gold in 1932. Was a shipper of gold to the United States Mint Office until the outbreak of World War II.

Was one of the organizers and mem­ber of the Board of Directors of the Agno Placer Mining Company together with R. F. Navarro, Leopoldo Aguinaldo,Dr. Emilio Jacinto and Don Vicente Vi-

Mr. B. Panglaoilanueva.

Moved to Baguio with family in 1937 Now a farmer and businessman.

Active member of the Baguio Cham­ber of Commerce, Holy Name Society in Lucban and Past PTA president of the Lucban Elementary School 1949-51. A c­complished the fencing of the school pre­mises.

President and General Manager of De- Ua, Panglao & Co., Inc., Timber Conces­sionaire & Sawmill Operator.


NICASIO O. SALENGA Building Contractor

Mr. Nicasio O. Salenga typifies the self-made man who found his way up through hard work. Today he is easily counted among Baguio’s adept building contractors and mo- dJe famliy heads.

From his native Sta. Rita, Pampanga where he was bom on October 11, 1900 as the son of Miguel Salenga and Si- meona Ocampo, he went to Manila for intellectual advance­ment. After graduating from the Philippine School of Arts and Trades, he accepted a teaching job in the Division of La- nao. He enchanced his educational qualifications by acqui­ring civil service eligibility. Thus, from 1921 to 1928, he was engaged in the noble profession of teaching. He resigned from teaching afterwards and instead took an architectural course through correspondence which he completed in 1931

m the International Correspondence tnrough meritSchool. For sometime prior to his co- Mr. Salenga is married to the former ming to Baguio, he was engaged in car- Pascuala Lareza with whom he heads a fa- pentry work in Manila. In Baguio, he ob» mily of five sons and a daughter who are tianed cognizance in his chosen endeavor now professionals by their own right

Mr. N. Salenr*

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Mr Antonio Calinao

It takes a lot of courage and guts for Filipino businessmen to wrest the con­trol of the retail trade from alien hands. Even with an instrument such as Natio­nalization Trade Law, Filipinos have a tough struggle ahead. In Baguio, hard­ware business is controlled by aliens from “ a to z” , so close - knit in the grasp that the struggle of a lone Fili­pino competitor is recognized from all quarters as a remarkable feat in the business field. This lone Filipino hard­ware proprietor is no other than An­tonio Calinao of Baguio Hardware.

Born in Capiz on November 14, 1910, he is a man whose versatility knows no

ANTONIO CALINAO(The only Filipino Hardwareman in

Baguio)Chosen one o f the top businessman

of 1952

bounds. As a product of the Philippine School of Arts and Trades in Manila, he first worked as a clerk in Plaza Ho­tel in Zamboanga and later as a mecha­nic in the Arsenal Navy Base, Cavite. One experience led to another. In 1936, he came to Baguio to work first in Cal Horr Mines and then in Antamok Min­ing Co. But it was after liberation that he was snared by the business endea­vor. For his debut, he engaged in junk business. With a few pesos plus his priceless knack for business, he started the ball rolling. After a year, he found himself sole proprietor of a lucrative en­tity, the Baguio Hardware. Not content­ed with this, he cast his lot in movie production as associate producer, first with the Bayani Production and then with the Asiatic pictures. He ventured further in the business arena by esta­blishing the Canelis Recreation Center. And as a recognition of his versatility, he was selected by the Baguio Chamber of Commerece as one of the “ top busi­nessmen of 1952.”

Adept in his chosen line, he repre­sents the Westinghouse Inc., Philippine

Mr- Antonio Calinao wtih high governm ent officials, during his induction as presM t o f the Baguio Chamber of Com m erce for 1956_57.

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Tiles, Marsman Trading and Amon Trad­ing.

As one who recognizes the value of social competence as an asset, he has affilated himself actively to several ci­vic and social organizations among which are: the Baguio Chamber of Commerce, the Lions Club, the Y-Men’s Club in which he served at one time as president. He is married to the former Pacita Pa- nganiban with whom he has seven child­ren. He hopes to see a Baguio devoid o f alien exploitation and a shangri-la for Filipino businessmen with guts who can bravely' stand on their own.

---- iw------ o--------------

Mr. Enrique Florea

plement the shortage of lumber supply. He abandoned this enterprise later and instead started a poultry raising project which he managed for a few years. Seeing the acute demand for construction ma­terials he devoted his time to dealing lime, sand, and Baguio stones which is now known not only in Baguio but in other parts of the country. Added to his contracting business he has been supply­ing Silica to the Bocnotan cement plant.

• ENRIQUE FLORESBaguio Local Businessman

Enrique Flores who is from Dagupan, Pangasinan is among Baguio’s versatile businessman of today. It was from his bussiness-minded father that he acquired the how and the what of business. He joined his father in a contract­ing enterprise and for a year in 1935, he worked as road contractor for the Consolidated Mines in Zambalez. Prior to the outbreak of the last war, he was engaged in trans- portating lumber and timber posts to the various Baguio mines. For sometime during the occupation and immediate­ly after liberation he engaged in the tranportation busi­ness in Baguio and Manila. In 1947, however, he estab­lished a sawmill in Brower and Ferguson Roads to sup-

bulldozing & stone crashing contract job.His other pertinent personal data in­

clude the following: that he was born on August 8, 1911 as the son of Urbano V. Flores and Arcadia Espiritu; that he is an alumnus of the La Union High School, class 1930 and that he finished the fresh­man year in the Jose Rizal College of Commerce. He was president of the Ba­guio Poultry Association in 1954. He is married to the former Pura Asprer.

The Baguio Hardware Store and office at A . Mabini Street.

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Ben PalispisPres. & Gen. Manager

BAGUIO PRINTING & PUB. CO., INC.The Courier story begins ten years

ago today. It is ind'ssolubly linked with that of the publisher, the Baguio Print­ing and Publishing Co., Inc. Sometime in the latter part of 1946, thirteen men pooled their resources to form this com­pany. This group raised f*8,000 to pur­chase a second-hand printing press in Manila. This turned out to be poor buy as the equipment bought consisted o f one small platen press, worn-out types and a hand-operated cutter.

With the i nitial printing equipment bought, however, the dream was impos­

sible of realization. Moreover, some of the incorporators of the company, Juan C. Orendain, Mauro Concepcion, Julian C. Reyes, Honorio Reyes, and Dominador Lacsamana had been associated with the publication of Baguio’s pioneer weekly, the Baguio banner, which they contin­ued in circulation for sometime while having it printed in presses outside Ba­guio.

Subsequently, some dismantled printing equipment in Sagada Bontoc, were offer­ed for sale by Eduardo Masferre. These consisted of two platen presses, 10 x 15 and 18 x 22 in sizes, and American foun­dry types which wore comparatively lit­tle used.

The entire equipment, acquired by S. C. Hamada, were thrown in with the company and shortly thereafter, using the big platen press the first issue of the Midland Courier was published in four pages. Thereafter, the four Courier pages were enlarged to tabloid propor­tions. From the beginning, this journal was entirely hand-set for five years, until May, 1950, when the company bought a new linotype.



Mr. Oseo G. Hamada, was born in Baguio 49 years ago, the son of R. Hamada and Josefa Carino. He is a product of the public schools in the city. He finished his elementary education in the Baguio Central School and completed high school in the Mt. Province High (now the Baguio City High School). After graduation he became a salesman, bakery ope rator and later fisherman in Damortis.

Mr. Hamada is presently the press and business manager o f the Baguio Printing & Publishing Co., Inc. publishers of the Baguio Midland Courier, one of the weekly newspapers edited and published in the c'ty of Baguio.

An active civic leader, he was president of the Lions Club of Baguio for two terms (1957 to 1959). He is the Vice president of the Northern Luzon Assn. for the Blind, Inc., treasurer of the Ba- guio-Benguet Council, Boy Scouts o f the Philippines; director of the Baguio Press

Mr. Oseo C. Humada

Club; PRO of the Baguio Chamber of Commerce and active member of the Ba­guio Country Club and the Filipino Prin­ters Association of the Philippines.

He is married to the former Miss Vir­ginia Monroe. They have eleven children.

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The Baguio Printing Press building and the office o f the Ba­guio Midland Cour. rier at Kisad Road facing the Burnham Park.

August, 1950, will always be a red- letter day for the Baguio Midland Cou­rier, for this date marked the invest­ment in the press of additional capital by Mr. and Mrs. Ben Palispis. A new linotype, a second-hand flat-bed cylinder press, an automatic paper cutter and new hand-set types were bought.

As a weekly, the Baguio Midland Cou­rier has not missed publication since its first issue ten years ago. It has always been neat, even when it was hand-set. Its editorial policy is a matter of com­mon knowledge among its readers. It

started with a circulation of 500 copies, which has grown to 4,500 copies in ten years, distributed all over the Mountain Province, in other provinces in the Phil­ippines, and sent to readers in some cities in Europe and the United States.

The Courier story cannot be told with­out mention of the devoted men who have grown old staying awake the whole Saturday night each week to compose, print and fold this midland periodical which hits the streets of Baguio fresh each Sunday moiling, sure as day fol­lows night

Julian C. Reyes

linois, U.S.A. and as Sec. of the Baguio Chapter of the Nacionalista Party. Hav­ing been a forms**. Baguio Branch Ma­nager of the DMHM' and Manila Daily Bulletin newspapers, he is man of varied interests and he thus finds time among his other duties to actively participate in civic and social organizations like the

JULIAN C. REYESC ollege Instructor and Businessman

Mr. Julian C. Reyes, college instructor, businessman, and civic leader was born in Ma?alang, Pampanga on Feb. 16. 1902, the son of Geronimo Reyes of that town and Juliana Capati of Angeles, Pampanga.

Mr. Reyes who now heads the Secretarial Department of Baguio Tech is a busy man judging from the positions he has held and is now holding. Aside from his duties aa Manager of the Baguio Office of the Manila Chronicle, ho teaches at the Brent Commercial Hich School and serves as exclusive representative for the Philippines of the Be- nefic Press. Berkley-Cardy Publishing House of Chicago, 11-

Federation of PTA’s, the Baguio Press Club, the BAMARVA, the Baguio Cham­ber of Commerce, and the Aurora Hill Mutual Welfare Association.

He is an alumnus of the Philippine School of Commerce. He has eight child­ren by his wife the former Paz Suarez of Bacolor, Pampanga.

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CECILIO D. C1DPresident, B. Chamber of Commerce &

Prop., Cid Educational Supply

This is the story of a hardworking man who reached high levels of achieve­ment as a businessman, in spite of obs­tacles which are enough to discourage any man.

Cecilio D. Cid was born in Bacarra, Ilocos Norte on November 7, 1894 as the son of Bias Cid and Vicenta Do­mingo. His parents were poor and were, therefore, financially unable to send him to school. In 1914, he tackled the second grade civil service examinations. With this as his stepping-stone, he landed a government job and continued his se­condary education at the Liceo de Ma­nila through self-support. With ambition gnawing at his vitals, he left the Philip­pines in 1918 for Los Angeles, California and enrolled at the Southwestern Uni­versity where he obtained his B. S. C. degree.

Upon his return to the Philippines in 1924, he taught in a private college for several years. In 1927, he joined BenildaS. Cid in wedlock. The following year found him supporting his brothers until they were able to get along indepen­dently. A travelling salesman with Er- langer & Galinger, Inc. for ten years, he earned the managership of the compa­ny’s branch in Naga, Camarines in 1938. In two years time, he was transferred to Baguio to serve as branch manager of the company until the outbreak of the war in 1941.

From his experiences during the war, he deduced his post-war venture — a newstand which eventually became the Baguio News Agency, sole distributor of the Manila Times and a number of Phil­ippine weekly magazines. This venture branched out to another — the Cid Edu­cational Supply, dealer in all kinds of stationary. Both ventures are successful and rank among Baguio’s present agen­cies of service.

As a family head, he may be termed as a model father and efficient provider.

An active member of the Baguio Ro­tary Club, he represents in Baguio the Erlanger and Gallinger, Inc., the Taylor Pacific Inc. and ex-representative of the Northern Motors, Inc.

He reorganized the BCC of which he became president in 1959 and reelected in 1960. He aims to cooperate fully with the city government in promoting tour­ism trade on a year-round basis and to make the chamber a training center for enterprising Filipino retail businessmen.


The new elected of­ficers and board of directors of the Ba­guio Chamber of Com m erce for the year 1960-1961.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (262)

JUAN L. FONTANILLALawyer, B.ealtor_an& Businessman

Juan L. Fontanilla who has chosen th? fields *>f bus­iness and law to help Baguio grow is a man of varied in­terests and experiences. Besides being a practicing lawyer, he is a realtor, an insurance underwriter, mining enterprises promoter, and dealer in all kinds of bonds. His versa­tility is the outgrowth of rich experiences while in the ser­vice of the government which to be exact include being a compiler, Philippine Census of 1919; clerk-computer in the Bureau of Lands and General Land Registration Office <now Land Registration Commission) from 1920 to 1932; Provincial Sheriff for Baguio and Mt. Province from 1932 to 194i; Called to active duty in the guio Realty Board AFP as Reserve Officer, from 1941 to 1945; Provincial Fiscal and Special Pro­secutor for Mt. Province from 1943 to1945, and at the same time designated as Acting City Attorney of Baguio in 1944; Attorney of the Legal Aide Office Department of Justice from 1947 to 1950;Law practitioner from 1950 to date; and at present Secretary-Treasurer of the Ken- aon Road Copper Mines, Inc.,

His civic activities are as varied and as rich if not richer than his experiences previously mentioned. He is a member of the Baguio Lawyers League, the Phil­ippine Veterans Legion and the Ameri­can Legion. He is Treasurer of the Ba-

- 3 * i

Attv. J. L,. Fontanilla

and Board member and Secretary of the Baguio Home Own­ers’ Association.

Atty. Fontanilla was born on June 24, 1901 in Bangar, La Union, to Bibiano Fontanilla and Maxima Lopez. He ob­tained his A.A. from the National Uni­versity in 1927 and his LLB degree from the Philippine Law School in 1930. He took and finished courses on social work under the sponsorship of the United Nations in 1948, and also graduated from the American Legion Extension Institute in 1957. He is a member of the Philip­pine Bar. He is married to Josefa Toledo of Cavite City with whom he has 3 sons and 4 daughters.


Among the most capable and versatile law practitioners of Baguio and Mountain Province is Atty. Marcelino B. Hidal­go, Jr. who is accredited with more than 20 years of service in the field o f law.

He hails from Munoz, Nueva Ecija where he was born on March 24, 1913 the son o f Marcelino Hidalgo, Sr. and Eduvi- jes Buenaventura of the said province. A product of the pu­blic schools in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, he obtained his Ba­chelor of Laws Degree from the University o f the Philippines in 1939. He passed the Bar thereafter and immediately launched of career of service outstanding details of which are the following: lormer chief Intelligence and Juage Advocate,Northern Luzon Zone, Philippine Constabulary; Wartime gue- Atty. M. Hidalgo rilla fighter: decorated for gallantrv in action for liberatingAllied Nations Prisoners of War at Caba- yers League for 1960-61, a position in natuan War Prisoners’ Camp; and prac- which he has been elected twice. He is ticing attorney. marired to the form er Virginia Alvarillo

Atty. Hidalgo is the vice-president o f Dagupan City with whom he has 6 ch ild - the Baguio and Mountain Province Law- ren- . -•

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Me. F. A. PARAAN Police Commisisoner

Benguet Consolidated, Inc.

ploymeni. His first job was as a janitor but not for long, because he became a clerk-stenographer. His pleasing person­ality «nd ability to get along with the lo­cal residents, were very remunerative. As private secretary to three American resi-

COL. FRANCISCO A. PARAAN 19th Chief of Police, Baguio

This is a capsule biography of Baguio's 19th Chief of Police, Francisco A. Paraan, fondly called “Ping” by his friends and admirers. A native son, he was born on May 1, 1917 to the late Guillermo G. Pa­raan of Santa Barbara, Pangasinan, and Ana Alafriz of Bantay, Ilocos Sur. He re­ceived his elementary and High School education here. Of poor parents, he fend­ed for himself to help finance his school­ing during his elementary and high school days as a caddy and boot-black. While Still in grade school, he set a pattern for himself which eventually catapulted him to his present position; he was interested in military life and showed that strain when he became a boy scout. He decided to enter the Philippine Military Academy af­ter his graduation from the High School in 1935 but changed his mind and instead took up business courses in Manila. This training did him good and when he re­turned to Baguio he was able to seek em-

(Continued, from page 99 their sworm duties and not to seek un­due promotion to the detriment of their other brothers-in-arms. Capt. Banania left this City on Dec;. 21, 1945 and again Mr. Highsmith was made Acting Chief of Po­lice. He was such until September 29,1946 when Lt. Col. Segundo G. Vergara, A F P , took over. He was the last PC Pro­vincial Commander for Benguet and Ba­guio before the Second World W ar. In­spite of his military experiences, he found out that the job was a gruelling one and stayed only up to 1948.

When he left, for a change, a member o f the Department Capt. Morris Fianza, was appointed to t<>ke his place. He came to the force as Asst. Chief of Police on September 11, 1947. His ex­perience as a classroom teacher and as a guerilla served him very well when he took over. He was Acting Chief of Police up to 1949.

Major Maximo Cawed, another Philip­pine Constabulary officer and another son of Mountain Province, was appointed as Chief ef Police from 1949 to 1950. He left after two years. Within his stint o f duty he did his best to run the De­partment but no material improvement was made for the city administration was not in a position to help him.

The fourteenth Chief of Police of the City of Baguio from 1950 to 1953 is a former army officer, major Miguel Capistrano. He was the first Chief of Police to hold office in the New City Hall. He came to the Department with high hopes to run it efficiently but his dreams peterred out When he left the Department, Capt. Pedro Z. Claravall, took over. He was appointed by the late President Quirino. In his own words, this Department, whan it was under him, ■“ was sadly undermanned, poorly equip­ped and poorly paid.” .

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dents contact with them has been respon- jiire <or his vtry bread outlook o f life, his liberality and tolerance. In 1938 he enrolled in the College of Arts and Sciences of the University of the Philip­pines in this City, with the intention o f taking up journalism but after six months switched to business administration. The loss of the Fourth Estate was the gain o f this City. He paid his way in College by working but this did not deter him from getting into many extra-curricular activi­ties and also from becoming a college scholar. He finished his ROTC in the same school in 1940 and was commission- ed third lieutenant in the reserve force in August, 1941. He was with the ROTC Unit, CAS, UP, Baguio, as Asst. Instruc­tor and when it was mobilized and dis­patched to Manila at the outbreak o f the war to get into the fight he was the exe­cutive officer.

The Second W orld War found him at Bataan, in the “Death March” , at the con­centration camp at Camp O’Donnell and in the guerrilla movement. Liberation found him with the Presidential Guard Battal- lion but he later joined the U.S. Army in1946. His dream o f becoming a soldier which began when he became a boy scout

became a reality. It was a Horatio Alger story brought to life.

He resigned his commission after his tour o f enlistment an^ engaged in busi­ness and later joined the YMCA as a pro­fessional secretary. His schooling, dis­turbed by the war, was continued when he enrolled in the Baguio Colleges where­in he graduated with the degree o f Ba­chelor o f Science in Business Administra­tion.

Col. Paraan typifies the dedicated pro­fessional police officer. As soon as he was appointed he set himself to the task o f running this Department in the man­ner in which a modern law-enforcing agency should be administered. He was like Hercules cleaning the Augean stables in the famous myth. He attacked the problems of the force unremittingly that within a short time “ Baguio’s Finest”

He did not enjoy private life long be­cause on July 18, 1954 the late President Magsaysay appointed him as Chief o f Po­lice o f this City. He is married to the form er Virginia Aspillaga. The couple are both active in civic affairs which help­ed much in his administration o f the De­partment.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (265)


/ \ - ' * * 7 ,Ur. C o l . L. L. NIEVERA

Chief of Polcie

Col. Nievera returned to military service after the liberation in 1945, shortly after in 1946, he was sent abroad in .1946 to the Provost Marshal General oervice School at Fort San Houston, Texas, U.S.A.; where he specialized in investiga­tors course. A fter his return to the Phil­ippines, Col. Nievera served as provincial commander of the Philippine Constabula­ry in Camarines Norte, 1950-54; Rizal, 1954-56; and Sulu, 1956-59; broadening his experience in this particular field.

At the time of his designation by Pres-

The distinction o f being the first chief o f Police of Baguio under the administration o f the first elective mayor falls on Col. Leopoldo L. Nievera.

Col. Nievera has a colorful career in the army before his return to Baguio to head the police organization. He completed the ROTC advanced course in 1932, when he gra­duated from the University of the Philippine. For a while, he practiced dentistry in Baguio after graduation, and in 1937, was commissioned 2nd lieutenant in the regular force in Jan­uary, 1937.

An “ alumnus” of the Japanese concentration camp and survivor of the infamous “ Death March” , Col. Nievera served under G-2 o f the Barrios division, guerrilla unit, which ope­rated in Bulacan and Manila.

ident Garcia on September 1, 1959, as act­ing chief o f police of Baguio, Col. Nievera was camp commander, headquarters, PC, at Camp Crame, Quezon City, taking his oath of office before the then Mayor Al­fonso Tabora on September 14, 1959.

Col. Nievera was born on November 15,1909, in Tondo, Manila, his parents being Santiago Nievera and Eugenia Lopez. He is married to the former Margarita Comi- lang with whom he has children, five of whom are girls.


Major Federico M. Mandapat, an officer of “Baguio’s Fi­nest” was born in San Carlos, Pangasinan on July 18, 1916; the son of Justino Mandapat and Isidora Munoz. In recogni­tion of his capabilities as a police officer, he was among the six Filipinos selected to take a six month study grant at the Southern Police Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A. This grant was under the ICA-NBI spon­sorship. After his studies, he further enhanced his training and experience by visiting Scotland Yard, England and major European cities

Other educationel background and experiences of Major Mandapafs are the following: a graduate of the Phil. School of Arts and Trades and a graduate of the Baguio Colleges, College of Law who passed the Bar in 1955: an army officer

in 1942; a guerilla attached to the ECLGA and national athletic meets and rated as in 1943; a Filipino Ranger with the rank one of the World’s best performers in this of 1st Lieut, and executive officer attach- event in 1940. "He is married to the for- ed to the 6th Rangers in 1945; a sports mer Aurelia Javier with whom he has 4 hero holder of the 400 meter low hurdles children, record of 54 seconds in several regional

Major K. M. Mandapat

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Engr. EDUARDO DE LOS SANTOSAffectionately dubbed as the “Fighting

Engineer of Baguio”

That Baguio is almost surpassing the zenith of its rehabilitation program is ap­parent and that it owes much of its streamlined development to its City En­gineer, Eduardo de los Santos, is a fact.

City Engineer de los Santos who is af­fectionately dubbed as the “ Fighting En­gineer of Baguio” , is a master o f his trade.From 1946 when he first assumed the responsibilities of “ a builder of the skyline o f the Philippines” until the pre­sent time, he has amassed not a fortune but a chain o f achievements worthy of the name. To him belongs the credit o f having successfully completed public projects vi­tal to Baguio’s upliftment. To name them one by one would be like reciting a litany. He has contributed tangibly millions of kilometers of first class roads and indis­pensable community projects from Ilocos Norte down to the Visayas.

He hails from Gapan, Nueva Ecija where he was 6orn on July 22, 1901; the son o f Jose de los Santos and Isabel Bel­monte. He graduated from the College of Engineering, University of the Philippines in 1925 and since then he has devoted the best years of his life to public service. Prior to his appointment as City Engineer of Baguio, he was assistant engineer of Ilocos Norte from 1925 to 1926; civil en­gineer o f Pangasinan from 1927 to 1934;

Mr. E. de los S u toa

district engineer o f Marinduque from 1936 to 1937; and district engineer o f La Union from 1937 to 1946. As City Engineer o f Baguio, he embraces a vast area of ad­ministration and supervis'on— the tele­phone, waterworks and lighting system; roads, bridges, and public buildings con­struction: parks and nlavgorund improve­ment: etc. And if it were not for his administrative abilitv and integrity, Ba- gti'n would not be what it is todav.

This man who was publicly acclaimed when he valiantly fought for his rights and won, is a first-rate golfer and sports­man. He is married to thp form er Clara McCann, daughter of the late Arthur E. McCann a pioneer of Baguio.

SIXTO A. DOMONDONCity Attorney, Baguio City

Atty. Domondon’s appointment as city attorney is well- deserved. He holds the distinction of having maintained his position in spite of political differences and change of hands in the administration.

Atty. Domondon was born on March 24, 1912, in Agoo, La Union. After finishing secondary education in La Un- nion High School in 1937 for three years, he enrolled in the University of the Philippines where he took his A.A. He graduated in Law from the University of Manila.

From 1946-1948, Atty Domondon first served the City of Baguio as Councilor, and later on as City Attorney of Baguio, a position which he still holds. He is an instructor of Civil Law in Baguio Colleges.

Attorney Domondon is married to the former Tomasa Diaz. Atty. S. Domondon

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DOMINGO CABALI y PASCO(C ity Treasurer, Baguio)

Mr. D. Cabale

Mr. Domingo P. Cabali, as City Treasurer of Baguio is holding one of the most difficult positions in the city govera- ment or any government for that matter. Inspite of the stu­pendous responsibilities, however, Mr. Cabali is without doubt more than equal to the job because of educational qualifi­cations, experience, and personal qualities. A first grade ci­vil service eligible, he holds the distinction o f having served the government from June 9, 1924 to date in various capaci­ties and places in the Philippines from Pangasinan, Zambales, Camarines Norte, Batanes to Baguio. Prior to his appoint­ment as Treasurer o f Baguio on June 8, 1953, he was the pro­vincial treasurer of Pangasinan.

City Treasurer Cabali is from San Carlos, Pangasinan where he was bom on August 24, 1902. A graduate o f th°

GENEROSO A. BUENDIAJudge of the Municipal Court

Judging from his record and conduct Judge G. Buen- f f l dia may rightly be called an exemplary official under the ^ j g S g H Hpay roll of Juan de la Cruz. f lT * * * *

Judge Buendia was born in Malolos, Bulacan, on Dec- % J B Bember 17, 1911. He obtained his primary, elementary andhigh school education at the Ateneo de Manila, and then K jJ m B Kwent to the University of the Philippines where he gothis A.A. in 1933. He transferred to the University of Ma- ^ -Siqu& j& jmnila, and in 1937, he graduated from law and passed thebar in the same year. He acquired a broad experience invarious positions he occupied since 1935, when he was Sec- G. A. Buendiaretarv of Congressman N. Buendia. He of the Peace ot tne towns ot Bulacan. b i­herd this job until 1939. Then up to 1941, gaa, Guiguinto, Bocaue,, Santa he was an Attorney in the Department of Mar? a and San Jose, Province of Bula- Justir.e. From 1943-1945, he was Justice can.


Mr. Pablo Torrio A native o f Lingayen, Pangasinan where he was born onFebruary 28, 1911, the son of Celestino Torio and Maria de la Cruz, our City Auditor is a product of the public schools. He distinguished himself in the Pangasinan Academic High School where he garnered high scholastic honors. Immed­iately after his graduation, he was employed as a clerk of Pangasinan province. He transferred to the Office of the Provincial Auditor. He was promoted to be Assistant Provincial Auditor of Bontoc in 1953. He became Assistant City Auditor of Baguio City three year- later. In 1958, he was again promoted, this time to Auditor with assignment in Dagupan City. From Dagupan, he came to Baguio as Auditor.

He is married to the former Margarita Simo-Cruz and is an active member of Masonic Lodge No- 56.

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Francisco D. Panajon began serving the government as a classroom teacher in the division of Zambales. But it was in 1936 when his services with the government in the city of Baguio began, and it was then that he joined the City Engine­er’s Office the clerical section, maintenance and construc­tion. From this position he was appointed Deputy Chief Assessor after liberation. His worth as a public official was given due recognition when he was finally promoted to the post o f City Assessor.

Panajon hails from Jaen, Nueva Ecija where he was born on October 10, 1910.His educational qualifications include a secondary diploma from the Nueva Ecija provincial high school, a three-year study at the National University, College o f Education from 1927 to 1929 and is a 1954

Atty. F. Panajon

graduate in the College o f Business Ad­ministration, Baguio Tech College. He was President o f the Baguio Y Men’s Club, ex- President o f the Baguio Tech Student- Council, and an active member o f the Na­tional Association o f Assessing O fficers in the United States, and Canada.

Atty. J. de Veyra

In 1954, he was appointed judge of the court of first instance in Baguio, where he is still assigned. Except for his a ffi­liation with the Fr. Carlu Council No. 33363 o f the Knights o f Columbus and Knights of Rizal in Baguio, Judge de Vey-

Judge JESUS DE VEYRAJudge, Court of First Instance, Baguio

Judge Jesus de Veyra comes from a well-known paren­tage. His father Jaime C. de Veyra served as commissioner in Washington from 1919-1923, and his mother was Sofia Reyes de Veyra, prominent social worker in Manila until her death in 1953.

He was born on June 14, 1908, in Manila, and obtained his Bachelor o f Arts degree from Ateneo de Manila in 1928; and his Bachelor o f Laws in 1935, at the University o f San­to Tomas.

Judge de Veyra, practiced law in Manila and taught law subjects in At.enen de Manila.

ra has declined membership in service or civic organizations so as to remain neu­tral in making decisions.

He is married to the form er Fely Loc- sin o f Silay, Negros Occidental with whom he has a child— a girl.

DIONISIO C. CLARIDADAssistant City Attorney

He was born in sulvec, Narvacan, ilocos &ur, tne son of Saturnino Claridad and Eusebia Cablay. After complet­ing his high school education at the Ilocano Academy in Narvacan, Ilocos Sur in 1934„ he enrolled at the University of Manila where he obtained his A.A. degree in 1936 and his LL.B. in 1940. He started his career as a practicing attorney of the firm Buendia, Claridad & Buendia from 1940 up to liberation. In 1945 he was appointed Public Defender of Baguio and Mt. Province until 1947. Appoint­ed assistant city attorney, (special counsel) from city 1947 todate.

A member of the Jaycee in which he became President for 1959 and Convention chairman of the Jaycee National convention in October 1959.

Atty. D. C. Claridad

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VICENTE TAGLERegional Director, Regional Dist. No. 1

Bureau of Internal Revenue, Baguio

A well polished gentleman, . . . . al­ways at ease with any group of people, be they of the higher strata o f society, or of the lowest class of the common mass, he chose a pursuit which gives the most satisfaction to himself and to his countrymen— the government service.

He began his services in the Bureau of Internal Revenue as a mere clerk and teller way back in 1926. One year in the job was enough for the BIR bosses to be convinced that he was worth more than a mere menial job, and his promotion to agent was the answer. By this time, he was already studying law in the University of the Philippines and his promotion to law clerk in 1934 was an unquestionably deserving reward for his efficient record. Receiving another promotion in 1937, that of Provincial Re­venue Officer with station in Tayabas later in Cebu, he easily passed the step­ping test and again received another

promotion as Supervising Agent on July1, 1940.

He was appointed Chief of the Intel­ligence Division and acting chief of the Field Collection Division and Adminis­trative Division from 1951 to 1956.

At the start of the decentralization move in the BIR, Aity. Tagle was among those picked out to head a region, and was assigned to handle the Northern Luzon Regional District in January, 1956, with offices at Dagupan City. When the country was re-divided into ten ( 10) re­gional districts, he was retained in his region, only changing his station town to Baguio City. It may be worthwhile mentioning that he was commended by Commissioner Jose Aranas for his vigo­rous efforts with respect to assessment and collection of internal revenue taxes in his region. Region I registered the biggest increase in assessments during the period of Jan. thru March, 1959 as compared with all the other regions.

He is a member of different civic clubs like the Lions Club in Pampanga, the Masonic Philippines and FOA Fel­lows Association, Manila.

He was born in the town of Guagua, Pampanga, the son of Vicente P. de Ta­gle and Engracia Mangiliman. Mr. Tagle attended the Guagua Primary School and the Mabini Intermediate School. He con­tinued his studies at the Manila North High School and pursued his law career at the University o f the Philippines, graduating in 1931.

He is happily married to the form er Micaela Nolasco o f Tondo, Manila, by whom he has several children.

------------ n-------------

ENGR. BALTAZAR AQUINODistrict Engineer, Benguet, Mt. Province

Mr. Baltazar Aquino, incumbent District Engineer and former assistant City Engineer was born on Jan. 6, 1911 in San Juan, La Union, A fter acquiring a broad background of experience in La Union, Ilocos Sur, and Benguet, he was assigned to Baguio on Dec. 1. 1946. Since then except for a brief stay in Iloilo as City Engineer, he has been helping tremendously in the rebuilding and rehabilitation of Baguio and Benguet. In his former capacity as assistant City En­gineer, and now as District Engineer he is undoubtedly a do­minant figure in the growth of Baguio and Benguet.

Mr. Aquino graduated from the College o f Engineering, U.S.T. m 1933. He is married to Enriqueta V. Aquino with whom he has two sons and a daughter.Mr. Baltazar Aquino

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The arduous task of protecting and con­serving the vast public forests of the Mt. Province, the bulk of which comprises the watersheds of the multi-million Ambuklao and Binga hydroelectric projects of the National Power Corporation, falls on the shoulders of the district forester of the province.

The alleged overcutting of the forest within the said watersheds has aroused of late, a national controversy in the sense that the said overlogging has diminished the water supply being impounded by the Ambuklao dam, thereby lessening the po­wer output of the Ambuklao hydroelectric project, which serves the Manila area and suburbs.

In a sense, this controversy contributed to the projecting o f the pressing needs of protecting and reforesting the watersheds. District Forester Quidilla in whose respon­sibility this job of conserving the forest resources o f the province is amply pre­pared both in technological knowhow and in several years of experience, having joined the forestry service since 1922, when he obtained his ranger’s certificate, or almost 40 years of continuous service in the bureau o f forestry.

He started as a ranger then rose to the position of forest supervisor in 1939 and later still as assistant forester. He be­came a full-pledged forester in 1948, pav­ing the way for the position of district forester which he held since 1953.

Quidilla has various experiences since he joined the forestry bureau starting in

While abroad, he observed f o r e s t r y trends in Europe and the United States.

He was awarded a certificate by the Bu­reau of Forestry dur­ing its Golden Jubil- lee for his 28 years of faithful services to the government from (1022.1050) inclusive.Em ployees o f th e Bureau of Forestry.Sitting in the m id. dile in the first row is District Forester R. Y. Quidilla.

land investigation work which brought him to several places in the country with­in a period o f 10 years. H e first came to Baguio in 1932 as administrative o f­ficer of the district office in this citv up to 1937. Five years later ne was sent back to the College of Forestry, U.P., Laguna, as a “ Belo boy” , obtaining the degree of Bachelor of Science in Forestry in 1939.

He was then designated district fores- tres of Lucena, Tayabas (now Quezon). Quidilla returned to Baguio in 1957 to continue the work he has started 20 years earlier, this time under broader responsi­bilities as District and City Forester.

Quidilla was born on October 24, 1896, in San Narciso, Zambales. His parents, Dionisio Quidilla and Monica Labrador are now both dead. He is happily married to the form er Loreto Tongson o f Luna, La Union with whom he has two chil­dren, 27 now married and Monina, 21, still single.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (271)



A t this time when graft and corrup tion is— a common phenomenon among government corporations in spite of com­mendable efforts on the part o f the ad­ministration to overcome the staggering obstacles it is quite rare to find a gov­ernment official who possesses the com­bined attributes o f honesty and efficien­cy. The Naric board of directors in Ma­nila recently took official cognizance of the honesty and efficiency of Pedro C. Corpuz, manager o f the Baguio Naric Agency— in the handling o f government funds. Mr. Corpuz experience and super­vision o f the Baguio Agency particularly its funds was described as rare among the more than 50 agencies of the Naric throughout the country. No less than Gen­eral Ramon Enriquez, |director |sent a congratulatory message to Mr. Corpuz

and urged him to keep the good work that will, in a great measure, help restore the faith of the people in the govern­ment. It is not strange, therefore, in view of these circ*mstances that Mr. Corpuz commands no less than the res­pect and esteem o f the poor as well as the rich.

Mr. Corpuz hails from Aliaga, Nueva Ecija where he was born in December, 1920; the son of Nicanor P. Corpuz, a pharmacist, and Concordia Calderon, a prominent resident and teacher o f the province. He finished the elementary grades in his home town and the second­ary education at Nueva Ecija High School. Instead of pursuing a college ed­ucation he made an early start in the field of experience. These ih a nutshell cover his various experiences: P.C.A.U. clerk in Aliaga in 1946; checker-classi- fier in the Naric main office, Manila; head checker in the same office until 1950; assistant warehouseman from 1951 to 1954; manager o f the Baguio Naric Agency todate. It is apparent that he rose to his present position through me­rit and hardwork which, needless to mention, makes his achievement a feat that is worthy of emulation.

He is married to the former Asuncion R. Calderon with whom he has three children. Through the Baguio Naric Ag­ency he is? t serving Baguio residents es­pecially theMow-income group by acting as a stabilizer o f prices of rice during the rainy season and times o f scarcity. His favorite motto is no other than Ho- NESTY IS THE BEST POLICY.



A pril 24, 1959


W H E R E A S, in an audit report o f the N A R IC A uditing O f­fice, M r. P edro C. Corpuz, Incharge o f the B aguio A gen cy , had been fou n d short o f his cash accountability in the am ount o f on ly P3.80, w h ich he had already reim bursed, out o f a total fund handled in the am ount o f F 2,051,940.68 fo r the period from M arch 11, 1956 to F ebruary 23, 1959, or alm ost three years;

W H E R E A S, a case like this is quite rare;R E SO LV E D TH EREFO RE, That the board h ereby com m ends

Mr. C orpuz fo r h is devotion to duty and the care he has ex ­erted to protect the interest o f the Corporation.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (272)

PEDRO E. MENESESSuperintendent, Luzon Bus Line

A Manilefio born on February 5, ISOS A* the son of the late Gaudencio Meneses and Petra. Enriquez, he is a product joint­ly of Bonifacio Elem. School, Mabini In­termediate School, Manila North High School, and the Far Eastern College. From the San Sebastian College of Law, he obtained a Bachelor of Laws degree In 1953. His service record includes the following positions held in the government service: May 24, 1920 to September 30, 1922 as a messenger, Accounting Dep’t, MRRCO.; October 1, 1922 to Dec. 31, 1926 as clerk, Trafic Audit Audit Dept’t MRRCO; Jan. 1, 1927 to Dec. 31, 1928 as Abstract Clerk, Accounting Dep’t, MRR; Jan. 1, 1928 to Oct. 31, 1929 as Fregiht Re­visor, MRR; Nov. 1, 1937 to Dec. 31, 1941 as Dist. Auditor with assignment in the Benguet Auto Line, Baguio City; April, 1945 to August 15, 1945 as Accountant and

Investigator, PCAU-7, Baguio City under the U.S. Army; August 15, 1945 to Nov. 30, 1945 as Chief of Division, Emergency Con­trol Administration, Baguio; Jan. 2, 1948 to June 1, 1949 as Dist. Auditor In-Charge, Accounting Dep’t, MRR; July 1, 1949 to Oct. 16, 1956 as Chief, Field Audit Divi­sion, Auditing Dep’t, MRR; Oct. 17, 1956 to Jan. 31, 1957' as Assistant Superinten­dent, BAL, Baguio City, and eventually as Supt. of the BAL, until he was transferred to the Luzon Bus Line as Supt.

He is married to the former Ambrosia de la Cruz with whom he has 11 children, 3 of whom are already married.

ATTY. JUAN C. MENDOZAOne of the leaders in the local hosterly

business is Atty. Juan C. Mendoza, man­ager of the Pines Hotel.

As leader in the hotel business, he was awarded by the Baguio-Mountain Press and Radio Association in 1960 and by the Boy Scouts of the Philippines for his ac­tive support of the scouting movement in 1959. Earlier he got another award as model employee of the government in 1948 while connected with the Manila Hotel.

The manager of the Pines Hotel is in­timately called by his friends and asso­ciates as “ Johnny” . He is a holder o f the degrees o f Associate in Commercial Sci­ence, Institute o f Accounts, Business and Finance from the Far Eastern University and Bachelor of Laws, Manuel L. Quezon University.

Atty. Mendoza worked his way up gra­dually starting as senior supervising Desk Clerk and Atty in the Manila Hotel. Then he was appointed assistant to the manager of Taal Vista Lodge. He came to Baguio to assume the position o f Admi­nistrative Assistant, Pines Hotel. From the Pines Hotel, he served a brief stint with the exclusive Baguio Country Club as

assistant manager and later on as acting manager. But when the position o f man­ager of the Pines Hotel became vacant, Atty. Mendoza was appointed for the top executive job, which is a reward for his efficiency in the service and for his loyal­ty to the Manila Hotel, which operates the Pines Hotel.

Atty. Mendoza was born in Dagupan City on January 8, 1915, and married to Encarnacion Eugenio with whom he has four children.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (273)

JAIME TOLENTINO SANTIAGOAgronomist III and Acting Officer

In-Charge, Baguio Experiment Station

The Philippines being essentially an agricultural country depends to a great extent on farm ing for economic progress. The government thus in its desire to boost agriculture as a primary industry includ­ed in its program the establishment o f ex­periment station all over the country to intensify research that will promote PRO­GRESS. Baguio is fortunate to have one o f these experiment stations. This expe­riment station is under the able manage­ment of an Agronomist, Mr. Jaime Tolen- tino Santiago who was awarded a certi­ficate by the Bureau o f Plant Industry on January 16, 1959 in recognition of his re­search work on coffee with special refer­ence to the promotion o f the Coffee In­dustry in the Mt. Province.

Mr. Santiago hails from Agno, i'anga- sinan where he was born on November 26, 1925; the son of Felix Santiago and Tomasa Tolentino. His educat'onal attain­ment in a »utshell is composed of the fol­lowing: elementary grades— Agno Elem. School 1932-1939; high school— Western Pangasinan Lyceum, Bani, Pangasinan 1940-1946; Bachelor of Science in Agri­culture— University of the Philippines College of Agriculture, 1946-1950; Coffee Technology— Institute Inter-Americano de Ciencias Agricolas, Turrialba, Costa Rica (as an ICA-NEC Fellow to Hawaii and Central America on Coffee Culture and Processing, 1955-1956).

He rose to his present position as Agro­nomist III and Acting O fficer In-Charge o f the Baguio Experiment Station through hard work and merit. His service record reveals this fact: June 10. 1951— Vocatio­nal Teacher. Agno High School; Oct. 4,1954— Assistant Agronomist, Bureau of Plant Industry; Jan. 1, 1956— Horticultu­rist, Bureau of Plant Industry; Jan. 16, 1957— Agronomist I. same bureau; August4, 1958— Agronomist III. same bureau.

He is married to Josefina E. Santiago. He was a member of the following or­ganizations: Food Supply Committee, Boy Scouts World Jamboree; U.P. Upsilon Sig­ma Phi; and M.M.S. Fraternity. His plans for the Experiment Station include: in­tensifying research both in quality and quantity; intensifying seed and plant pro­duction for distribution; and improving public relation as a tool for greater ser­vice to the public.

Awarding o f Certi­ficate to Mr. Jaime T. Santiago at the Institute Inter-A m e . ricano de Ciencias Agriculos at Turral- ba, Costa Rica (as an IC A -N E C ) F el­low on C offee Cul­ture and Processing in June 1956.

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Chosen by the governm ent as Model Em­ployee o f the Bureau of Plant Industry for the year 1960-61.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (274)

HILARIO S. CORPUZDist. Mining Officer for

Northern LuzonThe government through the Bureau of

Mines is utilizing the best possible technical assistance to achieve the ut­most in the undertaking. In this set-up is a man of no mean calibre who is now holding the position of District Mining Officer for Northern Luzon. He is no other than Mr. Hilario S. Corpuz who possesses all the worthy qualifications and qualities expected o f a good admi­nistrator.

A native of Laoag, Ilocos Norte, he was born on January 14, 1903; the son of Bruno Corpuz and Cecilia Sahagun.A product o f Laoag High School, he ob­tained a pensionadoship in Surveying from the Bureau of Lands, Manila. A f­ter completing the course, he joined the Bureau o f Lands, Manila as a Junior Surveyor. His qualifications were further enhanced by civil service eligibility. He thus rose to the position of Senior Sur­veyor in the said Bureau while simulta­neously acting as Chief o f Survey Par­ties and District Land Officer in Min­danao until 1936. However, he switched to private surveying in Manila for some­time, When he passed the civil service ex­amination for mining surveyor, he joined the Bureau of Mines from 1937 to the outbreak of the war. During the occupa-

FELINO DICCION QUINTOLivestock Inspector and Adm inistrative Assistant, Regional

Veterinary Office, B A J .. Bagnio

Mr. Felino Dicciun Quinto who hails from Sto. Domingo,Nueva Ecija is serving the people of Baguio in the capacity of Livestock Inspector and Administrative Assistant of the Regional Veterinary Office of the Bureau of Animal In­dustry in the city. As such, he is entrusted with various duties — from vaccinating animals against diseases, treating sick animals, helping people solve their livestock and poul­try problems to assisting the Regional Director in compiling reports from the different provinces in the region.

Mr. Quinto holds the title of Associate in Agriculture which he obtained in 1949 from the He was bom on August 22, 1923, theCentral Luzon Agricultural College. He son of Gregorio Quinto and Andrea Dic-served in various capacities in the gov- cion. He is married to the former Ara-ernment service first as a teacher of paro Limos with whom he has 3 sons andvocational subjects in the Burgos High a daughter. He is vice-chairman of theSchool in Pangasinan then as a Live- Baguio-Mt. DANREA for 1960-61 and astock Inspector of the B.A. Industry in member of the Catholic Council in Pac-Pangasinan. dal.

Feim o D. Quinto

Hilario S. Corpuztion up to liberation time he was with the Irrigation Department o f the Bureau o f Public Works, Manila. A fter liberation to the present time, he is actively iden­tified with the Bureau o f Mines. First, he served as District Mining O fficer for the Bicol Region w;,th -headquarters at Daet, Camarines Norte. Then in the same capacity he was transferred to Min­danao and Sulu with headquarters at Su- rigao. Finally, he reached his present position as District Mining O fficer for Northern Luzon with headquarters at Baguio.

He is married to the form er Lourdes Acuna with whom he has 4 sons and 2 daughters. He is an active member of the Philippine Government Employees Association.

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Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (275)

De . HECTOR T. LOPEZ Europe, he observed modern scientific techniques in almost all the leading hos­pitals. He was granted, too, an audience with the Pope and he joined a pilgri­mage to Lourdes. He returned to Ba­guio a wiser man better prepared for his intended role in the wheel of pro­gress.

Born on January 6. 1918 in Cabana- tuan City, Nueva Ecija, the son of C:- vil Engineer Saturnino Lopez (deceased) and Mercedes Tombo, he was a product o f the Ateneo de Manila where he fin­ished his secondary education in 1934 and his A.A. two years later. From the University of the Philippines, he obtain­ed his Doctor of Medicine degree in

DR. HECTOR T. LOPEZChief of Surgery, Baguio General Hospital

Baguio’s forward-looking health program is inconceivable without the help of doctors. Progress is as fast or as slow as the development of medical science. In Baguio doctors are here for a practical purpose no doubt and one of the most indefatigable is Dr. Hector T. Lopez, Chief of Surgery in the Baguio General Hospital.

He first joined the Baguio General Hospital Staff as a Medical officer from which position he rose to his pre­sent designation. His experiences in Medical science were enhanced by a world tour which he undertook for 4 months with his wife, the - former Gloria Hizon who is also a wide­ly-known physician in Baguio. In the United States and

1941. During the occupation he j ' tnec’ the Medical Corps of the USAFFE with the rank of captain until 1946 in Min­danao. His father who was at one time actively identified with the underground movement was killed by the Japanese.

In Baguio, he commands respect and admiration not only because of his work but also because of his active member­ship in several organizations. He is the president of the Baguio Medical Society for 1959. He is a member of the Rotary Club, and Knights of Columbus and he is a fellow of the Philippine College of Surgeons.

He has 2 sons and 2 daughters.— --------------------- o--------------

DR. GREGORIO ATOSOne of the successful general practitioners in medicine in

Baguio is Dr. Gregorio Atos.He has contributed towards progress in Baguio through w '

medicine as far back as 1937 when he came up to this city * * * » % * ■as a fresh graduate of the University of Sto. Tomas where J r lhe finished medicine. For a year he was connected with the 4 ISaviou:' hospital, a private institution but later on went mto private practice up to the present.

Dr. Atos, besides attending to his private medical prac- tice is also one of the physicians of the Dangwa Transportation Company. m . ■

He is active in civic welfare work, being a member o f Dr. Gregorio Atos the Baguio Medical Association, a local ciate in Arts in 1931 at the University chapter of the Philippine Medical Asso- of Sto. Tomas. In 1936, he finished the ciation. medical course in the College of Medi-

Dr. Atos was born on March 22, 1911, cine and Surgery of the University of in Legaspi, Albay, son of Vicente Atos Sto. Tomas.Sr. and Adela Peralta. A fter finishing He is married to Consuelo Pacheco his high school in Albay Provincial High Caoile with whom he has six children, School in 1929, he pursued his studies two o f whom are boys, in Manila obtaining the degree o f Asso-

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Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (276)

TEOFILO V. MENDOZAAsst. Clinical Director Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital

Came to Baguio in 1939 to work as resident physician of the Notre Dame Hospital. He was then a fresih graduate (tom tile College of Medicine, University o f the Philippines.In spite o f adversities, he remained devoted to his post all through, the years o f the occupation to 1949. Needless to say, it was a promotion well merited when he was finally designated as the assistant clinical director of the hospital in

which capacity he is at present serving Baguio’s needy.He was bom in Marikina, Rizal on Jan. 10 1915, the

son o f Dr. Eugenio Mendoza and Patrocinio Villalon. A de­cided chip o f the old block, young Mendoza inherited from Dr. Teofilo V. Mendoza his doctor-father -a craving to choose me- zurriaga with whom he shares a growing dicine as his life ’s career. family. Actively attached to the Baguio

He is married to the former Ana Lu- Medical society, the Knights of Columbus.CARLOS G. SANTIAGO, JR.

Chest Physician Surgeon, Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital

This is the success story of a physician whose youth and talent were his co-workers to achieve an early winning— Dr. Carlos G. Santiago, Jr. chest physician surgeon, of the Notre Dame Hospital. Prior to his present designation he was a phy^ician-student in the specialty o f chest, disease, on the medical and surgical field, Quezon Institute from 1949 to 1953. To Baguio, he brought his priceless experiences.

He hails from Manila where he was born on Feb. 12, 1923 the son o f Carlos Santiago, Sr. and Amparo Tejada. He is a product o f the public and private school^, having gra­duated from the Burgos Elementary School in 1936, the U.P.Dr. C. C. Santiago

High School in 194b and the UST College of Medicince in 1949. He has attained ac­tive affiliation-, to the American College o f Chest Physicians, an international so­ciety, the Baguio Medical Society as sec-


retary-treasurer for 1955-56, president for1959 and the Eaguio JayCees.

Dr. Santiago is married to the form er Jovifa Soriano.

One o f the latest additions to the field o f medical service in Baguio City, is Dr. Ruben G. M arfil, cardiologist-inter- nist. Dr. Marfil finished medicine at the University of Sto. Tomas in 1953 and had extensive post graduate studies and training in the United States as follows:

Resident in Internal Medicine— Pima country General Hospital, Tucson Arizona, 1954-55; Chief-Resident in Medi­cine and Cardiologist at North Hudson Hospital, New Jersey,1955-56: Cardiovascular Fellow at Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York— 1957-58; Research Fellow for Cardiovascular Diseases at Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico.

Ha is a member o f the Philippine Medical Association, American Heart Association, and Baguio Medical Society.

Dr. Marfil was born on April 12, 1928, the son o f Mr. and Mrs. Eliseo Marfil. He is married to Aurora de Leon with

jwhom he has one rhild.His medical clinic is located along the Harrison Road,


f'Jlv'T' I M , i,lll

Dr. Ruben G. Marfil

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (277)

Q. A. Abellera

to come into close contact with mem­bers of the American College of Surgeons, He had the privilege to serve as resident physician in several hospitals abroad, namely, St. Joseph Hospital in South Bend, Indiana, Augustana Hospital, Lu­theran, Deacones Hospital, Children’s Me­morial Hospital, and L. Wiess Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois. Upon his re. turn to the Philippines on March 10, 1959, he carried with him rich experiences and specialization in general surgery and pe-

DR. q u in t in a . a b e l l e r aPhysician - Surgeon

One of the most promising private medical practitioners in Baguio, and most-sought after civic leader of the Pine? City, Dr. Abellera was born in Aringay, La Union on Nov. 29, 1914. He attended the Aringay Elem School and the San Beda High School. He pursued higher education at the Uni­versity of Sto. Tomas, National University, and the University of the Philippines, from which he graduated with the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1941.

Dr. Abellera enhanced his medical training specifically in general surgery with a trip abroad in which he was able

diatrics. He does general surgery work at the B. Gen. Hospital, Notre Dame de Lour­des Hospital and the Bethany Hosp. at S. Fernando, La Union.

Prior to his sojourn abroad, he was a resident physician of the Benguet Conso­lidated Mining Co.

He is identified with civic projects of the City, among which organisations are the Baguio Chamber and Knignts of Kizal Baguio Lions Club ana Counselor, Baguio Chapter oi the PhiL Medical Society.

Dr. IRENEO M. GESLANIAnesthesiologist, Baguio Gen. Hospital

Dr. Ireneo M. Gaslani, anesthesiologist o f the Baguio Gen­eral Hospital, and Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital was born on April 5, 1922 in Malasique, Pangasinan; the son o f Jose Geslani and Marcelina Matias Geslani. He is a product of Pangasinan High School where he graduated in 1939. He en­rolled at the U.S.T. College o f Medicine but the advent of W orld W ar II temporarily interrupted his studies. During the occupation he joined the underground movement. When the liberation forces came, his Unit joined the 37th U.S. In­fantry in its drive to Cagayan Valley up to Aparri from 1945 to 1946. He continued his studies at the U.S.T. where he eventually graduated in 1948. He then accepted a position at the Baguio General Hospital where he worked from Dec., 1948 to 1951. Under the Exchange Visitors Program, he luckily obtained a grant to go abroad for three years; first with the Jamaica Hospital, Queens, New York City, then with the Lawrence Hospital,

Dr. Irineo M. GeslaniBronxville, New York from 1951 to 1953.

Fresh from his sojourn abroad he re­joined the staff of the Baguio Gen. Hos­pital where he is at present working.

Married to the former Fely Bautista with whom he has 2 sons and 2 daugthers, he is a member of the Baguio Rotary Club and the Knights o f Columbus.

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JACINTO B. RILLERAMarket Superintendent, Baguio C iyt M arket

He is a native of Naguilian, La Union, and was born on June 28, 1902 as the son of Cenon Rillera and Maxima Baladad, (both deceased). He finished his primary school­ing at the Naguilian Elem. School but it was in Baguio where he completed his intermediate education and first high school. In Manila, at Far Eastern College, he finished the second and third levels of his secondary education.

He started serving the government as a messenger at the City Engineer’s Office in Baguio. With this as stepping stone, he rendered further services in various capa­cities prior to his appointment to his pre­sent position. This record consists of:Dec. 16, 1922 to Oct. 15, 1925 as clerk,Bureua of Posts, Manila; Asst. Int. Rev. clerk Treasury Office, Baguio from Oct.16, 1925 to April 4, 1926; clerk in d if­ferent section in the Treasury Office from April 5, 1926 to Feb. 29, 1944; Asst.Bookkeeper from August 16, 1945. Rein­stated in the Treasury Office as clerk to June 30, 1947; Collector and Deputy from

Jacinto B. Rillera

Sept. 16, 1948 to March 11, 1951; Asst. Chief Deputy Assessor from March 12, 1951 to May 23, 1956; Chief Land Tax Di­vision, from May 24, 1956 to March 15, 1957, Chief, Property DIV. from March 16, 1957 to May 13, 1959, Market Supt. from May 14, 1959 todate.

Mr. Rillera is now married to the for ­mer Concepcion Martinez. By his first Wife, he had 2 children. Samuel an elec* trical engineer and Teresita a pharmacist.

LORETO L. ANDRADASupt., Dept, of Public Services

Electric, Waterworks, Telephone. Sewerage and Fire Fighting

At the head of this Department of Public Services is superintendent Loreto L. Andrada, one who typifies the model public servant as can be gleaned from his service record which includes, name­ly, the following positions: Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, City Public Utili­ties, Baguio from May 28, 1940 to Feb­ruary 25, 1945; Wire Communication Of­ficer. USAFIP, NL from Feb. 16, 1945

Loreto L. Andrada

f ) 1

z J -

V '

to Nov. 27, 1945; contractor from Dec.11, 1945 to Oct. 29, 1946; Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, City Public Utili­ties, Baguio from Oct. 30, 1946 to July 22, 1947; Supt., Benguet Dev. Co. in Tri­nidad from July 23, 1947 to Sept. 30, 1952; Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, Northern Electric; San Fernando, La U- nion from Oct. 1, 1952 to Sept. 30, 1953; Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, C.P.-

U., Baguio from 1904 to 1955; asst. supt. ot the Dept, ot Public Services from Jan. 19, 1956 to June 30, 1956; super­intendent of the same department from July 1, 1956 todate.

Mr. Andrada hails from Bauang, La Union where he was born on August 5, 1916 the son of Gregorio Andrada and Emilia Libatique. He is a product of Baguio Central School and the Mt. Province High School, class 1934. He obtained his B.S.E.E. degree from the University of the Philippine. He passed and distinguished himself in several civil service examinations, namely, fifth place, Mechanical and Plant Engineer, Aug. 25, 1951; 2rd place, Professional Electrical Engineer, Feb. 23, 1953; Senior Electrical En­gineer, Oct. 11, 1953.

He is married to Contancia Lachica with whom he has eight children.

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In the above picture are em loyees of the Baguio Health Dept. Standing are Mr- M elquiades M. Valdez and Lloyd Malicdang and sitting is Manuel Cabading.

MELQUIADES M. VALDESC h ief Inspector, Baguio Health D epartm ent

Mr. Melquiades M Valdes who is the Chief Inspector of the Baguio Health De­partment hails from Manaoag, Pangasinan where he was born on Dec. 10, 1989, the son of Feliciano Valdez and Emiliana Ma caraeg. He began his secondary school­ing in his home province whicn he com­pleted in Catbalogan, Samar. In 1926, he enrolled in the School of Nursing, Univer. sity of the Philippines and he finished the course in 1929.

His experience prior to bis present de­signation are varied and invaluable. These are made up of the following: as a teacher under the then Bureau of Education in 1820; and as a nurse-inspector in Davao. Of noteworthy is the fact that he has ren­dered his best years of service to tha people of Baguio having been the Chief Sa­nitary Inspector of the Baguio Health Dept, slice 1932.

His family data reveal that together with his wife the former Gliceria Salinas, he heads a big family of seven sons and a daughter, all Baguio-born.[ 270 ]

LLOYD MALICDANjGAccredited with more than 35 years ot

service in the government, Mr. Lloyd Ma­licdang is Baguio’s Asst. Sanitary Inspec­tor since 1945 to date.

Born in Bay-yo, Bontoc, Mt. Province on February 24, 1902, the son of Tangana and Diona-on, he graduated from the T. A. School in 1924 through self-support and the Baguio General Hospital, School of Nursing. Upon graduation, he served as Asst. Sanitary Inspector in Kabayan, Ben­guet for a year after which he served the City of Baguio in the same capacity from 1927 to 1943. In 1944, he was induct­ed into the 12th Infantry, USAFIP.

He was married to the late Espirita Chumading with whom he had 4 children. He is an active member of the P.T.A. of the Baguio City High School, the Boni­facio Elem. School, and the Easter School.

.MANUEL CABADINGMr. Manuel Cabading who has been de­

votedly in the service of the govern­ment since 1927 is a native son of the Mt. Province who was born in Bugias, Benguet on June 9, 1909; the son of Pa- blian Cabading and Marina Ngamoy A

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (280)

JUAN DOMINGOSanitary Inspector, Baguio Health Departm ent

product of the public schools in Bugias and Kabayan, Benguet and the Mt. Province High School. He started as a municipal clerk in Kapangan, Benguet and served in various capacities later as city messenger of the Engineer’s Office in Baguio, as clerk in fate City Physician’* Office, as chief clerk in the City Mater­

nity Ward, as Municipal clerk during the' occupation in La Trinidad Benguet, and qs, sanitary inspector and market foreman from 1946 to date.

Mr. Cabading heads a big family of 3 children. He is married to the formef Josefina Soriano.

MELECIO V. BOADO& Chief Clerk, Benguet Auto LineFormer Asst, to the Supt

Melecio V. Boado of San Julian, Agoo, La Union, was " born on December 4, 1914, the son of Teofilo C. Boado and

Anastacia Verceles. He is a product of the Agoo Elem. School 1 and La Union High School, class 1932. He was granted a

1 Bachelor of Laws degree by the Baguio Colleges in 1956. Judging from his service record, he completed his college edu­cation simultaneously while working in the Benguet Auto Line

’'w * * Office. The positions that he held in Baguio prior to his retirement are as follows: clerk, BAL, MRR from March 16,1934 to Jan. 31, 1938; expense statistician, same office, from Feb. 1, 1938 to December, 1938; stenographer, same office,

Atty. Melecio Beado from January 1, 1939 to December 31, 1941; principal clerk, Base M, Quartermaster Depot, San Fer- guio.nando, La Union from March 16, 1945 Mr. Boado is married to the form er to March 6, 1946; stenographer and str- Felicidad E. Boado, having the same fa- tistician, BAL, MRR, from March 7, 1946 milv name but no blood relations. He to June 30, 1948; chief clerk and assistant has 8 children. He served as secretary to the superintendent., same office, from o f the Parent-Teachers Association of the July 1, 1948 until his retirement. He is New Baguio Central School from 1946 to now smong the law practitioners in Br- 1950. He passed the Bar Examination in

February 1956.[ 271 ]

Among Baguio’s vanguards, Mi\ Domingo la a product of the Baguio Training School for Nurses. He has had varied experiences along Baguio’s health front-lines such that the Pines City’s health is among the best in the country. He is at present Sanitary Inspector of the Ba­guio Health Department

Bom in Besao, Bontoc on Jan. 2, 1908, he has been consistently active in his profession ever; since graduation. His service record which is easily regarded as one of the best includes the following positions which he held at one time or another: Asst, sanitary inspector, June 13,1929 to Jna. 31, 1930 in Baguio; dist. nurse Feb. 1, 1930 to Dec. 31, 1934; hospital nurse in An- tamok Goldfields- Mining Co. from Jan. 1935 to Dec. 1941; nurse, Phil. War Relief of the U.S.

from May, 1946 to Feb. 1943; sanitary inspector Baguio Health Department from July 15, 1948 to the present.

Juan Domingo

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (281)

This is a portion o f the C offee planta­tion of Mr. 0 . B.Soullee and Mr. J. Jcard in Benguet- Shown in the pic­ture is Mr. Soullee, with Mr. Icard and som e em ployees.

OBEN B. SOULLEEPioneer C offee Planter of Baguio & Benguet

Mr. Oben B. Soullee is fondly called the “ Pioneer Coff f̂e Planter” of Baguio and “ King of the Queen Bees” because of his knowledge of the secrets of the queen bees. From his native Arkansas, U.S.A., he came to the Philippines in 1938 to work for a year on a special pollination project with the Bureau of Plant Industry. Shortly thereafter he bought land in -Tagaytay City and started simultaneously a real estate business and a coffee plantation.

When World War II came, he joined the volunteers in Bataan and helped or­ganized a guerilla demolition outfit. He was among those interned in Sto- Tomas Concentration Camp.

After the war, he resumed a real es­tate brokerage in addition to which he

Rev. Father J. Hennessey Director


actively engaged in coffee planting both in Tagaytay and in Baguio. In Baguio alone he has more than 4,000 coffee trees which he maintains together with Mr. J. Icard, his business partner. To his credit is a 21-year experience in cof­fee planting such that he has become an authority in this field. To him, Ben­guet coffee is superior to any kind in the Philippines and he is thus helping propagate it by distributing seedlings to the natives.

In 1954, he helped initiate the organ­isation that is now known as the Coffee- Cacao Producers Association of the Phil­ippines in which he became the present president.

He is married to the former Dolores Lichauco of Manila.

Rev. James Hennessey, S.J. director of the Manila Observatory in Mt. Mirador, Baguio was the recipient of a special award' in 1959 from the Baguio Press Club for his valuable contributions to science. In Baguio, awards of this nature are seldom and it is only on rare occasions when the honor is well-deserved that the award is given.

Reverend Hennessey who is from Grave- land, New York, U.S.A. is a man of science. He holds several degrees, namely, A B from Woodstock College in 1932; M.A.S. in 1933 Ph. L. in 1935; S.T.L. in 1942.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (282)

Mr. Policarpio Hamada in his vegetable plantation in Camp 7.

POLICARPIO C. HAMADAFarmer & Propagator o f Giant Strawberries

Baguio’s reputation as a tourist city is being aided tremendously by farmers and businessmen one of whom is Policarpio C. Hamada the fourth son of Reukitze Ha- mada and Josefa Carino of the well- known Carino clan, Baguio pioneers. He was born in Baguio and at the early age of 14 years, he was already an adept far­mer. He loves the soil so much so that he chose farming as his life’s career. With the firm belief in the vast poten­tialities of the Baguio soil, he set out to produce and propagate strawberries of the giant variety and various kinds of vege­tables in his farm at Camp 7 which oc­

cupies approximately one 1/2 hectares. Most of his products are either being brought to Manila or sold in the Baguio Market.

In recognition of his contribution to the development of farming in general and to the propagation of the variety of straw­berries in particular, he was awarded a certificate by the executive committee du­ring the 11th anniversary of the Philip­pine Independence in the city of Baguio.

He is married to the former Eufemia Elepante of Ilocos Sur with whom he has 6 children.

DR. FRANCIS J. PARKSProduction Mgr., Industrial F ood Corp.

Dr. Francis J. Parks accredited with mushroom produc­tion on a commercial scale in Baguio, was born in South Korea on March 18, 1920. A holder of a master’s degree from the Oregon State College and Ph. D. degree.from the Washing' ton State College, U.S.A., he came to the Philippines as an exchange professor and taught Botany and Mycology at the University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila, and Arane- ta University.

He came to Baguio in 1954 while working for the Sun- nyside Experimental Station of the University of San Carlosu Later he organized a corporation which he named the La Pa- cita Foods, Inc., and changed the name later to Industrial Food Corp. To perfect mushroom propagation in earnest, he es­tablished a farm at Pinsao, a ten-minute ride from Baguio At the beginning he was financially help- taken. Now, thanks ed by the SVD Fathers but in 1957 he sought other partners to bring the ven­ture into a commercial scale. It may be worthwhile mentioning that mushroom propagation especially of the best brands in the Philipines has never been success­ful although many attempts were under-

Dr. Francis Parks

to Dr. Parks, mush­room cultivation and production is h^re to stay. With a canning department ad­ded to his fram, he is undoubtedly help­ing maintain a dollar-saving enterprise which will benefit not only Baguio but al­so the whole Philippines as well.

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Tranquilino B. Tejano

from the following service record: clerk- checker-contractor, Benguet Consolidated Inc., 1937-1941; military service, 1945 to 1949; Chief Electrical Warehouseman, Voice of America, San Fernando, La Union, 1950-1951; Executive Secretary to

TRANQUILINIO TEJANO Kegional Representative, N. Luzon, Social Security System

Among Baguio’s very own, this product of the Baguio Colleges, College of Law has more than proved his mettle in the interests of his native City. An ardent admirer of all that stands for Baguio, Mr. Tejano is at present the Re­gional Representative of the Social Security Administration in Baguio, aside from his numerous other duties and con* nections.

Mr. Tejano was bom on July 29, 1919 in Bauang, La Union, the son of Nicomedes Tejano and Rosalia Rimando, He is married to the former Restituta Rillera.

His experiences are rich and varied as may be gleanedto the Electrical Supt., Guy F. Atkinson Co., Ambuclao, Mt. Prov., 1952-1953; Branch Manager, National Life Insurance Co. and Great Pacific Life, Baguio; Re­gional Representative, for Northern Luzon Social Security System, April 1958 to date;

sistant shop superintendent, same com­pany; traveling agent for several Manila firms; shop foreman fer Luzon Brokerage; conrtactor, Pacific Naval A ir Base; guide and interpreter for the 738 Military Po­lice Battalion, U.S. Army; form er with in­terests in Sual, Pangasinan and Shop Su­perintendent, Dangwa Transportation; po­lice commissioner and camp administrator of Itogon Mining Company.

HENRY M. OROZCOOperator & Manager of the

Burnham Driving RangeMuch has been spoken about boosting Baguio as a tou­

rist center; many tried and failed, but some succeeded by being men of action. One of those is Mr. Henry M. Orozco who chose the promotion and uplift o f wholesome recrea­tional activities to help Baguio assume its rightful place among the outstanding tourist center in the Far East. Mr. Orozco is the operator of the Burnham Driving Range which is fast becoming the rendezvous of golf enthusiasts coming from various places in the Philippines.

Mr. Orozco is a man of vision, wide experience and train­ing. He started as a mechanic apprentice in S.S. Atlantic Gulf fo r 3 years after which he held several positions that all help­ed to make him what he is today. Other positions, in a nut­shell, are the following: mecnanic, Pangasinan Trans. Co.; as-

Born in Intramuros, Manila on June 9, 1916 to Nicasio T. Orozco and Carmen Mu- fioz, he was a product o f San Juan de Le- tran and Baguio Tech where he completed a Master Mechanic course. He is mar­ried to the former Rosie Godinez with whom he has 4 children. An active mem­ber of the Baguio Lions Club, he is with­out doubt boosting progress today through the promotion of sports.

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MARIANO D. SINGSONPublic Land Surveyor

One of the leading surveyors in Baguio and Benguet is Mr. Mariano D. Singson who enjoys an extensive private practice since he resigned from the Bureau of Lands as Public Land Inspector and Surveyor.

Mr. Singson hails from Lapog, Ilocos Sur where he was born on November 10, 1907. A graduate of the Manila North High School, class 1928, he enrolled at the University of the Philippines where he fin ’shed his Surveying course in 1930. Imbued with an earnest ambition to reach the higher levels o f learning, he took up law in the Manila Law College for three years. He served the Bureau of Lands long and well, after which he turned to private survey­ing. To his credit are innumerable sur­veys, both public and private lots and subdivisions not only in Baguio but also in various parts of the Philippines. He made good through hard work and best of all through enviable public relations.

In social as well as civic work, Mr.

Singson togetner with his wile, the for­mer Visitacion Maniago is likewise ac­tive. He is a member of the Lions Club o f Bsguio, the Baguio Chamber of Com­merce and the Y.M.C.A. He was one time Secretary of the Lions Club from 1953 to 7954. Father of seven children, he makes work as a hobby.

JOHNNIE M. DIMALANTAEx-President, Junior Chamber of Baguio (Jaycees)

Among the civic-conscious boosters of Baguio and its economic development is Johnnie M. Dimalanta, businessman and civic leader.

His civic work speaks for himself. He is affiliated with several civic and social organizations. These include the following: one time President, Junior Chamber of B f- guio (Jaycees); Past Regional Vice-President for Northern Luzon, Philippine Junior Chamber of Commerce; Senator, Junior Chamber International; Treasurer and past auditor, Baguio-Benguet Council, Boy Scouts o i the Philippines; Director, Baguio Chamber of Commerce: Vice-President,

dustry from the city government during the 1958 Rizal Day Celebration. He ma­nages the store that bears the family name on Magsaysay Avenue as well as the varied family enterprises in Antp- mok, Benguet Consolidated, Incorporated.

' wJ.-M. Dimalanta

Toastmasters’ Club of Baguio; Member,Baguio General Hospital Advisory Board;Member, Knights of Columbus, Father Carlu Council No. 3363; and Member, Br- guio Rotary Club.

“ Johnnie” belongs to the prominent Di­malanta family, recipient of an award and commendation for business and in-

LEANDRO C. CARINO Secretary, Reliance Realty Inc.

Leandro C. Carino, young and enterprising, belongs tft the well-known Carino clan of Baguio. He is a lawyer by profession and has recently joined Baguio’s barristers.

He was born in Baguio on March 13, 1932 to former Ba­guio Mayor Jose M. Carino and Juana C. Cortes Carino. He obtained his Associate in Arts Degree from the U.P. and his Bachelor of Laws Degree from the Baguio Colleges in 1957.

He did a stint for sometime in the City Council as an appointive councilor on Sept. 17, 1959 in which he was gi­ven the rare opportunity of serving his people even only for a short time.

Z Ip

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ERNESTO S. DATOCProp. & Mgr.. Datoc’s Handicrafts

Mr. Ernesto S. Datoc, a Baguio resident of long standing, a businessman, and an avid exponent of Tourism hails from Vi- gan, Ilocos Sur. He completed his secon­dary education at the Mountain Province High School in 1931 after which he gave vent to his business inclination by enga­ging in the retail and wholesale of vege­tables and curios in the mines, in Manila and in neighboring provinces. In 1941, a few months before the last war, he ma­

naged a curio shop in Ermita, Manila. Du­ring the occupation, he took a temporary respite from his business profession. Im- mediatley after liberation, he was one of the first to establish a curio store in Ba­guio and since then is actively identified boosting the potentialities of the city as a tourist center.

Mr. Datoc is a holder of a Bachelor of Science in Commerce Degree which he oh. tained from the Jose Rizal College in 1937. He is married to the former Edilberta Ta- nedo of Gerona, Tarlnc. with whom he has 4 sons.

A former member of the Baguio Jaycees and became the treasurer of the Jose Rizal College Alumnai Association, Baguio Chapter.

Ernesto Datoc


Main Store: Lopez Bldg., Session Road, Baguio* Ifugao carvings * Bamboo, buri pro-* Handwoven textiles ducts* Luncheon sets * Pifia embroideries* Jackets with bags * Silver jew elry* Abaca slippers

Branch Store: Booth No. 55-A & B, Stone Market

Datoc’s Handicrafts Store at Session Road•

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RICARDO LICHNOCKProp. & Mgr, Baguio Trading & Supply

A Manilan who has made good and has become a part of Baguio’s Booster Family is Mr. Eicardo F. Lichnock, Manager and Proprietor of the Baguio Trading & Sup­ply. The son of a former Shop Superin­tendent at the Antamok Goldfields and a brother of an engineer employed at the Twin Rivers in pre-war days, Mr. Lich­nock was born in Manila on October 27, 1918. He took his early schooling at the De La Salle College and at the Brent School from 1935-1938.

During the last war, he was o ff and on business, taking up the loose ends of his connections as a representative of the B. F. Goodrich Rubber Co. in Legaspi Ci­ty. Immediately after liberation, he join­ed Manny Manahan in publishing the first post-war newspaper, The Free Philippines. Later he worked with the army in clear­ing the Pasig River and the Manila har­bors. Still later he worked for the Luzon

Stevedoring Co. from 1946-1949. Later and until 1955, he was Plant Superinten­dent at the Mira Hermanos. When he be­came Manager and owner of the Baguio Trading & Supply, he moved his entire family to Baguio.

Married to the former Pacita Esteva, he has three children. He is active in social and civic activities of the City.

Ricardo T. Lichnock

BAGUIO TRADING AND SUPPLY33 Abanao Street, Baguio City » Telephone 61-95



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From humble beginnings, and through business versatility, this Baguio Booster rose from managing his family business interests to manufacturer of iron grills, respected real-estate man, and productive insurance underwriter and agent of well- known firms. His varied and fruitful in­terests covering practically all lines are positive contributing factors to the rapid progress being made by Baguio

Sen of the late Timoteo Dipasupil and

FELIPE C. DIPASUPILPresident, Baguio Lions Club and Businessman

Chosen as Businessman of the year 195b by the Baaui6.Press Club

Maria Calderon, old residents of Baguio City, he was born in Bauan, Batangas on February 3, 1911. He has married a se­cond time, to the former Tsabelita Singson. He has a child by his first marriage and two by his second.

He is the present President of the Ba­guio Lions Club, and also is a member of the Baguio Chamber of Commerce and the Baguio Y’s Men’s Club. He is the Vice-President of the Baguio Realty Board and Treasurer of the Baguio Homeowners Association.

Proofs of his civic-mindedness and high standing in the city are the awards given to him by the Baguio Press Club in recognition of his industry and inte­grity; The Baguio Police Department for invaluable services rendered to make the1955 Police Christmas Fupd a success; the Lions Club in appreciation of his lo­yal and unselfish efforts in the interest of Lionism.

Baguio Lions Club Social M eeting. L eft to right— Mrs. K en Jorgensen, Mrs. Dick lichneck, Gen. Oscar Rialp, Club President Felipe C. Dipasupil, Mrs. Raymond Stras-

zr, Mrs. Irvin Thibodeaux, and Mrs. H enry Crozco.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (288)

JOSE WARREN JR.Branch Manager, People’s Bank & Trust Co.

A businessman by profession, Mr. Jose Warren Jr. is well-known in Baguio as the manager of the People’s Bank and Trust Co. and as proprietor of the Bargain Cen­ter which is catering to people of varied interests and so­cial standing. He is from Manila where he was born on May 6, 1928 to Jose D. Warren Sr. of Sampaloc, Manila and Mi- lagros Musngi of Nueva Ecija. His educational background is an asset and this reveals that he studied in several schools of high standing namely, the Centro Escolar University, the Ate- neo de Manila, the University of Sto. Tomas and the Jose Rizal College where he obtained a Bachelor of Science In Jo*e Warren Jr. Commerce degree, summa cum laude, In 1950.

In 1955, he earned a well-deserved organizations like the Baguio Chamber promotion as Baguio Branch Manager of of Commerce and the Baguio Rotary the People’s Bank and Trust Co. where Club of which he became president in he was previously employed since 1947. 1959.

To enchance his public relations, he He is married to the former Gertrudes actively participates in civic and social B. Paguio with whom he has 4 children.

AMBROCIO M. PONCEF orm er Field Manager for the Philippines

W ye tt Laboratory Inc., Philadelphia, U.S-A.

Mr. Ponce who is comparatively young but whose ex­perience and ability count him as one of Baguio’s front-rank citizens is a mining engineer who graduated from Mapua Institute of Technology in 1940 and passed the board in 1941. Before the outbreak of the war he was employed at the Cal Horr Mines of the Benguet Consolidated Mining Co. After the war he became representative of the above mentioned company. Other pertinent experiences of Mr. Pon­ce include the following: as Field Manager for the Philip­pines of the Wyett Laboratory Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A.; Sales Manager of the H.J. Suaco, Co. At present he is managing his own pharmacy store known as White Cross Pharmacy lo­cated along Session Road.

ROBERTO P. DAVID Mnaager, Plaza Theatre

Ih Baguio as a resort and recreation center, nothing is left to be desired as much as possible in the way of amusem*nt which is considered a number one prerequisite by boosters of tourism for the city. Mr. David, manager of the Plaza Theatre, has a distinct contribution along this line to raise Baguio’s reputatoin in the realm fo wholesome entertainment

He obtained his secondary education in the Mt. Prov.High School and later pursued his studies in the Manila Tech­nical College. Prior to his position which he now holds with the Plaza Theatre, he was formerly connected with the De­monstration Mines from 1935 up to the outbreak of the last „ ___ . .Raberto David

Ambrocio M. Ponce

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For Lamps o f Distinction

DISPLAY:1130 A. Mabini, Ermita

Tel. 5-51-52FACTORY:

Buendia Ave., Makati Tel. 8-49-40

Home Service & Made to-Order

Lamps for table, ceiling, wall floor, tec. . . . in brass, metal, wrought

iron, plastic, crystal, etc.

Mb. & Mrs. PEDRO R. LISING Prop, and Managers

Lising Lite Craft

Mr. Lising is being ably assisted by his wife, the former Mercedes Virtuso of Ca- lamba, Laguna, a graduate of the U.P. Conservatory of Music who some years ago was giving piano lessons in Baguio. A corporate member of the Philippine Chamber of Industries, he was given an award by the Sales Executives of the Phi­lippines in recognition of superior level in retail selling.

Born in Tarlac, Tarlac on Nov. 2, 1914, the son of Jose D. Lising and Timotea Ro­mero, he was for sometime chemical engineering student at the Mapua Institute of Technology.

Mr. Pedro R. Lising who is a son of Baguio by virtue of his having been edu­cated here, from elementary grades to graduation from the Mountain Province High Schools, is a self-made businessman He owns and manages the Lising Lite Craft one of the leading lampshade enterprise of Manila and Makati, Rizal.

It was in Baguio, however, that Mr. Li­sing first tried his potentialities in the government service and in the business field. At one time, he was employed as a mere laborer of the Bureau of Public Works in Bontoc. He recalls with pride that for eight years before invading the business field, he was engaged in various kinds of manual work that benefited him in countless ways. Imbued with foresight, determination, and lot of experience, he took his family to Manila to establish a lampshade factory. His first attempt was a failure, in spite of which he was not dissuaded from reopening a like enterprise in Mabini Street This time he was for­tunately favored with success so much so that he was able to expand bis enterprise to include a factory in Dian Street, Buen­dia, Makati with about 26 laborers under his employ. At present, his enterprise is enjoying a wide patronage from all over the country especially in Manila.



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Dominador R. Villa

MR. DOMINADOR R. VILLAProprietor and Manager

Villa’s Novelty, Souvenir* and Gift Shop

This is the sketch of a man who was once as a struggling student and now con­sidered as among Baguio boosters in its economic progress. Born in Ilocos Norte on December 20, 1914; the son o f the late Cornelio Villa and Filomena Retu- tal, he finished his secondary education through self-support at the Ilocos Norte Provincial High School in 1939. In 1940 he took stenc-typing in Ilocos Norte Vo­cational School but he transferred later to the Gregg Institute in Manila for fur­ther training. In Baguio, he first worked as houseboy for Juanario Puruganan for a few months. Later he was employed as statistician in La Trinidad until he was transferred to Pontoc as clerk and sani­tary inspector in which position he serv­ed until 1943.

During the war, he joined the U SAFFE, 45th Infantry and became one o f the organizers o f Cushing Guerillas for Northern Luzon where he served as a cap­tain. He was one o f those captured by the enemy. After liberation, he resumed his duties as a government employee in La Trinidad. Simultaneously, he enrolled in Baeuio Colleges to take up commerce,

which he finished in 1953. In 1956, he join- the Great Pacific Life Insurance as under­writer. From this position he merited se­veral promotions, namely; as associate supervisor and then as Provincial super­visor for Northern Luzon. He served as such until Jan 1, 1960. He saw the great possibilities of establishing a g ift shop to help sell me de-in-Baguio and Mt. Pro­vince products. Thus the Villa’s Gift Shop was born which is now catering to many patrons and is boosting in no small measure the progress of Baguio.

Mr. Villa is married to Celerina Car­reon with whom he has 2 children.



• A N N IV E R S A R IE S • B IR T H D A Y S• W E D D I N G S

SPECIAL OCCASSIONS '" b e s t q u a l i t y a t






Session Road, Baguio

Former location of the Villa’s Novelty Shop at Session Road.

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Rev. F a t h e r G- GEVERS'. Director

Patria de Baguio

LH.M. Fathers in Brussels and then ne de­voted the next five years to teaching in Nymegen, Holland. However, the wing* Of ambition brought him to the University of California where he acquired a Master to Baguio to Join the ranks of Baguio’s o f Arts degree.

Fresh from ms studies abroad, he came builders. He accepted a teaching assign- ment at Baguio Colleges, handling subjects sa cosmogony philosophy, ethics, and psy-

REV. FATHER F. GEVERS*Director, Patria de Baguio

The catholic hierchy of Baguio and Mountain Province, a dynamic force to reco*kon with in the moral and social growth o f the people, gained a steady and ever — widening cogni­zance with the addition to its roster of Reverend Father Fran­cis Gevers.

Reverend Gevers, who is fondly called by parish­ioners and admirers as Father Francisco, was born on Decem­ber 17, 1919 in Kusadmechelen, Belgium, the son of Emile Gevers and Josephine Hermans who are both teachers by pro­fession. . He. completed t hi? secondary schooling at St. Truiden School in Belgium. On the college level, he enhanced his at­tainment by obtaining a Doctor of philosophy degree from University Louvain, Belgium. F6r sometife after graduation, launched a teaching career. He taught for three years at the

chology up to 1954. In 1954 he tooK over the directorship of Patria de Baguio which position he is ably holding at present With the openings of St. Louis College, he was given the opportunity to serve the youth on a wider scale by joining the col­lege faculty. Added to his busy itinerary are the editing assignments he holds in the publications “The Mountain Sentinel” and "Little Apostle”.

He is a member of the Knights o f Co­lumbus.


P A T R I A D E B A G U I OCommunity Service Center Home of Conventions

Cor. Post Office—Session Road P. 0. Box 85 Tel. 51-i

[ 282 ] Front view nf the Patria de Baguio.

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The Benguet Auto Line, bus subsidiary o f the MRR, operates as a connection link to places and towns not reached by rail lines. Above photo shoios station at Baguio City, famous summer capital of the Philippines. Buses in front are for first class passengers, bodies o f which were build by Super Coach Company, a U.S.A, firm~

The Benguet Auto Line started with two Stanley automobiles in 1908 underthe Bureau of Posts.

Operating only during the summer as mail carriers, the two Stanleys soon showed great benefits mostly from savings in mail transportation that more units were added and passenger Service started to be offered throughout the year.

In 1909, the operation and administration of the line was taken over by the Bureau of Public Works until 1930 when the line was sold to the Manila Rail, road Company by, virtue Of law.

Today, the BAL is a mainstay of the MRR, and its name has become po­pularly linked to traveling to Baguio although it serves other northern prov­inces as well.

In the fiscal year 1959-1960, the BAL transported 2,577,852 passengers, an increase by 296,135 passengers over the record of the previous year. Its popu­larity was enhanced as it offered more services, especailly the midnight trips between Manila and Baguio, which has become a favorite of businessmen, and the personalized door-to-door service.

To cope with the demand for BAL services, the current general manager of the Manila Railroad Company, Lt. Col. Teofilo A. Zosa, ordered the purchase of ten truck units and 20 cars, the latter for the connection service of first class train passengers between Damortis, La Union and Baguio.

The station premises in Baguio have also undergone intensive face-lifting in line with the beautification drive currently being undertaken by all MRR installations. Safety engineering has also been stepped up to further improve the BAL’s excellent safety record.

BAL services are expected to become even more popular when Col. Zosa’s pet project is realized—the establishment of a motel for vacationists and tour­ists in the Baguio terminal of the Benguet Auto Line.

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THE NAGUILIANRecognized by

Back view of the Naguilian Academy with a spacious playground.

Cognizant of the needs of a growing republic like the Philippines, and in line with the revised educational program being launched by the administration, the Naguilian Academy has geared its curriculum towards rural development through enlightened vocational education.

This school is located in the very heart of a growing agricultural community, Na­guilian, La Union on a sprawling site ideally and easily accessible to every­one desiring to pursue higher education. Its portals are open to all regardless of

Faculty members of the Naguilian Academy.

social prejudices, social standing, and religious affiliations.

WHAT HAS IT TO OFFER?It offers complete general secondary

education and vocational courses that are designed to help and equip the students with the necessary know-how in their chosen fields of work. Specifically;—

* HORTICULTURE * AGRONOMY * POULTRY-RAISING & PIGGERY are in­tended for the males, and for the wea­ker sex, DRESS MAKING * EMBROID­ERY * WEAVING * T A I L O R I N G & KNITTING are offered.

The Naguilian Acade­my, incorporated on January 26, 194,5, is he- ing run by an efficient and outstanding ma­nagement.

Mr. Francisco B. Flo­ra, President; Judge Pa- ciano Rimando, Vice President; Mr. Leocadio A. Sabado, Member; Mr.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (294)

ACADEMYthe government since 1947

> Felicisimo Aberin, Mem­ber; Mr. Tolomeo T. Ef- tepa, Member; Mr. Apo- linario Rimando, Direc­tor.

Mr. Pablo Delizo, Re­gistrar; Mr. Domingo E. Soriano, Accountant; Mr. Guillermo A. Floresca, Sec-Treasurer; Mr. Ben­jamin Bigornia, Utility man.


Mr. Felicisimo F. Aberin Mrs. Regina G. Cabildo Mr. Norberto D. Cacal Mr. A. L. Campos Mr. Tolomeo T. Estepa Miss R. E. Campos Mrs. Fe A. Mendoza Mrs. G. C. Francia Miss Dominga M. Flores Mr. B. R. Huliganga Mr Facundo S. Mendoza Mr. Arnaldo S. Patacsil Mr. Narciso T. Rillera Mr. Lydio M. Rimando Mrs. G. C. Rimorin

Mrs. Flora, manager o) the Dressmaking department with a group of students.

It is apparent that these courses wilt help each and everyone student, in more ways than one, to do his bit for the stabilization of the country’s economy. Naguilian, the second nearest town to Baguio City, is purely an agricultural town where uncultivated lands lie idle specially on the hillsides and along the river banks. Scientific agriculture, such as the one being offered by the academy, can apparently uplif'; the conditions now obtaining in the locality. It is a certainty that Naguilian can look forward to 9 bright future through vocational educa­tional. It is, thus, that the academy is offering vocational education in response to the needs of these changing times.

Mr. Flora at the piggery section of the Academy.

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This academy has turned out graduates that b e came useful citizens in their own right.

Added to the splendid oppor- t u n i t i e s the school o f f e r s are special pri­vileges granted to enrollees and

j- j-i. T-.t these are tuitionThe poultry of the Acaaemy with Mrs. Flora discounts


The history of the school is the story of men and vision, of industry and sac­rifice. of integrity and fidelity to the cause of vouth and service to the coir- munity. It will remain a monument to the task of nation building.

Consistent with the good name that it has earned for itself since its incorpo­ration on January 29, 1946 has been the consequent maintenance of a fair y well good enrolment. While the number of students has increased gradually, the ou^litv of insruction has not been sac­rificed. On the contrary, it has also been gradually improved to meet the expand- Meing needs of the community and the re­quirement of the modern trends of edu-cation. . . . ,

Chicks being raised by the Acaaemy.


The graduates of this school who are now making good in many fields of human endeavor or enrolled in h i g her institu­tions of learn­ing amply de­monstrate t h i s claim. A litany of success sto­ries of its grad­uates can be told but spacc does not w ar­rant their repe­tition here.

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Front full view of the Plaza Radio Service and Supply at Session Road•

Plaza Market, then at Abanao Street ana then at Session Road, a bigger and better shop to meet the growing demands of his customers.

Through his efficient management with a fair dealing to the buving public, he feels nroud of the fact that his prompt and honest service to his customers is always being appreciated.

T!p"au«e of his hu=v schedule. he does not have any spare time for social act­iv ities , he just reads his favorite news­papers and magazines; a member of thp Baguio Chamber of Commerce.

He '« married to the former Feliza Bal~ cita with whom he has a son.

As a radio technician he aspires to be at the top in his chosen profession.

Another section of the Repairing Shop

Inside right view of the Store.

KEROSENE STOVESPerfection * Primus * Optimus * Radius* Petromax $ Volcano # Memap * Sun- master * Etc.

RADIO SUPPLIESRadio Tubes * Radio Spare Parts # Radio Cabinets * Battery Chargers * Tungar Bulbs * Radio and Flashlight * Batteries Electrical Devices, Appliances and Electric

Bulb s * Dover Iron Wood Stoves (England) Lamp Shades

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (297)

William D. DulnoanWilliam G. Dulnoan, businessman and

insurance agent, was born on January 18, 1916, in Kiangan, Ifugao, Mt. Prov­ince. He is a product of Ifugao Acade­my, a mission school and Silliman Uni. versity, Dumaguete City where he ac­quired his B.S.E. in 1941 as a self-sup­porting student.

It was in 1941 also where he finished 2 yrs. advance in ROTC. And was com­missioned 3rd lieutenant in the armv on

WILLIAM G. DULNOANUnderwriter. Trust Insurance

Agencies A Investment Cowuelor IPCP-FMF

June 6, 1941 and later inducted in the USAFEE on September 1, 1941. He joined the 2nd batalion, lithe Infantry (P. A.) USAFFE on Bataan. He was awarded a bronze medal for his bravery in Bataan by the U.S. Government.

When Bataan fell, he was one of those joined the Death March. Fortun­ately he was able to escape and came up to the Mt. Province and later he joined in organizing the USAFlP, N.L. Guerillas under Col. Volckman and with subsequent promotions he became CO of the Combat Company, 11th Infantry, USA­FlP, NL and later CO of “C” Company of the same outfit. In this outfit he was again awarded the Military Merit Medal by tho Philippine government.

After liberation he was employed as chief of police in the Acupan Mines until 1948. Then he joined the Baguio Police Department for a year. He taught one year in the Ifugao Academy, and became chief security officer of the Guy F. Atkinson Company at the Ambuclao Dam Project. He worked with the ACC- FA, Baguio-Mt. Province Office, then with the Tuba Facoma. He became supervisor, Baguio branch, Filipinas Mutual Fund.

He was the District Census Supervisor for Baguio-Benguet during the 1960 cen­sus.

He is married to the former Zenaida Serrano a teacher in Baguio, with whom he has two sons and a daughter. He is a member of the American Legion, Ba­guio (Post 13) and the Philippine Ve­terans Legion a national organization.

------------ o-------------

Mr. Dulnoan is at present connected with the Trust Insurance Agenciaa as under­writer and investment counselor under the ICP-FMF,

A pose of some guerillas with Mr. Dulnoan sitting in the middle.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (298)

MRS. FELICIDAD RIMANDO Proprietor, Baguio Lumber Sawmill & Vista Nite Club

For her share in the quick rehabilita­tion of post-war Baguio, Mrs. Rimando is looked up to as an instigator of progress.Her enterprise, the Baguio Lumber Saw­mill which she started with a partner on limited facilities but of which sne gained sole ownership afterwards, was a venture that even for a man would be difficult tr undertake. Against insurmountable obstacles the Baguio Lumber Sawmill grew to become one of Baguio’s leading lumber entities. This growth is attributed to no other than Mrs. Felicidad Rimando.

As one of the steady timber producers of Mt. Province, Mrs. Rimando’s place in the lumber industry of the province is se­curely established. But, it is not the ma­terial consideration alone, which induced her to engage in the lumber industry. For

Mrs. F. Rimando

deep within her, there is that satisfaction in the thought that she is doing her small share in the reconstruction of Baguio and the exploitation of the natural resources of the country by the Filipinos.

A product of the Baguio Central School, she studied for sometime in Holy Family College (High School Department). She started early in the business endeavor for as early as 1936 she was already engaged in dry goods and retail merchandizing in her hometown. Besides the Baguio Lum­ber Sawmill she has other business in­terests in Baguio one of which is the Vista Nite Club which is fast becoming a land­mark of wholesome recreation being pa­tronized by people from all walks of life.

She was born on June 27, 1917 in Na­guilian, La Union, the daughter of Da- miano Rimando and Eusebia Castro.

The lumber yard of the Baguio Lumber Sawmill.

Front view of the Vista Nite Club at Sto. Tomas tioad, which is only a few minutes ride f r o in the city.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (299)

ALBERT RIALUBIN Businessman and Manager

Baguio Caltex Service StationAlbert Railubin, manager of the Baguio Caltex Service

Station and proprietor of Pines Curio and Gift Shop and se­veral dry goods store in the Baguio Market, came to Ba­guio on December 2, 1947 with a firm intent of staying in the city in whose future he has great faith. He just ar­rived from the United States then where he stayed for al­most twenty years. Being a typical man of actioni he bought a lot in Baguio, built a house, settled down to business, and

Albert Rialubin married the former Rufina Bobila, a public school teacher.His experiences in the United States Antioch also of California,

are invaluable. At the age of 21, he went Mr. Rialubin is from San Vicente, Bo- abroad to work as a labor contractor for cos Sur where he was born on June 6, several noted American firms, namely, the 1908. He was educated at the Seminary A P. Garin-Company, Brentwood, Cali- College in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. He has two fornia; Western Farm Inc., Antioch, Cali- children, a boy and a girL fomia. and the J. Baldochi and Son. Co..

FELICIANO R. FERRERFormer President, Baguio Filipino Retailers Association, Inc.

In due recognition of his achievements in the retail busi- ness, he was chosen and deservingly elected president of the Fil. Retailers, for the year 1956-57.

Mr. Feliciano R. Ferrer now owns several sari-sari stores in Baguio. Coming from a family of retailers, Mr. Ferrer, learned the secrets of retailing even while in his knee pants.For a college education he enrolled in the Mapua Tech., wherehe finished second year in engineering from 1934-35. Hestarted a sari-sari store before the war with a meager capital J Aof PfiO.OO “

Ht was born on Oct. 16. 1912 in Mangatarem. Pangasi- F. R. Ferrernan. Mr. Ferrer is married to the for- board member of the organization which mer Adela Ccquia, with whom he has he at one headed. At present one of his three children He is a member of the aims is to see Filipino businessmen more Baguio Chamber of Commerce, the Ba- prosperous than the aliens, guio Lions Club, and the Jaycee. An eic-

Cornelio Meana

CORNELIO C. MEANA(Prop., Primitivas Dress Shop)

Mr. Comelio C. Meana came to Baguio in Nov., 1949 fresh from a 20-year sojourn to the United States where he ac­quired much of his experiences while working as an elec­trician in the U.S. Naval Bases in California, in Guam, and in the Marianas Islands before his return to the Philippines. He finished a Radio Technicians Course under the Engineering Defense Training Program in the U. of Wyoming. His coming to Baguio to reside and to put up the Primitiva’s Dress Shop, which he manages together with his wife, was indeed a lucky addition to Baguio’s roster of progress boosters.

He hails from Naguilian, La Union where he was born on Sept. 7, 1907, the son ot Gelacio Meana and Petra Corpuz.

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Atty. JESUS F. JARAMILLOFormer Labor Supervisor for Northern Luxon

Born in Sto. Domingo, Ilocos Strr on Dec. 3, 1912 as the son of Graciano Jaramillo and Maura fa*gela, he reach­ed the portals of higher education through self-support. The reward for his sacrifices was a LL.B. degree from the UST in 1937 plus a first grade civil service eligibility. Prior to his assumption of the public defendership of Ba­guio and the Mt. Province in 1946, he passed through dif­ferent steps in the field of experience— action clerk and law clerk at the Bureau of Civil Service, practicing attorney, and public defender of Ilocos Sur and final­ly as public defender of Baguio and Mt.Province. He worked with persistence to give a new deal to the working class.

When he was promoted to the post of District Labor Supervisor for the Northern Luzon, he executed his duties

Atty. Marcelo A. Pajal Law Practitioner

with the same zeal ana solicitiousness^ He is married to the former Cirenia

Bonuan. At present he is the legal coun­sel of the Lepanto Civic Welfare Union and Workers Union. He is also an ac­tive member of ihe Knights of Colum­bus, Baguio Lawyers League and Baguio Lion’s Club.

He was awarded the 1956 President Quirino Memorial Medal for Civic Ser­vice

ATTY. MARCELO A. PAJEL Law Practitioner

Atty. Marcelo A. Pajel is a lawyer by profession who is among the few who grew with Baguio’s growth. Together with his parents, Segundo Pajel, a retired Bureau of Public Works employee and Agueda Alvenida, he lived in Baguio since 1919. He graduated from the Mountain Province High School in 1931 and obtained a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1939 from the Philippine Law School. Having passed the Bar Exa­mination in 1939, he went home to Baguio ready for service. His experiences in the field of law included the following: as Justice of the Peace for Itogon, Tuba, La Trinidad, Tublay, Kapangan, and Sablan from 1946; as Public Defender, Dept, of Labor, for Baguio and Mt. Province from 1953; as Justice of the Peace in Sablan in 1956; as practicing lawyer from 1999 to data.

Born on Nov. 1, 1911 In Pozorrubio, Pangasinan, he is married to the former Mercedes Agoo of Ilocos Sur.

PROTACIO H. TANGALINJustice of the Peace, Atok, Benguet

A product of the Mt. Province High School, class 1041, he was a veteran of World War H and thereby enjoyed edu" cational benefits after the war. He obtained a Bachelor of Laws Degree in 1953 and passed the Bar Examination in the same year. Thereafter, he practiced law and became the le* g«l counsel of the BAMARBA and adviser of the Baguio Fish Vendors Ass. in which position he served until his appoint­ment as Justice of the Peace in 1957 for Atok, Benguet,

Atty. Tangalin was born on June 19, 1918 in Naguilian, La Union, the son of Ciriaco Tangalin and Florencia Huliganga. He is married to the former Purita Peralta with whom he has 4 children.

Atty. Protacio H. Tangalin

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Mr. Carlos S. Martinez holds the dis tinction of owning and managing the one and only big Filipino controlled radio store and repair shop in Baguio, the Pla­za Radio Service & Supply. And for this display of true nationalism, Baguio is not lacking in its appreciat'on in terms of a continuously growing patronage.

It is a fact that for a tourist center like Baguio and any city or province for that matter, the radio is a recognized so­cial asset.

This enterprising young man was born in Zamboanga, Zamboanga on October 28, 1910; the son of Guillermo Martinez and Clara Sustiguer who are also prominent residents of that place. He finished the

Inside left view of the Store.

CARLOS S. MARTINEZCertified Radio Technician. Formerly with

H.E. Heaco*ck Co., Manila and Baguio

first year in agriculture at Los Banos Agriculture School, a branch of the U.P. but he did not finish the course. Instead he worked for several well known enterprises through which he gained invaluable experiences. He worked first with the American Electric Co., Ma­nila from 1930 to 1931; then wiith the Vidal Radio Inc., Manila from 1931 to 1932; with the A & P Company form 1932 to 1933; with H.E. Heaco*ck Co., Manila and Baguio from 1933 to 1941; and with the Camp John Hay Signal Section from September 1945 to Oct. 1946. After this he launched an independent venture by opening a small radio shop first at the

Radio Repairing Shop.


RADIOSHolland Philips $ American Philips * General Electric * RCA-Victor * Westinp- house * Motorola * Regal * Telefunken* Blaupunkt * Siemens * Akkord * Etc.

TRANSISTORIZED RADIOSSony cl*tone * Avegon * Maharlika * Crown * National * Sharp * Fugiya* Etc.

PHONOGRAPH RECORDSDecca * RCA-Victor * Columbia * Mer­cury * MGM * Capitol * Villar * Dol* Lebran * Bataan * Super * Coral* Etc.

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Some of the fleet of Juan J. Ville­na, taken tn front of his office in Ij/cbaru

JUAN J. VILLENAContractor, Bureau of Public Highways and

Gravel and Sand Contractor

Experience is a great teacher and to anyone in all fields of endeavor it becomes an invaluable possession. To those who are less fortunate in terms of material wealth, the straggle to do something worthwhile becomes almost an obsession. Mr. Villen a started from nothing and con­tinued struggling until he could grip success by the neck. His experiences are herein ' recounted.

Born on May 16, 1913 in Mangaldan, Pangasinan; the son of Pablo Villena and Victoria ■ Jimenez, he was orphanedat an early age. His brother supported hi start a life of his own. First, he worked of Public Works as a helper when theconstructing the road from Rosales, Cu- yapo-Manila North Road and San Manuel- Monc:.da from 1925 to 1928. Later he became a toll gate checker at Carmen, Rosales, Pangasinan for a year and was transferred to Dumalandan, Lingayen Fer­ry in the same capacity from 1929 to 1930. In 1931 he went to Bamban, Tarlac where he was employed as sugarcane contractor for a year. Upon the comple­tion of his contract, he worked with the Benguet Consolidated Mining Company as a mere laborer to capataz from 1934 to 1938. Within a few months he merited a promotion to foreman which position he executed with commendable efficiency. The company offered him various easy jobs but because of very low wages he chose to be a laborer instead earning and receiving higher remuneration. Within this period of time he was able to save a little to open a vegetable store in Bala­toc Mining Co. which lasted for a year. Not satisfied with this little venture he shifted to farming and then the truck­ing business from which venture he was able to give invaluable aid to the gue­rillas of the 66th Infantry in the Moun­tain Province during the occupation. Un-

n through schoo^ with the Bureau government was J u im j . villenafortunately he suffered staggering losses in this business from 1945 to 1947, dueto his T.P.U. old model trucks and his losses totalled not less than 20 thou­sand pesos. In spite of unfavorable bus­iness reverses, he re-engaged in the same business in 1948 and suffered again a loss of about 15 thousand pesos. Then in 1949 started another trucking business and this business went smoothly up to date. There is a common saying that if at first you don’t succeed, try and try again. With this in mind coupled with foresight and strong determination he changed all his old model freight trucks to new Ford truck ones through which by dint of hard work, he slowly and steadily regained his losses. Todate as contractor of the Bureau of Public High­ways and gravel and sand dealer, he is not only contributing his share to the de­velopment of public highways but also to the economic progress of the country.

He is married to the former Francisca Jimenez with whom he has 3 children, 2 boys 20 and 18 year old; and one girl 15 years old. The eldest, Sergio; 2nd eld­est, Cesar and Felicita the youngest.

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Jose G. Mejia After liberation sensing that in this

particular line his services are badly need­ed due to the ravages of the war he en­gaged in electrical contracting business in Baguio and Dagupan. By this time he organized the Dagupan Electrician Asso­ciation. Today Mr. Mejia has also gained the confidence of not only the building contractors but the public as well. He is

With over thirty five years of experience as an electrician Mr. Mejia succeeded at at last in acquiring his certificate for electrical engineering on October 8, 1949. Start­ing as a lineman and electrician of the Benguet Consolidated Mining Company from 1925 to 1930, he later transferred to the Meralco branch office at Dagupan in the same capacity, where in this particular line he was recalled to the Benguet Consolidated Company and served the said mining firm up to the outbreak of the war. However turing the occupation he was compelled again to work by the Japanese as an electrician in different mines.

a member of the Philippine Electrical Me­chanical Engineers Association.

Born on August 27, ,1909 in Mangaldan, Pangasinan, he acquired his early school­ing at Mangaldan Elem. Schooll, Pangasi- nan.

He is married to the former Maura Ce- rezo with whom he has 12 children, 7 daughters and five sons.

JOSE G. MEJIAMaster Electrician



JULIO P. CRISTINOSweepstakes Ticket Distributor

Julio P. Cristino is determined to help uplift Baguio’s economic standing as a sweepstakes ticket distributor of well known Manila agents like Uy, Millar, Viray and Tr- gumpay.

Born in Buguias, Benguet, Mt. Prov. of poor parents, he was orphaned during infancy and it was through the kindness of his relatives that he was equipped with an education possible under the circ*mstances. He finished his intermediate schooling partly at Kabayan Intermediate School and then at La Trinidad Farm School. Imbued with an enlightened attitude towards work, be underwent invalua­ble experiences that became part and par­cel of a self-made man. First, he worked for two years as a utility man in Brent School, his job being that of a guard, gardener, and caretaker all in one. Then, he was employed as a checker at the then Amburayan Irrigation Dam Project for two years until 1924. He returned to Baguio to be employed first at the Bu­reau of Public Works and then at the Benguet Auto Line where he worked as a driver after having gained experience

J. P. Cristinoin mis particular work. Determined to be independent, he resigned from his iob as a driver and managed his own P.U. car instead. After the year 1937 he en­gaged in a more lucrative independent venture—a sweepstakes agency in which job he is .still in at present. Since then he was able to sell several winning tic­kets.

His office is temporarily located at the Market compound near the City Drug Store.

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VALENTINO AQUIAPAOPublic Land Surveyor and Civil Engineer

Engineer Valentino Aquiapao was born in Itogon, Ben­guet on September 1, 1917 as the son of Solat Aquiapao and Mani Korades. A major portion of his education was obtained from the public schools — primary, Lucban Elem. School; intermediate, Baguio Central School; high school, Mt. Province High Teachers Camp, first year, College of Forestry, Los Banos, Laguna; Geodetic engineering, Univer­sity of the Philippines, College of Engineering. Upon grr- duation in 1941, he served with the Bu­reau of of Lands, Baguio as surveyor.After three months, he transferred to the Bureau of Public Works, Bontoc, as instrument-man for some time up to the outbreak of the war. When peace re­turned, he went to Manila to finish his course in civil engineering at the Far Eastern University which he finished in 1948. He was employed as building fore­man in the Bureau of Public Works. Af-

Engr. V- Aquiapao

ter 18 months, he was employed as lay­out engineer and chief surveyor of the National Power Corporation and the Phi’- ippine Engineers Syndicate, Inc. at Am- buklao and Binga Hydro-electric Project until the completion of these two pro­jects.

He established his own private prac­tice with an office in Baguio. He is mar­ried to the former Angeline Suello, with whom he has 7 children.

Atty. Bantas Suanding Law Practitioner

school and finished it in June, 1946. Dur­ing his senior year, he was President of the Student Body Organization. It was during his incumbency as head of the student organization that the “ Mountain Breeze” , a school monthly paper, was de­cided and put into publication and cir­culation for the first time. Encouraged despite financial handicaps, he enrolled in Baguio Colleges, Baguio City, where he completed his preparatory course, he was among the few Igorot students appointed as government pensionados under the so- called non-Christians Tribes of the Mt.

Atty. BANTAS SUANDINGHe was born in 1923 at Daklan, Bokod Mt. Province, of

humble parentage. Completed his elementary at Bokod Ele­mentary School as honor pupil in 1937. An to support his way to high school, he stopped for a year and thereafter resumed his study at Trinidad Agricultural High School, Mt. Province. While a few years to go through to complete the Special Normal Course in the high school, the last war broke out. The Japanese came and he joined the 66 Infantry, PA, USAFIP, North Luzon, an outfit operating in Baguio-Ben- guet, Mt. Province. Following his honorable discharge from the arrrxy in 1945, he resumed his Normal Course in same

Province, tie enrolled in the University of Manila where he completed his law course as a government penisionado. While in the university, he held the distinction of being the Associate Editor of the Univer­sity Annual for two consecutive times, and at the same time staff member of the editorial board of the college organ. After passing the bar examination, he opened his law office in Baguio City. Ac­cording to him, law practice is interest­ing but at the same time, pesters the peace of mind.

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ANTONIO L. CORTES2nd Assistant City Attorney, Baguio

Baguio’s 2nd Assistant City Attorney in the person of Aiw tonio L. Cortes is a native son of Bauang, La -Union where he was born on Nov. 8, 1909. Before joining the ranks of Baguio’s defenders of justice, he served for sometime in the WAS and as Justice of the Peace in Benguet and was en* gaged in private law practice off and on since passing the Bar in 1949. He was apointed third assistant Fiscal in Baguio in July, 1957 which was followed by a promotion to bis present position as 2nd Assistant Fiscal.

Atty. Cortes is the son of Tomas Cortes and -Maria La- Atty. Antonio Cortes batique. He is married to Maura A. Cortes with whom ba heads a family of 9 children. As a bar- Baguio. He is a member of the Adorfe rister, he believes tfest to can contribute cion Nocturaa Filipina, Holy Name 8o* even only in a small way to the growth ciety, and the K. of C.


A typical example of a government employee who rose through the hard way is Policarpio 0. Picardo assistant city auditor of Baguio. He was born of Ilocano parentage, Agus- tin Picardo and Cristina Octoviano on January 26, 1914, in Bokod, Benguet, Mt. Province.

He graduated from the Mountain Province High School (Now Baguio City High School) Class 1932, and continued his studies at the Jose Rizal College, Manila, in 1933-1934, taking up a Commerce course. Due to financial difficulties he had to stop. In 1936-37, he continued his studies at the Col­lege of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Ba­guio, but due to pressure of work in the City Auditor’s Office where he was employed he had to quit again. He resumed his studies at the Baguio Colleges and graduated in March,1954 with the degree of Bachelor of Sc;ence in Commerce.

He married Manuela Diaz-Picardo with whom he has 9 children, six of whom are boys. Auditor Picardo is a member of the Baguio Colleges Junior Accountants Club and the Knights of St. Vincent, a Catholic organization.

JOSEPH M. ALABANZASupt., Parks & Playgrounds, Baguio City

Baguio’s City Architect since 1956, Mr. Alabanza is the ion of a well-known Baguio booster, Mr. Leon Alabanza. He was born on November 6, 1929 in Baguio City. His mother is the former Emerenciana Mendoza. He obtained his early education in Baguio, topping it with a degree in ardiitec- ture from the Mapua Institute of Technology in 19o2. In addition to his numerous duties as City Architect and Supe­rintendent of Parks & Playgrounds of Baguio, he finds time to teach at the St. Louis College. He is a member of the Jaycees, Toastmaster’s Club, and Knights of Columbus. He is happily married to the former Nelly E. Alabanza, with whom he has a son and a daughter.

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VENANCIO C. ANGELESManager, Kennon Lumber Company

The building of a city like Baguio is a cooperative task in which many are sha­ring one of whom is Mr. Venancio C. Angeles, manager of the Kennon Lumber Company, a reputable firm that is render­ing service to people with constructions problems.

Born in Cabanatuan City on April 1, 1934, he is the son of Chua Kim Chiu, a well-known businessman of the province and Natalia C. Angeles, a Filipino. He is a product jointly of the Cabanatuan Chinese School, the San Juan de Letran College (High School Department), and Brent School.

A Filipino citizen, he took over the ma­nagership of the Kennon Lumber Com­pany in 1958 and since then has helped tremendously in hastening the construc­tion projects of the city. He is a member o f the Baguio Lions Club. Married to the former Zenaida Ko of Isabela, he has two children.

Office and Store of the Kennon Lumber at Lakan.Dula Street, and the lim ber ard is located at Magsaysay Avenue, New Lucban.

Office and Store of the Kennon Lumber at Lakan.Dula Street, and the lumber ird is located at Magsaysay Avenue, New Lucban.

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ROBERTO ESPIRITU Public Land Surveyor

Like father, like son; Roberto B. Espiritu is an engi­neer like his father. In his father’s construction firm, he made an early start in the field of experience. During his high school days, he worked as transitman and later while he was in college, he worked as supervising foreman in file construction of several buildings in Baguio like the Mi­rador Observatory, the Recollect Convent, the Little Flo­wer Novitiate, and others. Young Engineer Espiritu is from Imus, Cavite where he was born on April 20, 1929; the son of Engineer Arsenio Espiritu and Belen Bautista. An alumnus of Imus Institute, he hold an Associate in Sur­veying Degree from the State Univer­sity and a B.S.C.E. degree from the Baguio Colleges which he obtained in 1954. In the same institution, he served

as instructor in the College of Engineer­ing for two years.

He has 3 children by his wife, the for­mer Jovita S. Varias.

Mr. SERAPIO T. GAMAYONNSalesman and Manager, Yandoc Trading

NAMARCO Distributor One of the few humble local Filipino businessman who has

a rich background in business retailing, he came to Baguio as early as 1935. He is now one of the exponents of the Filipino First Policy.

He si also the Secretary of the Baguio Chamber of Commerce and the Baguio Market Vendor’s Association.

Reverend JUAN B. SORTANOSecretary-Treasurer of the Northern Luzon District

Council of the Assemblies of God

Reverend Soriano who is widely known in the Mountain Province as a preacher of the Assembly of God was born on July 2, 1907 in Villasis, Pangasinan, the son of Maximo Soriano and Brigida Bau­tista. He completed the elementary grades in his home town and finished the first year at Pangasinan High School after which he went to California, U.S.A. in 1926. He was employed for 3 years at pel of Jesus Christ. In 1937, he returned to the Philippines to continue his noble work for God. He went to Baguio in July, 1941 and studied the Bible in Bethel Bible Insti­tute. During the occupation, he was appointed to take the pastorate of Bethel Chapel in Baguio.

He also aided Mrs. Elva Vanderbout in bringing the Word of God to the various tribes of the Mountain Province He became the pastor of the Assembly of Church in T i­ding, Itogon in 1948.

Fruit Grower Supply Co., then at a Lum­ber Company in Reno, Nevada. After a year he gave up the job to join an or­chestra band also in Nevada for a few months. Then in 1933, he became a Pen­tecostal believer in the Lord Jesus Christ. In 1935 he was licensed to preach. Ik- was as such that he went to the Hawaiian Islands in 1935 with Reverend Hermoge- nes Abrencia where he preached the Gos-

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (308)

Atty. M. M Leonen

well-known local barristers. He was for a time senior insurance adjuster of the Henry Bayne Adjustment Co. (1958-59). In 1959, he was elected councilor in Ban- gar, La Union. He is a member of the Dagupan Jaycees, Baguio City Lawyers’ League, and the La Union Civic League, aside from being a Vice-President of the St. .Christopher Academy Alumni Asscw eiation.

MAURO M. LEONENManager, Baguio Branch, Malayan

Insurance Co., Inc.

The proximity of La Union to Baguio is a natural attraction for many of its illus­trious sons to go up the Pines City and seek their fortunes there. Thus, Mr. Mau- ro M. Leonen became one of these when he assumed the managership of the Ba­guio Branch of the Malayan Insurance Co., Inc.

A native of Bangar, La Union, from whence he saw the first light of day on February 25, 1932, the son of Macario M. Leonen and Apolonia V. Monis, he attend­ed the Bangar Central Elementary School and the St. Christopher Academy in Ban­gar. From there, he went on to the Uni­versity of Sto. Tomas for his liberal arts course, graduating in 1957 with the law­yer’s toga and cap. He passed the bar the same year.

Almost immdeiately, he became a mem­ber of the law offices of Oben & Gregorio,


M a i n Office:

Yuchen gco B ld « , M a n i la Tel. 2 -9 ,8 73

P .O . Box. 4 3 8 9

Bag uio Branch:

Teofefix Bldg. , Session Rd. Tel. 31-51

P.O Box. 36

Aity. Mauro M. Leo.. nen, Branch Man­ager of the Malayan Insurance Co-, Inc. In Baguio, deliver­ing a check to one of the claimants, a victim of the con­flagration in Baguio on January 6, 1960. The Malayan Insur­ance paid for claims arising from this fire a total of no less than EIGHTY FOUR THOUSAND (P84,000.00).

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BAGUIO FASHION ACADEMYRecognized By The Government

Progress be it economic, social, cul­tural, or educational in any country is as fast as its citizens make it. Baguio for example was not built overnight, ins­tead it was built slowly but steadily by men and women who unselfishly did and are doing their humble bit for a better and more progressive Baguio. Mrs. Bea- triz Tumbaga Duculan came to Baguio, at a time when help no matter how lit­tle was a dire necessity. She established the Baguio Fashion Academy in the ear­ly part of 1914 in Session Road with a minimum capital and a maximum of fortitude and desire to be useful. Since then until .the present, this enterprise of a combined dress shop and fashion school has turned out graduates of no mean calibre who as fashion instructors and dressmakers are now contributing in a great degree to the development of Baguio. Thanks to the ingenuity and initiative of a woman, Mrs. Duculan, a product of the school of experiences.

She was born on May 4, 1916 in San Fernando, La Union; the daughter of Vidal Tumbaga and Juliana Flores. A


product of the Paringao Int. School and San Fernando High School, La Union, ehe enhanced her professional growth by completing a course by correspond­ence at the Women’s Institute of Arts and Science, Scranton, Pennsylvania while managing a dress Shop at the Cal Hor Mines.

The Baguio Fashion Academy, consi­dered one of the leading private insti­tutions of learning in beauty culture, dressmaking and master tailoring for men ewes its success to no other than Mrs. Duculan, founder and directress of the said fashion school.

Married to Mr. Mariano Duculan, an associate in electrical engineering with whom she has 6 children.


Shown in these pictures are some students of the Baguio Fasli'on Academy learning practical and easy methods in dressmaking and hair science.

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Mbs. OPENG REYES Local Businesswoman and Managing Partner,

Baguio Optical Co.A product of the public schools o f Narvacan, Ilocos

where she was born, she grew up in Baguio and later became a cloth merchant in the Pines City, operating a stall in the city market from 1938 to the outbreak of the last war. She handled the Baguio Branch of the Phil. Net & Braid Corpo­ration after the war. Two years later in 1947, she was em- ployed by the PRATRA in Baguio.

She studied for a time at the Baguio Tech. but had to stop on her marriage. From 1945-1958, she served as Sec­retary of the PTA of the Lucban Elementary School. From 1954-1956, she became its Vice-President and then a year later, its Business Manager.

Her civic activities are tapped by her membership in the Baguio YCWA. At present, she is assisting her husband, Mr. Calixto Reyes in his optical business, tne Baguio Optical Co., located at the Bueno Building along Session Road.

RUTH VERGARA BARROSPresident, Baguio Dental Society

One of the most versatile young women of Baguio today is no other than Ruth V. Barros — dentist, singer, athlete, social worker, and housewife. Often referred to as “ a beau­ty with brains” , Mrs. Barros is actively affiliated to several civic and social organizations in which she either held or is now holding top positions, namely, the Baguio Dental Society, the YWCA, the Baguio Women’s Club, the Lucban Ladies cir­cle.

She hails from Umingan, Pangasinan, the daughter of Al­berto and Encarnacion Vergara. A product of the Union High School in Manila and the University of the Philip­pines, . College of Dentistry, class 1950,' sion, first in Manila, then in her home- she sang for a radio station while study- town, and now in Baguio where she is en- ing. She was captain of the U.P. volley- joying a wide clientele, ball team and a member of the swim- she is married to Romeo Barros, a local ming team. She practiced her profes- Baguio businessman.


Among the prominent lady practitioners in Baguio is Dr. Asuncion Tactay Wi who joined the city’s professionals in 1953. Since graduation from the Philippine Dental Col­lege in 1951, she has devoted a lion’s share of her time to the practice of her profession. She finished her secondary education in Urdaneta, Pangasinan although she began it in the Rosario Academy of Vigan, Ilocos Sur.

Other pertinent data in Dr. Wi’s thumbnail sketch in­clude the following: That she was born in Sto. Domingo, Ilocos Sur on August 15, 1925 to Zacarias Tactay and Cris- teta Bugarin; that she is married to Wilfredo A. Wi who

is at present Assistant Registrar and Ins- sons and a daughter; and that sbe is a tructor in Baguio Tech; that she has 3 member of the Philippine Dental Associa­

tion and the Baguio Dental Association.

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Mf. LAM PARProprietor « General Manager

City Bakery 6e GroceryEnterprising and ever ready to coope­

rate in any undertaking involving the up- liftmenl. of puolic welfare, is Mr. Lam Far, the owner of the former Mabuhay Restaurant and now known as City Ba­kery and Grocery. Biorn in Canton, China on April 4, 1912_ he has traveled to dif-

The City Bakery & Grocery

I'erent parts of the Philippines as a bus­inessman. He stayed in Tarlac for five years,' 3 years in Dagupan City and then came to the Pines City in 1936. In Ba­guio, he first worked with the City Lunch and then with Dainty & Mabuhay Res­taurants. He later established an enter­prise of his own, along Session Road. After liberation he temporarily stayed in San Fiernando, La Union where he open­ed another lucrative entity, the Elite Grill. Mr. Lam Far who is now perman­ently residing in Baguio, is a member of the following organizations: Board of Directors, Chinese Chamber of Commerce, Baguio Chinese Bakery & Restaurants Association and Baguio Chinese Patriotic SchooL

GO CHINProp. & Mgr., Star Cafe

A resident and businessman of -Baguiofor more than 25 years is Mr. Go Chin, manager and owner of the Star Cafe and President of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce.

He was born in Macao China on June 5, 1915; the son of Go Yok Kui and Chay See. He finished his high school educa* tion at the Chinese Patriotic School, Ma* nila in 1928. Previous to his coming to Baguio he was engaged in the restau­rant business in Fort McKinley, Rizal from 1926 to 1932 and from 1932 to 1934 he was emploved in the Boston Hotel,

Manila. In 1935 he established the City Lunch, in Baguio, but after a year left it in place o f working as assistant ma­nager o f the Pines Sales Co. In 1941, he opened the Star Cafe wlrch was unfort­unately damaged during the liberation of Baguio.

Mr. Go Chin reestablished the Star Ca­fe after the war. He enjoys the confid­ence o f all his friends and patrons. He is a member o f the Lions club of Baguio and member of the board of advisers to the mayor.

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THE MOUNTAIN PROVINCE11 12 New Market Bldg., Magsaysay

ALEXANDER H. BRILLANTES President. Mt. Prov. Credit Union Chapter

TUa practicing lawyer — certified public accountant and exponent of credit unions in Mountain Province demonstrates his exemplary abilities through the positions he has held at one time or another and his membership in several profes­sional and social organizations, namely, Vice-Pfes., Philippine Institute of Accountants, Baguio-Mt. Prov. Chapter; member, Baguio Lawyers’ League; Board Member, Phil. National Co­operative Bank; President, Baguio Teachers’ Coop. Credit Union; Pres., Mt. Province Credit Union Chapter; Organizer and Adviser, of six credit unions in the Mt. Province; Exe­cutive Secretary, Catholic Action of the Mt. Prov.; Executive Secretary, Patria de Baguio; Adviser to labor unions and con­sumer stores; Adviser, Baguio Market Vendors Ass.; Past Fi- nancial Sec., Knights of Columbus, Baguio Council; Past-Vice-

Pres., Baguio Curia, Legion of Mary; Fa­culty member, Saint Louis College; PhiL Representative to the First Asian Seminar on Workers Education; Phil. Representa­tive of the Voluntary Cooperative Move­ment to the Inter-Regional Seminar on Cooperation under the ILO & FAO & Da­nish Coop. Central Committee, in Den­mark and Switzerland in 1959; Trainee of the Credit Unino National Ass. (CUNA) in the United States in 1959; Delegate of the Mt. Province to the First Day Institute of Social Action.

Inauguration a n d Induction o f t h e First Board of Di­rectors of the PhiL ippine Cooperative Credit Union Lea­gue and celebration of the International Credit Union Day with Atty. Alex h . Brillantes, president as inducing officer. Shown in the mid­dle is Mr. J u l i u s Stone, President of the Credit Union National Ass. < CU- N A ) International. This occasion was held at the Philip­pine C o l u m b i an Club, Manila on Oct. 16, 1960.

He is married to the former Francisca R. Bello of Bangar, La Union with whom he has three children.

A holder o f the degrees of Bachelor >of Science in Business Administration and Bachelor of Laws which he obtained through self support in 1951 from the Ba­guio Colleges, he hurdled the CPA exa­minations in June, 1950 and the bar in August, 1951.

He was born on May 3, 1923 in Tayum, Abra to Teodoro J. Brillantes and Sabina TerenaL

Atty. A. Brillantes

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CREDIT UNION CHAPTERAve., Baguio City * Tel. 42-00

(The Chapter is an independent and non­profit organization of Credit Unions.)

The primary purpose of the Chapter is, by direct action and in cooperation with the Cooperatives Administration Office, to: assist officers, directors, committee-men, members and prospective members to understand the humanitarian principles, the operation and use of the credit union service to all people in the province by organizing additional credit unions; protect and perfect the Credit Union Movement by cooperating in the de­velopment of a national league, both by assisting in the organization of other provincial chapters to be united in such national league and by promoting the de­velopment and use of services as are usually offered by national leagues and the Credit Union National Association (CUNA-International) and assist credit unions as a group to fulfill their respons­ibility and make their contributions to the civic and social life of the commu­nity.

The Mountain Province Credit Union Chapter is willing to assist any credit union established under Republic Act No. 2023 to form their provincial chapters. Any group of individuals having the same trade, profession, with some interest in common could form a credit union.

THE CREDIT UNION? “BEST FRIEND A FELLOW EVER HAD!” SAVE AND BORROW IN YOUR COMMUNITY. You know your’e on solid ground when you do business with friends and neighbors. That’s how the credit union is set up. Every member is a part owner. Folks who know each other save money in the credit union and get good dividends and they borrow at low rates when they need cash. JOIN YOUR CREDIT UNION NOW.

------------ 0------------


President .......Vice FresidentSecretary ___Treasurer .......



Board o f Directors

President ...................... ....... ........ Justin DaoasVice Fresident .......................... Lamberto DoriaSecretary ................................. Teofilo MabutasTreasurer ............................. Paulino GatchalianDirectors .......................... Maximo Mendoza and


CREDIT UNION, INC.Board o f Directors

President ............................. Marcos DamaguenVice President ..................... . Teofilo FabrigasSecretary .......................................... Tito Flore*Treasurer ___ ....._______ _________ Jose ArmasDirectors ................................. Jose A. Ramirez

Francisco Aquino Pedro Lalan


Board o f Directors

President ................... Atty. Alex H. BrillantesVice President ............................. Renato AsprerSecretary ................................ Albert BacdayanTreasurer ................................ Alberto CrespilloDirector ...................... Joaquin Bogayong, Jr.


Board o f Directors

President ..................................... Alfredo FablaVice President ....................... Leonido JemenezSecretary .......................... Severiano QuinionesTreasurer ............... ........................ Pablo GutOCDirector .................................... Eugenio Bauzon


Board o f Directors

.... Marcial SalcedoRosendo Columbres

--------- Pedro Perez------ Jose Rimando—.... Miguel Banda

President ................Atty. Alex H. Brillantes Vice Fresident ........

.... ...... Mr. Justin Daoas 2nd Vice President

..... Mr. Marcial Salcedo Secretary .................

.... Mr. Marcos Damaguer Treasurer ................

A Mt. Province Credit Union Chapter Meeting.

Board MemDers ................... Mr. Miguel BandaMr. Pablo Gotuc

__ _ . _ Mr. Jose ArmasDir. of Edu. Services ...... Mr. Alberto CrisplUo

Mr. Paulino GatchalianPress Relations Officer ...... Mr. Gene NavarroSupply and Secretariat

Audting Services ...... Mr. Roberto B. Tadeo

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JOHNNY LEUNGLocal Businessman

Johnny Leung, one of Baguio’s economic boosters is proud of his Filipino citizenship.

Born on Jan. 13, 1906 in San Fernando, Manila as the son of Leung Hing, a Chinese, and Maria Hing, a Filipina, he completed his sophom*ore year in Lingnan University, a Christian College managed by Americans in Canton, China. He returned to the Philippines in 1928. He started a res­taurant business in Baguio along Session Road. After 2 years, he sold this venture of his. He joined the Baguio Trading Co. and became one of its active snareholders un­til the outbreak of the war. After the war he established a utility store along A. Mabini St. This venture, however, is merely a suplemental endeavor. He derives an income from his inherited properties in Hongkong which is being

managed by a cousin. He is a member He shares his marital life with Hiuof the Baguio Chinese Chamber of Com- Pui Shu and a daughter.

ANGProp., State

Mr. Ang, who his life in the a conscientious photographer of Baguio sceneries his studio have

CHIAO HUNBazar & Pines Studio

has lived 43 years of Philippines, is not only businessman, but also a quality. The pictures of

that are being sold at reached far corners of

the earth and have played no small part in attracting tourists from abroad to this fair city. Born in Amoy, China in 1907, the son of Ang Tiong and Tee Sa, he is accredited with a high scholastic attain­ment. He began his business career in the Philippines by establishing a dry goods store in Tabora. Manila, followed

by a bigger scale general merchandising venture in Nueva Vizcaya from 1932 to 1940. In 1940, he moved to Baguio and opened the Lam Beng Bazaar which was looted and con­fiscated by the Japs during the occupation. He contributed generously to the underground movement. After liberation, he expanded his business activities to include the State Ba­zaar which he sold lately and the Pines Studio. He is socially prominent as well in that he is and has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Baguio Chinese Chamber of Commerce and the Chinese Patriotic School be­sides being a member of the Baguio Y Men’s Club.

ONG CHAY HUATManager, Gold Star Trading

Ong Chay Huat, among Baguio’s contributors to eco­nomic security is the shrewd and enterprising proprietor of the Gold Star Trading.

He was born in Amoy, China in 1915 as the son of Ong Tue and Tan Kuan. Trained from early childhood in the intricacies of business, he came to the Philippines as early as 1927. He represented the La Campana GaugaU Company in Sta. Mesa, Manila from 1927 to 1930. After 3 years, he went to China for a hard-earned rest. He return­ed to the Philippines to join Mr. Co’s entity in Aparri, Ca­gayan. In 1947, however; he launched an independent busi­ness venture in Baguio where he established the Gold Star Trading Co., an enterprise of utmost necessity to a post­war Baguio and covering a wide patronage.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (315)

Another oldtimer resident of Baguio is Alfredo Ang who came to the city in 1936. He established two dry goods store, the Kayang Dry Goods and the Kayang Trading before the outbreak of the war, but gave the other one to his brother in 1940.

During the occupation, the stocks of his store were con­fiscated by the enemy and he was also concentrated in a prisoners camp with his employees. Fortunately they were released in 1942.

A few years later after liberation, he started a store again which was unfortunately burned in 1954. In spite ot this, he was not discouraged so he ship in Baguio. Mr. Ang is tne son of proceeded to reestablish his business a prominent Chinese businessman of Ma- which is now a part of Baguio’s com- nila and Agapita Lay. He has only one mercial progress. son. He is also active in the civic af-

He was one of the few Chinese na- fairs of the city, tionals who acquired a Filipino citizen-

LUI KIEProprietor and Manager, Sunshine Lunch

Among the Chinese businessmen in Baguio who have become so-called pioneers is Lui Kie who came to Baguio as early as 1925. Previously he had experiences in Ma­nila at the Tom Dixie Kitchen and the New China Res­taurant. In Baguio, he served as Assistant Manager of the Ideal Hotel and Restaurant for 12 years until the outbreak of the last war. During the occupation, he engaged in the buy-and-sell business in Manila. Imniediately after li­beration, he returned to Baguio to resume business acti­vities. He first put up an eating establishment in the mar­ket compound which he managed for 3 years. Then he __opened the Sunshine Lunch on 59th St. After several yearshe gave this enterprise up and instead es» He is married to Beatrice Young with tablished a new one with the same whom he has 6 children. Mr. Lui Kie name ideally located at the Plaza Mar- is an active member of the Baguio Chinese ket. Chamber of Commerce.

ALFREDO ANGProprietor, Kayang: Dry Goods

ANTONIO TEEProprietor and Manager, Abanao Dry Goods

Antonio Tee was among the 1930 arrivals from Amoy, China in the Philippines. Immediately upon setting foot in Philippine soil, he left for Baguio where he joined the business circle of dry goods merchants. Until the outbreak of the last war. he has become known to both Baguio residents and transients through his store. He went to China during the occupation but he returned to Baguio as early as 1946 when the war scars were still eve sores. He took over the managership of the Lam Beng Bazar, in which position he served until 1952. After a time, he ventured on his own and opened a dry goods store in Abanao Street, now widely known as Abanao Dry Goods.

He is married to a Filipina, the former Felicidad La- yugan, who helps him in running his business.

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JTJLIA P. CALICAManager, Quality Hollow Blocks Factory

The Quality Hollow Blocks, a business landmark in La Trinidad at present, is being managed by no other than Mrs. P. Calica. This enterprise, needless to say, is among the veritable boosters of progress in Baguio for most of its cus­tomers come from this city.

Mrs. Calica is a product of the Saint Louis College, Campo Filipino. Born in 1$19 in La Trinidad, Benguet, she it the daughter of Marcos Fianza and Adela Caluya. Married to Tranquilino Calica, also a well-known local businessman, she is the mother of 6 children, two of whom are boys and 4 girls.

The fact that Baguio home builders are booming more and more dependent on Quality Hollow Blocks, makes Mrs. Ca- Uca’s enterprise stand out as among Ba­guio’s Musts.

QUALITY HOLezA/lanufaaturzr

O F F I C E and F A C T O R Y KM. 4 T R


Different Sizes of Hollow Blocks Different Sizes of Decorated Blockt Different Sizes of Concrete Pipes


Some of the employees of the Quality Hollow Blocks Factory.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (317)

ADOLFO C. FLORESU m Manager, Qu»ttty H alim Block* R w tev

a n A U ^ z a C tr

I N I D A D RD.. B E N G U E T MT. P R O V .




One of the delivery trunks of the factory with some oj its employees.

In- .his capacity as sales manager of the Quality Hollow Blocks Factory, Mr. Adolfo C. Flores is helping Baguio con­siderably to attain economic sufficiency through the establishment o f much- needed dollar-saving enterprise.

Mr. Flores who is an eligible bachelor is the son of Basilio .Flores and Paulina Corpuz. He graduated from the Araneta Institute in Agriculture Administration afteir which he served as office clerk In the International Plywood Factory and then with the Bauang FaCoMa. He is accredited with having helped organize the Bauang FaCoMa in La Union. In 1937 he took over the. sales manager­ship of the Qaulity. Hollow Blocks Fac­tory. Since then he is easily counted among Baguio's enterprising young men. Be was bom on April 30, 1933. He is a member o f the Bauang coUegian and La Union CoUegian, La Union.

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Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (318)

MR. NG SAUSupervisor of Chinese Instruction Baguio Chinese Patriotic

School, Baguio

In Baguio, for example, the Chinese Community shares unselfishly in the noble task of city building. Ng Sau, a Chinese resident has made a name for himself in the field of education.

Born in Canton, China on October 7, 1910, he came to the Philippines in his youth in 1918 to pursue an edu­cation in its various levels. In this he was undeniably successful as evidenced by his educational achievements and these are: Chinese High School — Secondary level; Civl Engineering, University of the Philippines, 1927 to 1930; Mining Engineering, Mapua Institute of Technology, 1933 to 1938; University of Santo Tomas Graduate School in Math­ematics, 1938 to 1940. For twenty seven years he has served in various Chinese Schools in the Philippines as a mathematics teacher. In Baguio, he is identified with the Baguio Chinese Patriotic School as Supervisor of Chinese Instruction. Then, too, he is actively affiliated with the Y-Men’s Club.

ROBERTO 0 . CHANHead Teacher, Baguio Chinese Patriotic School

As head teacher of the Chinese Patriotic School and as instructor in the Philippine Military Academy, Mr. Chan is among Baguio’s indispensable citizens.

He was born in Manila on October 23, 1928 as the son of Hoyat Leung Chan and Ong Kam He completed the elementary grades in the Sun Yat Sen School and the high school at the Chinese High School in 1948 in Manila. He enrolled in the College of Commerce, University of the East in 1949. In 1950, he came to Baguio. While teaching at the Chinese School, he was studying at the Baguio Col­leges where he obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science in Commerce in 1953. The year 1953 proved to be an eventful one in his career. It was then that he became a headteacher. As a sideline, he worKs as an instructor in Chinese language at the P.M.A.

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KLOO, l « , U N IQ H . W I L I W N H \


« COMMERCIAL DESIGNER 6 ILLUSTRATORr t o u M school m e m m iA K iu t. m m a t . a .


* - E L E C T R O P L A T E R

* AIR CR AI'T INSTRUMENT TECHNICIANm t, e m u y m m v r r . u > a a u l u cala* u w .

* «MPLOYee'TtCH»cuir tmmmmiKn i i n i . i - i a w n w a r m . M w u t

* R A O IO T B C M W I O A N ..........................

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DR. ENRIQUE G. TUMANGPracticing Dentist

Among Baguio’s successful dentists is Dr. Enrique G. Tu- mang who has devoted most of his time in his chosen profession since he came to Baguio and who is now a permanent resident c f the said city.

He was born in Magalang, Pampanga on July 14, 1902, the son of Anacleto Tumang and Juana Gatmaitan. After gradua­ting from the Philippine Dental College in 1927, he opened a clinic in his home town. After a 20 years he transferred to Tarlac where he practiced for one year and five years later n Manila from 1930'to 1935. In 1935, he returned to Gerona,Tarlac and stayed there until liberation. After a series of transfers from one place to another he decided to settle in Ba­guio as early as 1946 and has been serving the city since then.

He is married to'the former Juanita de Dr. Enrique G. Tumang Guzman with whom he has five children.

CALIXTO D. REYESProprietor and Manager, Baguio Optical jess than the proprietors of A. P. Reyes

Mr. Reyes came from a line o f profi- Optical Company and Reyes Optical, well- cient opticians having for his uncles no known firms in Manila. He hails from

San Fernando, Cabiao, Nueva Ecija where he was born on October 14, 1912 as the son of Mariano P. Reyes and Felina Domingo.

From Jose Rizal College he acquired his secondary educa­tion and his degree o f bachelor of science in commerce. As for experience, it was amply put in by his uncle’s firm A. P. Reyes Optical Co., where he began as a salesman in 1934. His ability was given due recognition when he was promoted to the managership of not only the said firm but also of a brother firm, Reyes Optical, also in Manila. For many years to 1953, he gained invaluable wealth in terms of experiences on which he capitalized later when he established an indepen- lent entity of the same nature in Baguio City, the Baguio Optical located in Session Road.

He is married to Oping Reyes with whom he has a son.Calixto i>. Keyes

MR. ESTEBAN BANGAANPrincipal, Easter School

Mr. Bangaan has spent the best years of his life as a teacher. He was born in Besao, Mt. Province and chose for his life’s partner a teacher too, by profession, the former Nancv Alinos. To Besao Elem. school. He was a member of the teaching force of Mankayan Central School from 1932 to 1935. then of Adaoay Barrio School from 1935 to 1937 and of Carao Barrio School from 1937 to 1938. It was in Easter School that he devoted a lion’s share of his teaching experiences specifically from 1935 to 1956 inclusive.

He is still principal of this school and as such he hopes to help his people towards better and happier living.

Mr. Bangaan is an alumnus of Baguio Tech where he obtained an Elementary Teacher’s Certificate in 1954. He is the father of two children.

Esteban bangaan

School he owes his primary and interme­diate schooling and to the Mt. Province High School his secondary education. Be­cause of the demand for competent native teachers, he was given a teaching job im­mediately unon graduation trnvn the high

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MARIANO DE LOS REYES, JR.Secretary-Treasurer

“ As secretary of the said Union, he is always guided by common sense and good public relations. Always accomo­dating. he has the best interest of the organization at heart. He holds the key to the Union’s assets and .liabilities Perhaps, Mr. de los Reyes’ fondness for the working mass is partly due to his having been born in Baguio and to his constant association with the workers. He aspires to help the working masses attain living wage and make savings es­sential to contentment and happiness. What he has to say: Unionism demands responsible leadership. Being with an equal number of dependents is no joke.”

Labor disputes often grace the front page of newspapers. While some by stand- ers regard the news with deep concern, others consider them with a passing in­terest and a few look at them with sar­casm. Whatever the outsiders opinion is, a lot is at stake when disputes between labor and management occur. On the side o f labor, Unions take up the cudgel for the working class. It is, therefore, a must that labor leaders be men of wis­dom—wisdom propelled to the right chan­nels. The Benguet Balatoc Workers Un­ion provides a model. At the helm of this organization are men with guts and strong attachments to labor, guided by the highest ideals and principles.

In recognition of outstanding achieve­ments in the field of Labor-management Relations, the Benguet Balatoc Workers Union has been awarded a certificate of merit recommended by the Labor Repor­ters of the Philippines during the Labor- Management Cooperation conference held in Manila, September 17-23, 1956.

MOISES SORIANO“ Competent labor leader and prominent

oldtimer in Balatoc, who is ever willing to cooperate for the uplift of the labor­ing class. Undaunted by hard work, ho­nest and dependable.”

Some officers of the Union with gome high government labor officials.

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ANTONIO ALABANZA Local Businessman

In any kind of endeavor, one succeeds if he tries his best’. With this as his guiding philosophy, Antonio C. Ala- banza set out to pursue a business career. First he put up a photograph studio in Campo Filipino which he named Far Eastern Studio which he managed from 1934 to 1935. He Abandoned this enterprise in 1935 and engaged in business as a sideline. After the war, he gained experience in, va* rious business endeavors — first, a bar business in Luna, La Union: then a dry goods store in the Baguio Market; later a tranpostation enterprise; finally, a real estate brokerage. In July 16, 1948, he was designated as Sanitary Inspector un­der the Bureau of Health Dept, from which he resigned in 1953. At present he has an apartment for rent located in General Luna Road.

He is a member of the Knights of Co* lumbos.

JUANITO MARQUEZBranch Manager, Emilio E. Lirn

Juanito Marquez is the Baguio Branch Manager of thf firm, Emilio E. Lim. Prior to this position he served as Driver-Mechanic for the U.S. Embassy in Camp John Hay and later as Assistant Purchasing Agent to Mr. A Porter for 2 years. Afterwards he gained experiences in various firms, namely, as partsman in the International Harvester Co. under a Baguio dealer; as Sales Representative of the Del Rosario Brothers in Baguio; as Baguio Branch Manager and Zone Ma­nager to all branches north of Manila; then from 1956 to 1958, as trucking supervisor of the J.J.J. Carrier for the Binga Dam Project

Born on May 18, 1920, he is an alum- was a sopftomore Commerce student at nus of the Pangasinan Hiah School. He the Orient Colleges in 1939.

FELIPE G. CAOILIProprietor & Operator Trinidad Freight Transportation

relipe G. Caoili was born on May 26, 1917 in La Trinidad, Benguet to Fernan­do Caoili and Polonia Gaerlan, first Ilo- cano settlers in the said place. He en­deavored early to be a useful member of society. After leaving school he serv­ed a truck helper in the Dangwa Trans­portation and driver in the Heald Lum­

ber Company, tnen later with the Bahay Mines of Abra. As a military reserve, he joined the army in 1941 under the 121st Infantry regiment commanded by Major Cushing. He suffered the rigors of a Jap concentration camp for one year in 1943. Upon release, he joined the 66th Infantry until liberation. After a brief

employment with a Chinese tirm in Baguio, he became the boss of his own enterprise in 1952 by establishing the Tri­nidad Freight Transportation with eight freight trucks ply­ing between Baguio and Manila. With this venture he earned the distinction of being the first Filipino to engage in a private freight service that runs regularly.

His Baguio office is located at T. Alonso St.He is married to ' Socorro P. Caoili

\ V

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TEODORICO CALICAAssistant to the Union President

“An experienced bookeeper-accountant, he handless the Union’s of accounts. He not only handles the books of accounts of the Union but as assistant to the Union president he is an active partici­pant in important deliberations affecting the organization, and is a member of the grievance and negotiation team of the BBWU. As an accountant he says, “ figures don’t lie.”

VENANCIO HILLESector-Leader-at-Large

“The nemesis of company dominated unions, he believes that labor’s success depends on the cohesiveness of its con­stituents and the quality of its leader­ship. Corrupt and weak leadership and an equally blind membership spell doom to labor. Free unionism is subservient to capital, he says.

JESUS OYAMGovernor, Bobok District

“ Small but an acknowledged fighter for prinicples. A man who refuses to be trampled upon by capital. He believes in the necessity of efficiency in every line of endeavor; that an honest labor leader is the guiding spirit of labor’s progress.”

AURELIO DE VERAVice-Governor, Bobok District

“ A prize-fighter and pledged to fight for the- Benguet-Balatoc Workers Union come hell or high water. Advocate of union unity and constructive achieve­ments of labor.”

CANDIDO REYESGovernor, Balatoc District

“He believes that labor should not be oppressed by and be subservient to ca­pital; that labor is the foundation of capital. His philosophy is: People who do their work on time make the most of life.”

FELIPE JIMENEZ“ Another highlander whose first and

only concern is to promote the general welfare of the laboring class. Capable and fully fit for the position be holds. Says honesty is the best policy. Hates crooks and grafters.”

RAFAEL PITPITOSGIGovernor, Antamok District

“A sturdy native of the Mountain Province, a good family man, and a true Jabor leader who has a firm grasp and understanding of the problems that be­set the workingman.”

Secretary of Labor Castano as guest of the Union.

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Baguio Trading Center

A few unique samples of quali­ty woodcarvings of the Contem- prate’s store at Session Road.

M bs. FELY. B. GESLANIManager, BaguioTradmg Center Under the Bureau of Commerce



Bagnio being & totrrist center is almost always dependent on enterprises launched

progressive— minded individual* to achieve it goal. These enterprises play an indisputable role of selling the city. One of them is the Baguio Trdaing Center former­ly known as Sales and Exhibiiton Room which is now under the competent manage­ment of an enterprising young woman, Min. Ireneo Geslani.

The Baguio Trading Center which was first opened in 1947 jointly by Mias Aureos and Miss F. Bautista now Mrs. Geslani during the ECAFE Conference in the city is under the direct supervision of the Bureau of Commerce. The particular aim of the center is no other than to boost and propagate' Philippine-made products which in more ways than one can help small manufacturers acquire stability. The Cen­ter is being patronized by tourists, vaca­tionists, and residents. It is located at the Baguio Stone Market building where the

Part inside view of the Baguio Trading Center.

Provincial Commercial Agent also holds office. Its patrons eome from all walks of varied besides being unique and reasonably life because the goods offered for sale are cheap.

The Baguio Trading Center is the answer to every local- Filipino manfacturer’s prayer. It is here to stay to help Baguio attain economic security.

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DOMINGO Pianos an Individually taotied out under the strictest de- r a i of craftsmanship demanded U the fine art of pianomaklng.

There i» no eta* promise . . . . each must be truly mag­nificent, an example o f perfection. O s y through such a high- leveled policy otQ the makers of DO-

*GO P i a n o s superiority in

tone, beauty,

Btfuio Branch display room


Executive Of fives;13 N. Domingo Avei Quezon City


FAO8TXN0 O. A O D tU a Executive Office: 13-15 Escolta Manila

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JUSTO GAMBOAProprietor and Manager, Gamboa Seed


His is the case of an industrious man, without the benefit of high educational attainment or even a secondary educa­tion, but with patience and love of work as his asset succeeded in establishing a vegetable seed store out of his savings while employed. Mr. Justo Gamboa, is a native of Bakun, Benguet where he was born in October, 1912, as the son of Ga- mat and Tagupao.

He took his early schooling in the Ba­kun Elementary School, and then trans­ferred to the Trinidad Farm School where he reached the seventh grade. But due to financial difficulty he stopped' studying, instead, he devoted five, years to being a helper in various Baguio Chinese firms up to 1934. While being employed, he spent the rest of his time taking a Salesmanship Course through correspondence from the International * Correspondence School which later grant­ed him a certificate, in 1931. From 1934 to 1936 ■ he was employed as ’ a miner at the Itogon Mining Company and from 1937 up to the outbreak Of the war as a helper in thei Dangwa Tranco. However, during the early part of the liberation period he • returned to the said firm again to be employed as conductor up to 1947. Not contented to be a mere employe he quitted the company and ven­tured in business as a vegetable dealer, an occupation that will not only help the farmers but also boost the economic progress of the Mountain Province in • line of agriculture.

Mr. Gamboa is married to Nina Mar- celino with whom he has one child.

Cosmos Pompon | Sinnia Halichrysum Sweet Sultan

Balsam Gupsophila' Sweet minam*

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (326)


HELP BEAUTIFY BAGUIO AND guioPLANT SOME OF THESE FLOWERS Any season is flower and vegetable? sea-AND VEGETABLES. son in Baguio. In fact Baguio is a veri-

For your garden seeds, we offer all table garden of eternal flowery. You cankinds of vegetable and flower seedlings.. indulge in gardening as a hobby. ForWe accept mail order. We ship orders your garden seeds, let us give you theregistered anywhere in the Philippines. beSt at very reasonable prices Be a partThe store is located at No. 25-A Magsay- of and derive the greatest satisfactionsay Avenue, near the Supermarket, Ba- from gardening.

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GALO D. WEYGAH Pres, and Gen. Manager

Aptitude in business is an asset of in­finite value to anyone much more to a Filipino. When a Filipino is adept in business, he earns the respect of his alien rivals and his career becomes a landmark for emulation. Such is the story of Mr. Galo D. Weygan, an enter­prising young man and president-mana- ger of the Mountaineers’ Commercial Enterprises, Inc. This enterprise which is Mr. Weygan’s brainchild is the only commercial entity in the Mountain Prov- inve totally owned and managed by na­tives. It was organized with the purpose of engaging in the wholesale distribution of prime commodities to retailers in dif­ferent sections of the Mountain Province

inside part vii

MOUNTAINEERS’ COMMERCIALMarket Building, Magsaysay

and to help the farmers by supplying their needs at the same time involving a system of marketing their products.

Mr. Weygan hails from Besao, Bontoc.He graduated from the Mountain Natio­nal Agricultural School in 1950. From the Baguio Colleges, he obtained a Ba­chelor of Science in Commerce degree in 1953. He workod as an accounting clerk in the Benguet Consolidated Mines until 1954. Then he transferred and worked for the Fertilizer Administration iin La Trinidad for sometime after which he joined the Mountain Province FACO- MAS. It was while working for the FA- COMAS that the idea of organizing an enterprise financed by natives that will benefit the farmers and retailers of the Mountain Province was born.

Mr. Weygan is only 31 years of age but his ingenuity and foresight started a business activity that will contribute much to the economic progress of his people.

His foremost aspiration is to see that all idle savings of his fellow Igorots are invested in business thereby giving be­nefits not only to themselves in terms of dividends but also to the economic uplift of the province, and to see that the bulk of the commercial business in the Mountain Province is in the hands of Filipinos, if possible, Igorots.

Io of the Store.

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ENTERPRISES, INC.Avenue, Baguio City




A businesswoman and sugar producer from Tarlac, Tar lac.

MR. MARK AGAYO(Director)

Businessman and ex-policeman of Ba­guio City.


Chief Time Keeper of Benguet Conso­lidated Saw Mills, businessman, Insurance agent and Labor Leader.


Chief Bodeguero, Saint Lukes’ Hospi­tal, Manila.


School Teacher and businessman of Sagada.


Engineering student.

MR. EUSEBIO BOTENGAN, JR.( Secretary-Treasurer)

School teacher & Political leader.

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in


(Groceries, Liquor & Cigarettes)

/Hardware and Construction

Materials Farm Chemicals and Fertilizers

Farm Equipments and Supplies Agricultural

Products (Native Arabica Coffee, Beans &


ORGANIZATION100 per cent Filipino capital Authorized capital f 100,00 stock at F10.00 par value Accepting new sub­scriptions prefera­bly from bona-fide Filipino Retailers* Farmers. Teachers. Businessmen, Con­tractors and Wage Earners. Subscrip­tions payable in in­stallments within one year.

Front view of the Mountaineer’s Commercial Ent-, Inc.

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For Personalized Hair Styling m. the Manner that you desire in a fully well equipped, First Class Pre-War Beauty Salon to rnark you out as a well groomed woman.



b e a u t y s a l o n■* Jbjjfc Master Hair Designer and

a B Make-Up Artistsmtt H M : mm We Do Specialized BODY SKIN


A. BRANCHES:■% » San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

J r T | Manila, Dagupan, Pangasinan

I W K tm m /m Near Philippine National BankA. Mabini St., Baguio

Mrs. Fely Cendana-Bundalian Proprietress


Abanao St., Telephone 41-64 MANAGERS FOR

Bacnotan Cement Industries, Inc.Manufacturer o f "UNION” Cement

andExclusive Distributors for:

1. Sta. Clara Plywood Co., Inc.—PLYWOOD2. Philippine Wallboard Corp.—LAWANIT3. Filipino Pipe and Foundry Corp.—SILVA

PIPES4. Philippine Blooming Mills Cd.— STEEL




Groceries © Toiletries Rice * Cigarettes * Flour

Sugar * Etc.


10 Kayang Street, a few steps from the fish section


[ 322 ]

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BRANCHES:* 218 E. Angeles, Plaza Rizal, Naga City* 2259 Legarda, Palomo, Bldg„ Manila* 102 Carmelo St., Cebu City* Biema Bldg., Del Mar St.

Cagayan de Oro City* Claceria St., Davao City* 651 Q. Blvd., Manila* Poblacion, Candon, I. Sur* 5-B Session Road, Baguio City

Tel. 42-49* 833 Caridad, Cavite City* 126 Quezon Ave., Lucena, Quezon

Tel. 359-J* 38 A. Regidor, Sta. Cruz, 7.<aguna

TeL 114428 Rizal Avenue, Manila

416 Estero Cegado, Sta. Cruz, Manila—Tel. 3-33-54

214 T. Bugallon Avenue Dagupan City

Office and Store of the Acebedo Optical Company at Session Road, Baguio.



Asin Road, Benguet, Mt. ProvinceThese woodcar. vers came from Banaue, Ifugao specifically Irtm A p a o . Shilled and hardworking, they supply some of the Bagnio stores with in. t r i c a t e l y and nnifjaely design­ed wood carvings whieh are easily considered works Of art difficult U parallel.

In the group are: Lope Bidang,Benito Tagwen,Antonio Bnmang- abang, Ricardo Banntan, and Ma. nqel Baton*,

[ 331 ]

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Wood Carving Shop, Camp 7 Kennon Road, Baguio Telephone 22S6

ALIPIO MONDIGUINO Proprietor and Mgr.


In 1923 three old men from Hapao, Ifugao went to Baguio. They brought with them brass pipes and bolos. When they arrived in the city they went to the store of Mr. Whitmarsh, an Ameri­can oldtimer, to sell their goods. But when they were getting them out of their bags, Mr. Whitmarsh saw their wooden spoons and offered to buy it. He likewise, informed them that wood­en bowls and plates, statues, and na­tive costumes are in demand.

“Yes apo (Sir), the old men answer­ed. Although the statues are hard to make, we will carve some when we get home.” After one month they returned to Baguio, but it happened there was a big carnival in Manila, and they were called to exhibit their carvings, native costumes, and products of blacksmithing as well. They won the first prize among the different tribes of the Mountain Province.

When they went back to their homejS.

they told their companions of the luc­rative business of selling carved goods. The people were then inspired and they did more carving. This work was fur­ther enhanced to a greater extent when a Japanese by the name of Hatche Got- che, came to buy carved goods like those Whitmarsh bought from them. It was also encouraged by an American who bought carvings when they came to see the Ifugao Rice Terraces in Ba- nawe.. Wood carvers from Hapao were latter employed by Naun Nagatomi a Ja­panese who succeeded the business of Hatche Gotche. And others also were em­ployed by a certain Esteban Galang, who

also came to Hapao, to buy the same goods. From that time on people, es­pecially Americans visit Hapao for its artistic carving products.

Now-a-days wood carvings are utilized to beautify homes, offices and some for utensils. Because of the improved ex­pert workmanship, wood carvings are now in demand here and abroad for ornamental purposes.

For the satisfaction of the buying pu­blic, especially to our customers we es­tablished a store situated at Camp 7, along the highway, known as Pioneer Cu- fio Store that deals exclusively in hand made Wood carving products with intri­cate and original designs.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (332)

Igorot book end 1-pr. Bontoc warrior

l-pr . standing 1-set Salad bow l with 1-set small IfugaoCarabao book figure o f carabao dancing figuresend head

1-pr. Standing figures with Igorot womei in costume

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (333)

Session Road Baguio

Teh No. 51-16


TIP-TOP GRILLNo. 7 Arabuklao Rd. (Pacdal)

(Three-Minute Drive from Session Road)

MUSIC and entertainment at its best with individual attention

Delightfully differentl



For refreshments... drinks <5* snacks

Sky ViewBar-Restaurant- Soda Fountain

[ 332 ]

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* Office and School Supplies* Religious Articles* Sporting Goods* Gifts - Decorations* Toys and Etc.Reyes Building, Session R oad Tel. No. 51-70, Baguio City

Francisco Lambayan Curio StoreManufacturer of Unique Wood-Curvings, designed exclusively for your taste.

O oGuaranteed Ifugao Wood Carving

Workmanship VillageKm. 6, Asin Road,

F. la m b a y a n BenguetProp. & Mgr.

Gr e e t i n g s to a l l b a g u i o t o u r is t s & v is it o r s

PINES BAKERY & GROCERYHome of tasty breads, Delicious Cakes, Cookies. Receiving Orders for Wedding and Birthday Cakes. Etc.


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (335)

Whether you go to the north especially Baguio—or down to Manila by Cars or Busses, the first to WELCOME YOU is the


For your Merienda:• Halo-Halo Especial• Arroz Con Caldo• Drinks, Sandwiches

— and here for your few minutes respite you can h your SUPER... BREAKFAST... and DINNER with yi favorite Filipino food.Front view of the new Liberator’s building with a capacity of not less than 100 persons, situated in a spacioui location.



(Special) Filipino Dishes

• “Sugpo & Alimango”• American Dishes

(The Traveller’s favorite Kitcher

AIDA’S DRESS SHOPMaker of F ine:

Men’s, Women’s & Children’s Wear.S P E C I A L T I E S

« Pennants — Letterings — Athletic Uniforms, Banners, Etc.

Mr. Alejandro Rivera Designer and Master Cutter

Kayang Street, Baguio City --------- 0 O 0 --------------------

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (336)

Play billaid and satisfy yourself physically by relaxing at the PO­PULAR BILLARD HALL AND POOLROOM.

The Popular Billard Hall with complete sets o f blllards and pools.



Zandueta St.. com er Kayang St. Baguio



BENGUET FARMERS TRADING, INC.Magsaysay Ave., opposite Baguio

Central TerminalDealer in eeneral merchandise

(Wholesaler Sc Retailer)


Gavino Bay-an .......... Pres. & Gen. Mgr.Galo D. Weygan . Vice-Pres. & Asst. Mgr.Dr. Moises P. Cating .................. DirectorAndres Almora ............................ DirectorMaximo Basilio ............................ DirectorTom Diwas .................................... DirectorDennis Bay-an ............................ Director

Aug. 12, 1960


Fish Section, Booth No. 56-57 Wholesaler and Retailer of

variety Fresh Sea Food and Dried Fish

Residence Tel. No. 52-38 Stor. Tel. No. 22-38

Baguio City


TR AV EL. .See your dependable Freight Service.


The transportation had adopted its policy o f providing all avail­able facilities to its customers. It now maintains a fleet-.of m odem and big trucks plying mainly al­ong the —


P. Burgos St.. Baguio * Tel. 62-89 MANILA OFFICE:

1917 Felix Huertas St., Sta. Cruz Manila


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (337)




The rendezvous and rhoice of wellknown Billard champions and players. A few mi­nutes walk from Ses­sion Road, A. Mabini Street.


Session Road Baguio City

Insurance Leader in the Philippines


All forms of Insurance, including Life

* The Insular Life Assurance Co.,Ltd.

* Filipinas Compania de Seguros

* The Philippine Guaranty Co., Inc.

* Universal Insurance andIndemnity Co.



Bagufo-Mountain Province Unit

Telephone 52-79 Session Road Baguio City



Public otccoun tan t


Room 2, Caguioa Building Baguio City

M. H. Del Pilar Street Dagupan City




B A G U IO B R A N C H O F F IC E S E S S IO N m o . , B A G U IO C IT Y

T E L . N O . D IA L -O - 199 R - *

t h i r d F l o o r . R S c in a b u i l d i n gMANILA. PHILIPPINES

T IL . NO. 8 -0 4 .0 !

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (338)


m anufacture M iki-bijon in Benguet, Mt.


Also raises Foreign Breed Piglings for

sale. Fully im m unized and free from parasites

and healthy.

Tel. 51-25 P ico, La Trinidad *



ESTIMATES Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning

All Electrical Appliances Welding, Motor Rewinding, Painting

14 Abanao St., Baguio

JERRY VILAGARef. Technician

Prop, and Manager For Home Service

Make An Appointment


MIDOL C. KANTALAProprietor and Manager

Opposite Plaza—Parking Space

Baguio City

Go to your reliable —

SPARE PARTS AND ACCESSORIESdealer in English, European, U.S.A.

and Japan Made Vehicles


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (339)



Repairer and Consultant

In various make of:

* r e f r i g e r a t o r



(All Works Guaranteed)

RAMON S. VILAGAContractor-Consultant

Yandoc Bldg., Abanao St. Display Room of Vilmon Refrigeration andBaguio City Radio Service

Men’s Clothes of Distinction Are Made at —

ESPINA FASHIONRecognized in fitting and styling

The Original ESPINA FASHIONForm erly Squires Bingham, Hamilton

Fashion. Espina-Cologne, Escolta, Manila

VAL ESPINACutter and Manager

Lopez Bldg., Session Road Tel. 43-97

For your daily or Summer qucMty Suitings.. . . See One of Your

Reliable Fashion Shop-

Creator of Modern Styles and Tested for its workmanship

ELADIO F. GARCIAProp., Designer and Cutter

La Trinidad Benguet


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (340)


c a r s • Tr u c k s • p a r t s • s e r v i c eMERCEDES BENZ DEALER * TIRES * BATTERIES



A highly specialized system in modern car unkeep — Flying “ A ” Gasoline lubri­cation guarantees a thorough safety check­up of vital working parts of your car. Complete motor service on all makes of cars and trucks.



MR. ONG KINGProprietor and Manager

Deal first with — ONG KING AUTO


where parts for all Cars are available and reasonably priced


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (341)




The rendezvous and choice of wellknown Billard champions and players. A few mi­nutes walk from Ses­sion Road, A. Mabini Street.


Session Road Baguio City

Insurance Leader in the Philippines


All forms of Insurance, including Life

* The Insular Life Assurance Co.,Ltd.

* Filipinas Compania de Seguros

* The Philippine Guaranty Co., Inc.

* Universal Insurance andIndemnity Co.



Bagufo-Mountain Province Unit

Telephone 52-79 Session Road Baguio City



Public (Accountant


Room 2, Caguioa Building Baguio City

M. H. Del Pilar Street Dagupan City





T E L . N O . 0 IA L -O - 1 3 9 R -*

T hi wo F l o o r . RBttM A b u i l d i n g M a n i l a . P h i l i p p i n e s

T IL . NO. 3 -0 4 -0 1

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (342)

Offers Spacious Rooms, Quiet Corridors, Pleasantness And A Delightful Blend Of Traditional

Service and Hospitality* All Rooms with Running Hot and'

Cold Taps* Private Suites with Kitchenettes ® Single Rooms with Lavatories* Double Roomfe with BathMB. AND MRS. G. VERSOZA

Operators Telephone 41-50



A homy atmosphere, comfortable, restful and very pleasant to stay in . . . that’s COLORADO HOTEL. Facing exactly • the market plaza, the location is made to ordar for all purposes of the vacationist eith­er in business or pleasure.'


Hotel P L A Z A


* Economical and Efficient Service* Excellent Cuisine* Chinese and American Meals

WONG HOProrietor and Manager

Plaza Market, Baguio Telephone 21-24 and 42-71


The only pre-war hotel in ope­ration in its original location. Now with Private Water Tanks installr- tion available, throughout the year with a spacious restaurant serving *ny kind of dishes, the way you


MRS. J. GARCIAOperator and Manager '

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (343)

S E S S I O N Theatre

Local House o f :




Session Road Baguio CityTelephone 52-17

Enjoy The Best Of Entertainment In A- Fine And Pleasant



Session Road Baguio City

THEATRE AND LANESBagnio addition of finest picture


For a complete relaxation and an enjoyable SUMMER VACATION...



A uro ra L a n esAURORA S. TANJANCO


Apolinario Mabini St. Baguio City Tel. Dial 0-177-R1

For a Wholesome Entertainment

PLAZA Theatre

Exhibitors o f:

SAM PAGUITA Pictures WARNER BROS. Pictures PREMIER Pictures UNIVERSAL Pictures L. V. N. Pictures

F. Agoneillo St. Baguio CityTelephone No. 4?-42

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (344)


manufacture M lki-bijon in Benguet, Mt.


Also raises Foreign Breed Piglings for

sale. Fully immunized and free from parasite*

and healthy.

Tel. 51-25 Pico, La Trinidad *



ESTIMATES Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning

AH Electrical Appliances Welding, Motor Rewinding, Painting

14 Abanao St., Baguio

JERRY VILAGARef. Technician

Prop, and Manager For Home Service

Make An Appointment


MIDOL C. KANTALAProprietor and Manager

Opposite Plaza—Parking Space

Baguio City

Go to your reliable —

SPARE PARTS AND ACCESSORIESdealer in English, European, U.S.A.

and Japan Made Vehicles


Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (345)



RALPH E. BRASHEARS Founder and President

ofPhilippine Bible



Mabini St. and Harrison Road Baguio City

SUNDAY SERVICESBible studies ..................................., ......... 9:00 - 10:00 A.M.Song Practice ...................................... 6:30- 7:00 P.M.Worship ...................................................... 10:00-11:00 A.M.Evangelistic ................................................ 7:00- 8:00 P.M.

Wednesday — 7:00-8:00 P.M.This CHURCH has no head but JESUS CHRIST, no

authoritative book but the BIBLE, its purposes are to please and glorify GOD. and to help and save MAN. YOU are cordially invited to attend the SERVICES at any time you desire to come.

EMPHASIZING Doctrine — Practice — Form — Spirit

Church Tel. 62-20 — Minister — Ralph F. Brashears Res. Tel. 21-93

The Philippine Bible CollegeThe Philippine Bible College began in July, 1948 in Luna Junior Colleges,

Tayug. Pangasinan, as the “Bible Department.” In February 1950 it moved to the Church of Christ Building, on Plaridel Street and continued to grow. In July, 1952 it moved to Baguio City and began classes in Baguio Colleges, then it transferred to 52nd and 59th Streets and soon moved into its present location at Harrison and Mabini Streets in 1958.

The teaching of the Bible as the inspired word of God to Man is its primary work. Besides the Bible, however, there are classes taught in Speech, Journalism, Music and other related religious subjects. Young and middle-aged men and women are receiving valuable training for work in the Church. It is non-sectd- rian, leaching the truth of God without denominational bias. Its enrollment every year is fast growing. And it is precisely for this reason that a new church building worth four million pesos when completed is being built on a sprawling lot of 6,889 sq. meters at the Rimando Road in Lucban. This building will include a gymnasium, classrooms, chapel, library, boys’ and girls’ dormitories, teachers’ apartments, and cafeteria.

The Faculty of the Philippine

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (346)



OBJECTIVESTo give instructions in the Bible, the

word of God to men.To study related literature which helps

in understanding the Bible.To encourage students to lay hold of

truths and principles which will ennoble their character.

To provide instructions for leadership in the church.

To teach reference for God, respect for the church and the Bible, and help­fulness toward all men.

Graduates of the Philippine Bible College.

The boys and girls Choirs.

ADVANTAGES The school is Bible centered.Daily Christian conduct is emphasized. Christian association is elevating. Church leadership training is thorough. No human creed is taught.Instructions are high class.Dormitory space is economical.

J Enrollment fee — PI.00 per subject.

Bible CollegeA pose of some students with Minister

Ralph F. Brahears.

Memoirs of Baguio - [Download PDF] (2024)


What is the original name of Baguio City? ›

Baguio was called Kafa*gway by indigenous peoples. The name Baguio originated in the American period and is derived from the Ibaloi word bagiw (moss), which was then Hispanicized as Baguio.

What is the culture and tradition of Baguio City? ›

Baguio City's artistic culture ranges from crafts and folk art expressions to woodcarving, silver craft, weaving and tattooing. Today, 56 local institutions are directly devoted to the sector, totalling a gross receipt of US$1,113,258 million.

Why is Baguio so famous? ›

Baguio is dubbed the "City of Pines" and is famous for its green park spaces and hillsides teeming with gigantic pine trees. Locals also claim that the town got its name from a green flowering plant called "bag-iw" that grew there, which the Americans during the occupation pronounced as "bág-ee-yow.

What is the coldest place in the Philippines? ›

Baguio City chills at 9.8°C, the coldest so far this 2024 —...
  • Baguio City, Benguet: 09.8°C.
  • Basco, Batanes: 15.7°C.
  • Laoag City, Ilocos Norte: 16.2°C.
  • Malaybalay, Bukidnon: 17.0°C.
  • Munoz, Nueva Ecija: 17.2°C.
  • Tuguegarao City, Cagayan: 17.6°C.
  • Tanay, Rizal: 17.7°C.
  • Abucay, Bataan: 18.2°C.
Jan 27, 2024

What is the delicacy of Baguio? ›

As Baguio makes the most out of their most popular produce, Strawberry Taho is simply to die for. Among other delicacies, it is one of the most, if not the most, sought-after delicacy in the city. A hot Strawberry Taho is widely available along the streets of the city of pines.

Why do tourists love Baguio? ›

Baguio is renowned for its pleasantly cool weather, making it an ideal getaway for those looking for a break from the prickly summer weather in the lowlands. The city records the lowest temperatures in the Philippines throughout the year, with an average of 20°C during the dry season.

What language do they speak in Baguio? ›

LANGUAGE: Ilocano is the predominant dialect in the city. The national language, Filipino, is of course spoken by almost everyone. English is widely spoken and understood.

What is the old name of UC Baguio? ›

Baguio Colleges, as the University of the Cordilleras was earlier known, pioneered in tertiary education in the mountain highlands of the Cordillera region amidst devastation in and around Baguio City after the Second World War.

Are Baguio and Benguet the same? ›

Benguet comprises 13 municipalities, all encompassed by double legislative districts. The highly urbanized city of Baguio, although administratively independent from Benguet, is situated in the interior of the province, surrounded by the municipalities of La Trinidad, Itogon, Sablan and Tuba.

What is the meaning of Kafa*gway? ›

According to stories gathered, the place was generally called “Kafa*gway” meaning stem or grassy clearing because of the thickness of trees and shrubs.

Where does the last name Baguio come from? ›

Filipino: habitational name for someone from Baguio, a mountain city in the Benguet province of northern Philippines, home of the Ibaloy ethno-linguistic group, whose name is derived from bagiw 'moss'.

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